Secondary Curriculum,Instruction, and AssessmentSession 3: Daily Alignment
Today’s learning objectives1. Explain how core standards, objectives, and indicators relate to unit and daily lesson plans.2. Identify the steps to backward design.3. Compose learning objectives at all levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy.4. Align formative assessments with daily indicators.
Example: HiroshimaGlobal objective: (empathy)To examine a focal event in American History through the eyes of “the enemy” (to place students in the position of “Other”).State Core/Educational objectives (Unit objectives):1.2 Comprehend and evaluate informational text.1.3 Comprehend and compare culturally and historically significant literary forms.2.1 Evaluate ideas and information to refine thinking through writing.
Example (cont).(some) Daily Learning objectives (indicators):1.2b Evaluate the effectiveness of internal text structures in a variety of texts.1.2c Identify an author’s implicit and stated assumptions about a subject based on the evidence in the text.1.3d Evaluate the impact of setting and historical context on literary works2.1a Evaluate the merit of opposing opinions
Instructional PlanningCourse Planning GeneralUnit PlanningDaily Lesson Planning Specific
Learning Objective #2: Backward DesignWhat do I want my students to know/do? = determine your objective(s)How will I know when they know and can do it? = design your assessmentHow do I prepare them to know and do it? = plan your lesson
Learning Objective #3 (BD step 1) You will be able to compose learning objectives at alllevels of Bloom’s (grad students’) cognitive taxonomy. “Learning Objectives” = “Indicators”
Not:Students will know the Pythagorean theorem.But:Students will apply the Pythagorean theorem to solveproblems.
Not:Students will gain an appreciation for the role ofculture in student learning.But:Students will list three assumptions Native Americanstudents may hold regarding teacher-studentrelationships.
Not:Students will learn about suicide.But:Students will identify five warning signs of suicide.
Not:Students will understand how important freedom is.But:Students will explain the personal relevance of the firstfive amendments to the Bill of Rights.
Why are learning objectives important?They help you . . .Focus your contentSelect instructional models and strategiesDevelop and select instructional materialsDetermine your assessmentDemonstrate what you valueKeep teaching and learning focused
Bloom’s Cognitive TaxonomyCreating – generating new ideas, products, or ways of doing thingsEvaluating – justifying or judgingAnalyzing – breaking information into parts to determine how it fits togetherApplying – transferring information to a new contextUnderstanding – explaining ideas or conceptsRemembering – recalling information
RememberingRecalling specific items (e.g. facts, vocabulary)know define memorize repeatrecord list recognize namerecall identify tell recite Recite the Pledge of Allegiance.
UnderstandingGrasping the meaning of the material.Restate discuss explaindescribe express paraphraseillustrate distinguish recognize Reword the Pledge of Allegiance.
ApplyingTransferring knowledge to a new context.generalize apply practicerelate examine solvedescribe show criticize Describe how allegiance may be demonstrated by someone’s behavior.
AnalyzingBreaking down material into parts to determine how itfits together.differentiate compare contrastorganize classify arrangediscriminate distinguish subdivide Distinguish between allegiance to “the flag” and allegiance to “the republic for which it stands.”
EvaluatingMaking judgments based on criteria and standards.Justifying a decision or action.judge appraise evaluatevalue rate critiquecheck choose Decide if the ideas expressed in the Pledge of Allegiance exemplify the behavior of worthy citizens
CreatingPutting elements together to form a coherent whole ornew structure.design compose generatemake fashion constructinitiate invent Create a new Pledge of Allegiance based on original ideas combined with modern paradigms and moralities.
Comparison ObjectivesName the five causes of dizziness.Given a patient case description, determine the three most likely causes of dizziness.
Comparison objectivesIdentify melodic and harmonic intervals.Transpose a composition from the key of C Major to the key of F Major.
Comparison objectivesIdentify characteristics of a polygon.Given the coordinates, use the Cartesian coordinate system to find the dimensions of a polygon.
Comparison objectivesList the levels of Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy in ascending order.Create measurable indicators for a particular objective based on Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy.
Indicator #3: Compose learning objectivesSelect an objective from your core and practicecomposing learning objectives (aka: indicators) at theDifferent levels of Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy.Hints:Focus on student performance, not teacher performanceFocus on product, not processInclude only one learning outcome in each objectiveBe clear, measurable, realistic, appropriate, and worthyUnderline your verb
Indicator #4: Align formative assessmentsThis is Backward Design step 2!Now go back through those indicators and determinehow you would assess student mastery of thoseindicators.Hints:Indicator + venueUnderline your verbMake sure it’s cognitively aligned to your indicator
Today’s formative assessment! Can you . . .1. Explain how core standards, objectives, and indicators relate to unit and daily lesson plans.2. Identify the steps to backward design.3. Compose learning objectives at all levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy.4. Align formative assessments with daily indicators.
For next time:Cognitive Alignment Table – bring hard copyRead “Differentiation – What and Why” (posted on the calendar)Read pp. 263-265, “The Graffiti Model” (part of Chapter 13 in your text)