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A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension
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A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension

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Slides from a presentation co-authored with Anne-Sophie Collard, given at CICOM'2009 (Communication, Cognition and Media: Communication Sciences International Congress - Catholic University of …

Slides from a presentation co-authored with Anne-Sophie Collard, given at CICOM'2009 (Communication, Cognition and Media: Communication Sciences International Congress - Catholic University of Portugal, Braga, Portugal - September 23-25, 2009)

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  • 1. A Model of the Role of Conceptual Metaphors in Hypermedia Comprehension<br />Anne-Sophie Collard, Pierre Fastrez<br />Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium<br />
  • 2. Metaphors in hypermedia: context<br />We understand the way we interact with hypermedia through metaphor<br />The very notion of &quot;navigation&quot; implies an underlying spatial metaphor (Edwards & Hardman 1989, Panurak 1989, Dillon, McKnight et Richardson 1990, Dieberger 1994, Kim & Hirtle 1995)<br />Numerous hypermedia interfaces reproduce familiar objects or locations to facilitate their use<br />E.g.: virtual campuses, websites for kids…)<br />“Spatial hypertext” has been advocated as a means to facilitate navigation(Marshall & Shipman 1995; Dieberger 1995)<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />2<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 3. An example of hypermedia using an explicit (city) metaphor<br />
  • 4. Metaphors in hypermedia: context<br />Metaphors are often recognized as a means to facilitate hypermedia navigation…<br />… but their effect is seldom explained.<br />We propose a theoretical framework<br />based on conceptual metaphor theory (or CMT, Lakoff & Johnson) and blending theory (or BT, Fauconnier & Turner) <br />to explain the role metaphor plays, as a cognitive tool, in hypermedia comprehension<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />4<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 5. Outline<br />Theoretical foundations: metaphors and conceptual blending<br />Our proposal : a three-layer model<br />The model in the course of navigation<br />Conclusions and future work<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />5<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 6. Metaphor as a cognitive tool<br />CMT(Lakoff & Johnson 1980, 1999) considers metaphors as:<br />cognitive tools, not literary style figures<br />a means of understanding abstract concepts in terms of more concrete ones<br />involving the mapping of image-schematic structure from a source experience domain to a target experience domain<br />E.g.: DISCUSSION IS WAR<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />6<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 7. Metaphor as a cognitive tool<br />Metaphorical mappings<br />are partial but systematic<br />highlight some aspects of the target, but hide others<br />are organized hierarchically: <br />elaborate high-level structural metaphors inherit mappings from lower-level (e.g. ontological or orientation) metaphors<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />7<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 8. Conceptual integration networks<br />Conceptual blending: <br />a basic and ubiquitous cognitive operation that accounts for many aspects of human imagination (Turner 2002)<br />involves the construction and manipulation of a conceptual integration network <br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />8<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 9. Conceptual integration networks<br />Mental spaces in the network: <br />Input spaces, generic space, and blend<br />Cross-space mapping between input spaces and selective projection into the blend<br />Composition, completion and elaboration<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />9<br />
  • 10. Conceptual integration networks<br />Conceptual metaphors can be described and analyzed in terms of blends<br />E.g. “this surgeon is a butcher”<br />We will analyze the metaphors underlying hypermedia use and comprehension using BT terminology and notation<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />10<br />
  • 11. A three-layer model<br />Based on empirical research on factors influencing knowledge construction through hypermedia use<br />Factors =<br />Hypermedia structure (Fastrez 2002, 2005)<br />Metaphors in hypermedia interfaces (Collard 2009)<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />11<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 12. A three-layer model<br />Focus on the construction of the mental model of a hypermedia<br />This model integrates, through multiple metaphorical projections, different items from distinct mental spaces<br />These projections are organized in a hierarchical structure <br />i.e.: the higher-level mappings inherit the structure of lower-level projections<br />This structure includes three levels, or “layers”<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />12<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 13. 1 | Primary metaphors<br />Pervasive orientation and ontological metaphors<br />Source domain: our experience of space<br />A dual metaphor<br />Motion through space<br />Pages and sections are CONTAINERS connected by PATHS<br />Egocentric or exocentric orientation<br />Object manipulation<br />Pages and sections are nested CONTAINERS opened by the user<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />13<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 14. 1 | Primary metaphors<br />Documented for the web by Matlock & Maglio 1996, Maglio & Matlock 1998, 2003<br />Documented for off-line hypermedia by Fastrez 2002<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />14<br />Target: Action of subject (S) on document (D)<br />Target: State of S with respect to D<br />
  • 15. 1 | Primary metaphors<br />Documented for the web by Matlock & Maglio 1996, Maglio & Matlock 1998, 2003<br />Documented for off-line hypermedia by Fastrez 2002<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />15<br />Target: Processing of information (I) by subject (S)<br />
  • 16. 2 | Generic metaphors<br />Conventional structural metaphors<br />Hypermedia as a typical media format<br />“To me, a website is like a…”<br />Source concepts (Collard 2009): <br />Book (page, chapter, title…)<br />Library (entrance, floor…)<br />Tree<br />Spider web<br />…<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />16<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 17. 3 | Specific metaphors<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />17<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />Specific hypermedia rely on specific metaphors<br />Specific metaphors provide additional structure to generic metaphors<br />Example: « Biblio »<br />Library &gt; floors &gt; aisles &gt; books &gt; chapters<br />
  • 18. 3 | Specific metaphors<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />18<br />The source domain of a specific metaphor can structure a hyperdocument at the physical and at the semantic level<br />
  • 19. Biblio, Texto, and HyperDoc<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />19<br />
  • 20. Biblio ‘entrance’ page<br />Hypermediaticmetaphor, with the library as a source<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />20<br />
  • 21. Biblio ‘floor’ page<br />Hypermediaticmetaphor, with the library as a source<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />21<br />
  • 22. Biblio ‘aisle’ page<br />Hypermediaticmetaphor, with the library as a source<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />22<br />
  • 23. Biblio ‘book’ page<br />Hypermediaticmetaphor, with the library as a source<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />23<br />
  • 24. Texto homepage<br />Hypertextualmetaphor, with the library as a source<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />24<br />
  • 25. Texto main section page<br />Hypertextualmetaphor, with the library as a source<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />25<br />
  • 26. Texto subsection page<br />Hypertextualmetaphor, with the library as a source<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />26<br />
  • 27. Texto page<br />Hypertextualmetaphor, with the library as a source<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />27<br />
  • 28. HyperDochomepage<br />No specificmetaphor<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />28<br />
  • 29. HyperDoc main section page<br />No specificmetaphor<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />29<br />
  • 30. HyperDocsubsection page<br />No specificmetaphor<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />30<br />
  • 31. HyperDoc page<br />No specificmetaphor<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />31<br />
  • 32. 3 | Specific metaphors<br />Specific metaphors, when explicit (i.e. interfacial), tend to determine what generic metaphor is used to make sense of the hyperdocument<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />32<br />Answers to the question « To me, thiswebsiteisbuiltlike a… »<br />χ2 = 32.58 ; p &lt; 0.001<br />
  • 33. The whole picture<br />Each layer in the network inherits structure from the previous layer<br />The blend includes the user <br />not just a metaphor of the hypermedia itself<br />Cf. dual primary spatial metaphor<br />Simplified examples:<br />Visiting this library<br />Browsing this book<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />33<br />Bodily experience of space<br />Hypermedia<br />Motion through space<br />Building<br />Navigation in a <br />building<br />This library<br />Visiting this library<br />
  • 34. The whole picture<br />Each layer in the network inherits structure from the previous layer<br />The blend includes the user <br />not just a metaphor of the hypermedia itself<br />Cf. dual primary spatial metaphor<br />Simplified examples:<br />Visiting this library<br />Browsing this book<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />34<br />Bodily experience of space<br />Hypermedia<br />Object Mani-pulation<br />Document<br />Document browsing<br />This book<br />Browsing this book<br />
  • 35. The whole picture<br />The network is seldom unified and coherent<br />Rather, it is a patchwork of blends constructed opportunistically within context<br />Both primary metaphors (navigation and manipulation) are often used by the same users<br />The same ‘source’ input spaces can be mapped to different ‘target’ spaces depending on context<br />Hyperdocument structure, contents, or both<br />Targets from different layers<br />E.g. webpage vs. library book page…<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />35<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 36. The whole picture<br />Generic webpage metaphor (subject from Biblio condition)<br />« Il y avait la porte d&apos;entrée, je suis rentré dedans, je suis arrivé sur heu, oui, la page où il y avait, je pense que c&apos;était l&apos;accueil. Et il y avait les trois, les différents étages où je pouvais aller. Voilà, là j&apos;ai été au premier étage. »<br />Specific library book page metaphor (same subject)<br />« Je sais pas si c&apos;était dans cet étage-là où il y avait &quot;physique&quot;, &quot;télécommunication&quot;, &apos;fin bref en tout cas je suis rentr&apos;, j&apos;ai cliqué sur un, sur une des options, et heu ben en fonction de là à nouveau j&apos;avais des livres, j&apos;ai cliqué sur un livre, et à nouveau j&apos;avais une page qui s&apos;ouvrait , les caractéristiques &quot;page suivante&quot; etc.<br />(…)<br />En tout cas il y avait une étagère avec plusieurs livres et il y avait le livre &quot;Firewall&quot; et j&apos;ai cliqué dessus. Et voilà, c&apos;était le livre où il y avait la plus petite explication, c&apos;est pour ça que j&apos;ai retenu. Et heu voilà, je pense c&apos;est une ou deux pages et après on pouvait tout simplement fermer le livre. »<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />36<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 37. The whole picture<br />Generic webpage metaphor (subject from Biblio condition)<br />“There was the entrance door, I went in, I came onto… uh, yes, the page where there was, I think it was the reception. And there were the three, the different floors where I could go. Then I went to the first floor.”<br />Specific library book page metaphor (same subject)<br />“I don’t know if it was in that floor where there was « physics », « telecommunication », anyway in any case I went int’, I clicked on a, on one of the options and… uh well… in function of this again I had books, I clicked on a book, and again I had a page that opened, the properties ‘next page’, etc. <br />(…)<br />In any case, there was a shelf with several books and there was the ‘Firewall’ book and I clicked on it. And then, it was the book where there was the shortest explanation, that’s why I remembered. And uh… then, I think it’s one or two pages and then one could simply close the book.”<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />37<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 38. ‘Running the blend’<br />The conceptual integration network is built dynamically<br />It can be modified in the course of navigation<br />It can modify the course of navigation<br />It can be modified by the course of navigation<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />38<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 39. ‘Running the blend’<br />The CIN can be modified in the course of navigation<br />E.g. switching between navigation and manipulation in the library…<br />Same interaction, different blend<br />(source: Neisser 1976)<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />39<br />
  • 40. ‘Running the blend’<br />The CIN can modify the course of navigation<br />Example: browsing ‘books in the library’<br />Two specific navigation tools: <br />table of contents<br />Previous page / next page links<br />Texto subjects tend to use the TOC more than Biblio subjects, as an alternative to the ‘previous/next’ links<br />pTexto = 0.39 ; pBiblio = 0.09 ; p &lt; 0;001<br />They interpret the ‘previous/next’ links as ‘back’ and ‘forward’ browser buttons, without relying on the book metaphor <br />They are confused about how they work when they try them<br />Biblio subjects are able to interpret these links within the context of the book metaphor<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />40<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 41. ‘Running the blend’<br />The CIN can be modified by the course of navigation<br />Example: browsing ‘books in the library’<br />When Biblio subjects interpret the “previous-next” links outside of the book metaphor, their usage of these links prompt them to construct the appropriate metaphorical mapping<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />41<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 42. Conclusions and future work<br />Different metaphors orient the user’s comprehension of hypermedia and of their interaction with it, depending on the way they are implemented and the way they are made explicit<br />Metaphors impact navigation behavior, and therefore are likely to impact the way the user constructs knowledge through browsing.<br />Future empirical work will explore:<br />The specific effects of metaphors on navigation behavior<br />The extent to which these effects impact contents understanding<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />42<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />
  • 43. Thank you for your attention<br />Questions?<br />A.-S. Collard & P. Fastrez<br />43<br />CICOM’2009 – Sept 24th, 2009<br />

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