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A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension

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Slides from a presentation co-authored with Anne-Sophie Collard, given at CICOM'2009 (Communication, Cognition and Media: Communication Sciences International Congress - Catholic University of …

Slides from a presentation co-authored with Anne-Sophie Collard, given at CICOM'2009 (Communication, Cognition and Media: Communication Sciences International Congress - Catholic University of Portugal, Braga, Portugal - September 23-25, 2009)

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  • 1. A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
    Anne-Sophie Collard, Pierre Fastrez
    Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium
  • 2. Metaphors in hypermedia: context
    We understand the way we interact with hypermedia through metaphor
    The very notion of "navigation" implies an underlying spatial metaphor (Edwards & Hardman 1989, Panurak 1989, Dillon, McKnight et Richardson 1990, Dieberger 1994, Kim & Hirtle 1995)
    Numerous hypermedia interfaces reproduce familiar objects or locations to facilitate their use
    E.g.: virtual campuses, websites for kids…)
    “Spatial hypertext” has been advocated as a means to facilitate navigation(Marshall & Shipman 1995; Dieberger 1995)
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    2
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 3. An example of hypermedia using an explicit (city) metaphor
  • 4. Metaphors in hypermedia: context
    Metaphors are often recognized as a means to facilitate hypermedia navigation…
    … but their effect is seldom explained.
    We propose a theoretical framework
    based on conceptual metaphor theory (or CMT, Lakoff & Johnson) and blending theory (or BT, Fauconnier & Turner)
    to explain the role metaphor plays, as a cognitive tool, in hypermedia comprehension
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    4
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 5. Outline
    Theoretical foundations: metaphors and conceptual blending
    Our proposal : a three-layer model
    The model in the course of navigation
    Conclusions and future work
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    5
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 6. Metaphor as a cognitive tool
    CMT(Lakoff & Johnson 1980, 1999) considers metaphors as:
    cognitive tools, not literary style figures
    a means of understanding abstract concepts in terms of more concrete ones
    involving the mapping of image-schematic structure from a source experience domain to a target experience domain
    E.g.: DISCUSSION IS WAR
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    6
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 7. Metaphor as a cognitive tool
    Metaphorical mappings
    are partial but systematic
    highlight some aspects of the target, but hide others
    are organized hierarchically:
    elaborate high-level structural metaphors inherit mappings from lower-level (e.g. ontological or orientation) metaphors
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    7
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 8. Conceptual integration networks
    Conceptual blending:
    a basic and ubiquitous cognitive operation that accounts for many aspects of human imagination (Turner 2002)
    involves the construction and manipulation of a conceptual integration network
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    8
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 9. Conceptual integration networks
    Mental spaces in the network:
    Input spaces, generic space, and blend
    Cross-space mapping between input spaces and selective projection into the blend
    Composition, completion and elaboration
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    9
  • 10. Conceptual integration networks
    Conceptual metaphors can be described and analyzed in terms of blends
    E.g. “this surgeon is a butcher”
    We will analyze the metaphors underlying hypermedia use and comprehension using BT terminology and notation
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    10
  • 11. A three-layer model
    Based on empirical research on factors influencing knowledge construction through hypermedia use
    Factors =
    Hypermedia structure (Fastrez 2002, 2005)
    Metaphors in hypermedia interfaces (Collard 2009)
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    11
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 12. A three-layer model
    Focus on the construction of the mental model of a hypermedia
    This model integrates, through multiple metaphorical projections, different items from distinct mental spaces
    These projections are organized in a hierarchical structure
    i.e.: the higher-level mappings inherit the structure of lower-level projections
    This structure includes three levels, or “layers”
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    12
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 13. 1 | Primary metaphors
    Pervasive orientation and ontological metaphors
    Source domain: our experience of space
    A dual metaphor
    Motion through space
    Pages and sections are CONTAINERS connected by PATHS
    Egocentric or exocentric orientation
    Object manipulation
    Pages and sections are nested CONTAINERS opened by the user
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    13
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 14. 1 | Primary metaphors
    Documented for the web by Matlock & Maglio 1996, Maglio & Matlock 1998, 2003
    Documented for off-line hypermedia by Fastrez 2002
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    14
    Target: Action of subject (S) on document (D)
    Target: State of S with respect to D
  • 15. 1 | Primary metaphors
    Documented for the web by Matlock & Maglio 1996, Maglio & Matlock 1998, 2003
    Documented for off-line hypermedia by Fastrez 2002
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    15
    Target: Processing of information (I) by subject (S)
  • 16. 2 | Generic metaphors
    Conventional structural metaphors
    Hypermedia as a typical media format
    “To me, a website is like a…”
    Source concepts (Collard 2009):
    Book (page, chapter, title…)
    Library (entrance, floor…)
    Tree
    Spider web

    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    16
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 17. 3 | Specific metaphors
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    17
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    Specific hypermedia rely on specific metaphors
    Specific metaphors provide additional structure to generic metaphors
    Example: « Biblio »
    Library > floors > aisles > books > chapters
  • 18. 3 | Specific metaphors
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    18
    The source domain of a specific metaphor can structure a hyperdocument at the physical and at the semantic level
  • 19. Biblio, Texto, and HyperDoc
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    19
  • 20. Biblio ‘entrance’ page
    Hypermediaticmetaphor, with the library as a source
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    20
  • 21. Biblio ‘floor’ page
    Hypermediaticmetaphor, with the library as a source
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    21
  • 22. Biblio ‘aisle’ page
    Hypermediaticmetaphor, with the library as a source
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    22
  • 23. Biblio ‘book’ page
    Hypermediaticmetaphor, with the library as a source
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    23
  • 24. Texto homepage
    Hypertextualmetaphor, with the library as a source
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    24
  • 25. Texto main section page
    Hypertextualmetaphor, with the library as a source
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    25
  • 26. Texto subsection page
    Hypertextualmetaphor, with the library as a source
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    26
  • 27. Texto page
    Hypertextualmetaphor, with the library as a source
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    27
  • 28. HyperDochomepage
    No specificmetaphor
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    28
  • 29. HyperDoc main section page
    No specificmetaphor
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    29
  • 30. HyperDocsubsection page
    No specificmetaphor
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    30
  • 31. HyperDoc page
    No specificmetaphor
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    31
  • 32. 3 | Specific metaphors
    Specific metaphors, when explicit (i.e. interfacial), tend to determine what generic metaphor is used to make sense of the hyperdocument
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    32
    Answers to the question « To me, thiswebsiteisbuiltlike a… »
    χ2 = 32.58 ; p < 0.001
  • 33. The whole picture
    Each layer in the network inherits structure from the previous layer
    The blend includes the user
    not just a metaphor of the hypermedia itself
    Cf. dual primary spatial metaphor
    Simplified examples:
    Visiting this library
    Browsing this book
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    33
    Bodily experience of space
    Hypermedia
    Motion through space
    Building
    Navigation in a
    building
    This library
    Visiting this library
  • 34. The whole picture
    Each layer in the network inherits structure from the previous layer
    The blend includes the user
    not just a metaphor of the hypermedia itself
    Cf. dual primary spatial metaphor
    Simplified examples:
    Visiting this library
    Browsing this book
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    34
    Bodily experience of space
    Hypermedia
    Object Mani-pulation
    Document
    Document browsing
    This book
    Browsing this book
  • 35. The whole picture
    The network is seldom unified and coherent
    Rather, it is a patchwork of blends constructed opportunistically within context
    Both primary metaphors (navigation and manipulation) are often used by the same users
    The same ‘source’ input spaces can be mapped to different ‘target’ spaces depending on context
    Hyperdocument structure, contents, or both
    Targets from different layers
    E.g. webpage vs. library book page…
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    35
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 36. The whole picture
    Generic webpage metaphor (subject from Biblio condition)
    « Il y avait la porte d'entrée, je suis rentré dedans, je suis arrivé sur heu, oui, la page où il y avait, je pense que c'était l'accueil. Et il y avait les trois, les différents étages où je pouvais aller. Voilà, là j'ai été au premier étage. »
    Specific library book page metaphor (same subject)
    « Je sais pas si c'était dans cet étage-là où il y avait "physique", "télécommunication", 'fin bref en tout cas je suis rentr', j'ai cliqué sur un, sur une des options, et heu ben en fonction de là à nouveau j'avais des livres, j'ai cliqué sur un livre, et à nouveau j'avais une page qui s'ouvrait , les caractéristiques "page suivante" etc.
    (…)
    En tout cas il y avait une étagère avec plusieurs livres et il y avait le livre "Firewall" et j'ai cliqué dessus. Et voilà, c'était le livre où il y avait la plus petite explication, c'est pour ça que j'ai retenu. Et heu voilà, je pense c'est une ou deux pages et après on pouvait tout simplement fermer le livre. »
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    36
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 37. The whole picture
    Generic webpage metaphor (subject from Biblio condition)
    “There was the entrance door, I went in, I came onto… uh, yes, the page where there was, I think it was the reception. And there were the three, the different floors where I could go. Then I went to the first floor.”
    Specific library book page metaphor (same subject)
    “I don’t know if it was in that floor where there was « physics », « telecommunication », anyway in any case I went int’, I clicked on a, on one of the options and… uh well… in function of this again I had books, I clicked on a book, and again I had a page that opened, the properties ‘next page’, etc.
    (…)
    In any case, there was a shelf with several books and there was the ‘Firewall’ book and I clicked on it. And then, it was the book where there was the shortest explanation, that’s why I remembered. And uh… then, I think it’s one or two pages and then one could simply close the book.”
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    37
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 38. ‘Running the blend’
    The conceptual integration network is built dynamically
    It can be modified in the course of navigation
    It can modify the course of navigation
    It can be modified by the course of navigation
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    38
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 39. ‘Running the blend’
    The CIN can be modified in the course of navigation
    E.g. switching between navigation and manipulation in the library…
    Same interaction, different blend
    (source: Neisser 1976)
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
    39
  • 40. ‘Running the blend’
    The CIN can modify the course of navigation
    Example: browsing ‘books in the library’
    Two specific navigation tools:
    table of contents
    Previous page / next page links
    Texto subjects tend to use the TOC more than Biblio subjects, as an alternative to the ‘previous/next’ links
    pTexto = 0.39 ; pBiblio = 0.09 ; p < 0;001
    They interpret the ‘previous/next’ links as ‘back’ and ‘forward’ browser buttons, without relying on the book metaphor
    They are confused about how they work when they try them
    Biblio subjects are able to interpret these links within the context of the book metaphor
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    40
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 41. ‘Running the blend’
    The CIN can be modified by the course of navigation
    Example: browsing ‘books in the library’
    When Biblio subjects interpret the “previous-next” links outside of the book metaphor, their usage of these links prompt them to construct the appropriate metaphorical mapping
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    41
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 42. Conclusions and future work
    Different metaphors orient the user’s comprehension of hypermedia and of their interaction with it, depending on the way they are implemented and the way they are made explicit
    Metaphors impact navigation behavior, and therefore are likely to impact the way the user constructs knowledge through browsing.
    Future empirical work will explore:
    The specific effects of metaphors on navigation behavior
    The extent to which these effects impact contents understanding
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    42
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009
  • 43. Thank you for your attention
    Questions?
    A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez
    43
    CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009

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