Iarigai 2009 Printing By The Numbers

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Presentation slides from the IARIGAI 2009 conference in Stockholm
http://www.iarigaiconference09.se/

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Iarigai 2009 Printing By The Numbers

  1. 1. Printing by the numbers Petter Kolseth Luc Lanat, Örjan Sävborg Stora Enso Sweden & France petter.i.kolseth@storaenso.com www.storaenso.com 36th International Research Conference Stockholm, Sweden
  2. 2. Printing by the numbers on commercial paper Petter Kolseth, Luc Lanat, Örjan Sävborg
  3. 3. Standardised Print September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 3
  4. 4. Standardised Print So where was the Paper Industry…? September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 4
  5. 5. Standardised Print – Why Now? • Fogra offset process standards date back to the 1980’s • ISO 12647-2 appeared first in 1996 • Paper sales was approached by printers only over last couple of years • Print is moving towards an industrial process September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 5
  6. 6. Potential sources for confusion and debate • "Numbers" in the ISO standards – Paper shade – Primary and secondary colours – Tone Value Increase – tonal transfer • Measurement conditions and calibration procedures – Paper industry: D65/10°, C/2°, D50/2° – Graphic industry: M0, M1, M2, M3 • Paper fluorescence September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 6
  7. 7. Sheet offset on coated woodfree Standardised Print • Market follow-up on 50 European papers – Paper Type 1 and 2 • Comparison of 10 inks on three papers – Gloss, silk, matt (Type 1 and 2) Gretag Spectrolino Scanning densitometer Print layout September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 7
  8. 8. Ludovic Coppel, Innventia Paper shade
  9. 9. Print substrate colour and gloss ISO 12647-2: Offset lithography • Five typical paper types and their shade/colour and gloss: Paper type L* a* b* gloss 1. Gloss-coated, woodfree 93(95) 0(0) -3(-2) 65 2. Matte-coated, woodfree 92(94) 0(0) -3(-2) 38 3. Gloss-coated, web 87(92) -1(0) 3(5) 55 4. Uncoated, white 92(95) 0(0) -3(-2) 6 5. Uncoated, slightly yellowish 88(90) 0(0) 6(9) 6 Tolerance ±3 ±2 ±2 ±5 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- – Black backing to allow for showthrough from reverse print Values in brackets refer to white backing Substrate backing (white) is standard in paper industry – D50 illuminant, 2° observer, 0/45 or 45/0 geometry D65/10° or C/2° and d/0° geometry is standard in paper industry September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 9
  10. 10. Print substrate used for proofing ISO 12647-2: Offset lithography • Print substrate used for proofing – identical to that of the production • If not possible – close match in colour, gloss, surface grammage • Press proofing on closest match to five typical paper surface types • Proof substrate to conform … to attributes in Table 1 of the paper type representing the production paper ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Paper type L* a* b* gloss 1. Gloss-coated, woodfree 93(95) 0(0) -3(-2) 65 2. Matte-coated, woodfree 92(94) 0(0) -3(-2) 38 3. Gloss-coated, web 87(92) -1(0) 3(5) 55 4. Uncoated, white 92(95) 0(0) -3(-2) 6 5. Uncoated, slightly yellowish 88(90) 0(0) 6(9) 6 Tolerance ±3 ±2 ±2 ±5 September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 10
  11. 11. Paper shade – Elrepho D65/10° Paper Type 1 – 90-250 gsm 0 -1 Measurements according -2 to paper industry -3 standard CIELAB-b* -4 -5 All products out-of-range -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 CIELAB-a* September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 11
  12. 12. Paper shade – Elrepho D65/10° Paper Type 2 – 90-250 gsm 0 -1 Measurements according -2 to paper industry -3 standard CIELAB-b* -4 -5 All except one products -6 out-of-range -7 -8 -9 -10 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 CIELAB-a* September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 12
  13. 13. Paper shade – Elrepho C/2° Paper Type 1 – gloss 90-250 gsm 0 -1 Measurements according -2 to "indoor whiteness" -3 standard CIELAB-b* -4 -5 Some products in the box -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 CIELAB-a* September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 13
  14. 14. Paper shade – Spectrolino D50/2° Paper Type 1 – 90-250 gsm 0 -1 Measurements according -2 to printing industry -3 standard CIELAB-b* -4 UV content not known -5 Most products in the box -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 CIELAB-a* September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 14
  15. 15. Shades of double-coated glossy papers More than 80% would fit into a proposed new recommended range 0,00 -1,00 -2,00 -3,00 CIELAB-b* -4,00 -5,00 -6,00 -7,00 -8,00 -9,00 0,00 0,50 1,00 1,50 2,00 2,50 CIELAB-a* Presentation WG3TF1 Paper Characterization (Bertholdt, ISO TC130 WG3, Bangkok 2007-05-15) September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 15
  16. 16. Paper shade – D65/10° - D50/2° - i1 D50/2° Paper Type 2 – Silk-coated fine paper 20 Moderate fluorescence 15 The D65 UV setting high 10 enough to offset the b* 5 b* 0 -5 -10 -15 D50 i1D50 D65 -20 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 a* September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 16
  17. 17. Paper shade – D65/10° - D50/2° - i1 D50/2° Paper Type 3 – Uncoated fine paper 20 Strong fluorescence 15 The D65 UV setting gives 10 even larger offset in b* 5 b* 0 -5 -10 -15 D50 i1D50 D65 -20 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 a* September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 17
  18. 18. Paper shade – D65/10° - D50/2° - i1 D50/2° Paper Type 4 – Uncoated WoodFree without OBA 20 No fluorescence 15 D65 and D50 quite close, 10 but D50 slightly more red 5 b* 0 -5 -10 -15 D50 i1D50 D65 -20 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 a* September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 18
  19. 19. Conclusions – Paper Shade A matter of taste – forget "ISO compliant" ISO does not specify allowed shades Should be determined with dedicated equipment Most papers are within a narrow range of shades
  20. 20. Andreas Paul, FOGRA Primaries and Secondaries
  21. 21. Colour gamut – Spectrolino D50/2° Paper Type 1 and 2, gloss/matt/silk 90-250 100 Gloss b* Matt/Silk 80 All prints rather close to Target values 60 target colour CMYRGB 40 Original RGB targets 20 -a* a* 0 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 -20 -40 -60 -80 -b* -100 September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 21
  22. 22. Colour gamut – Spectrolino D50/2° Paper Type 1 and 2, gloss/matt/silk 90-250 100 b* 80 All prints very close to 60 target colour CMYRGB 40 After the 2004 Amendment 20 -a* a* 0 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 -20 -40 -60 -80 -b* -100 September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 22
  23. 23. Ten inks on gloss, silk and matt paper Colour gamut – Elrepho C/2° 100 Ten inks on Gloss paper CIE b* Ten inks on Silk paper 80 Ten inks on Matt paper 30 ink-paper 60 combinations but almost identical results 40 20 CIE -a* 0 CIE a* -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 CIE -b* September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 23
  24. 24. Conclusions – Primaries and Secondaries No (or very small) influence of paper brand Target colours can be reached with standard inks
  25. 25. Ludovic Coppel, Innventia Paper fluorescence
  26. 26. Fluorescence – CIE Whiteness (D65) 70 60 Fluorescence (D65/10°) 50 40 30 20 10 100 110 120 130 140 150 CIE Whiteness (D65/10°) Gloss-Coated 200 – 350 gsm September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 26
  27. 27. CIE Whiteness – CIELAB-b* (D65) 150 140 CIE Whiteness (D65/10°) 130 120 110 100 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 CIELAB-b* (D65/10°) Gloss-Coated 200 – 350 gsm September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 27
  28. 28. Primaries and Secondaries – Elrepho D65/10° Paper Type 2 – Silk-coated fine paper Elrepho D65/10° 100 80 60 40 b* 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 a* September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 28
  29. 29. Primaries and Secondaries – i1 D50/2° Paper Type 2 – Silk-coated fine paper 100 80 60 40 b* 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 a* September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 29
  30. 30. Primaries and Secondaries – D50/2° Paper Type 2 – Silk-coated fine paper Elrepho D50/2° 100 80 60 40 b* 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 a* September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 30
  31. 31. Primaries and Secondaries – D50/2° UV excluded Paper Type 2 – Silk-coated fine paper Elrepho D50/2° UV excluded 100 80 60 40 b* 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 a* September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 31
  32. 32. Spectral power and Relative UV content Illuminants D65, C, D50, A Relative to 560 nm (max colour vision) Relative to 440 nm fluorescence peak 300 2,00 1,75 250 1,50 Spectral Power 200 Spectral Power 1,25 150 1,00 0,75 100 0,50 50 0,25 0 0,00 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 Wavelength, nm Wavelength, nm D65 C D50 A D65rel Crel D50rel Arel Relative power of A is almost twice that of C between 340 and 380 nm September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 32
  33. 33. Illumination is NOT same as Illuminant Illumination 5000K and Illuminant D50 D50 2 D65 5000K CCT 5000K CCT + UV Relative Power 1,5 1 0,5 0 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 Wavelength (nm) Ludovic Coppel, Innventia, 2008 September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 33
  34. 34. Proof substrates from one supplier x-rite iOne – a*-b* data 6,0 Red symbols denote 4,0 certified proof substrates 2,0 Green symbols denote production 0,0 paper PT2 and PT4 CIELAB-b* -2,0 Type 2 -4,0 -6,0 Type 4 -8,0 -10,0 -12,0 -14,0 -2,0 -1,5 -1,0 -0,5 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 CIELAB-a* September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 34
  35. 35. Conclusions – Paper Fluorescence Fluorescence make papers whiter (more blue) Effect is very dependent on illumination Fluorescence shines through all print Matching proof to print with proper choice of proof substrate and illumination
  36. 36. Tone Value Increase
  37. 37. Tone Value Increase: Black and Cyan Paper Type 1 – 90-250 gsm 30% 30% 25% 25% Black Tone Value Increase Cyan Tone Value Increase 20% 20% +/- 4 20% 20% +/- 4 15% 15% 10% 10% 5% 5% 0% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Nominal tone Nominal tone Black and Cyan Dot Gain are both within tolerance September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 37
  38. 38. Optical dot gain Effect on tone value and colour AM FM after Matthieu Bossan, Creo, 2002 September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 38
  39. 39. Reflectance histograms of K100, K40 and paper white 13,2% TVI(40) 2,5 25,0 2,0 20,0 Frequency, % 1,5 15,0 1,0 10,0 0,5 5,0 0,0 0,0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Reflectance, % <K40> <BLACK> <WHITE> September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 39
  40. 40. Reflectance histograms of K100, K40 and paper white 20,1% TVI(40) 2,5 25,0 2,0 20,0 Frequency, % 1,5 15,0 1,0 10,0 0,5 5,0 0,0 0,0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Reflectance, % <K40> <BLACK> <WHITE> September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 40
  41. 41. Reflectance histograms of K100, K40 and paper white 13,2% TVI(40) 2,5 25,0 Halftone dots Between dots 2,0 20,0 Frequency, % 1,5 15,0 Unimaged Solid black paper 1,0 10,0 0,5 5,0 0,0 0,0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Reflectance, % <K40> <BLACK> <WHITE> September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 41
  42. 42. Reflectance histograms of K100, K40 and paper white 20,1% TVI(40) 2,5 25,0 Halftone dots 2,0 20,0 Unimaged Frequency, % paper 1,5 15,0 Between Solid black dots 1,0 10,0 0,5 5,0 0,0 0,0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Reflectance, % <K40> <BLACK> <WHITE> September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 42
  43. 43. Black halftone seen in the microscope September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 43
  44. 44. Thresholding between peaks in histogram September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 44
  45. 45. Tone Value comparison Densitometer readings vs. microscopy 56 Microscopy Tone Value 54 52 50 48 46 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 Densitometer Tone Value September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 45
  46. 46. Optical Tone Value Increase Tone Values by microscopy 10,0 Single-coat matt 8,0 Optical TVI multicoat 6,0 gloss multicoat silk 4,0 2,0 0,0 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 Reduction in paper reflectance between dots September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 46
  47. 47. Conclusions – Tone Value Increase Mechanical TVI is small (in the ideal case) Optical TVI is quite large Optical TVI is an inherent paper property (but not related to brand) TVI variations are mechanical due to press settings
  48. 48. What is next? Luc LANAT Stora Enso PrintNet at iarigai Stockholm Sept 2009
  49. 49. Optics – What next? • To define (White) Paper shade targets – Use ISO 5631-1 or 2 Colour L*a*b* C/2° or D65/10° • ISO 13655-2009 must not be used to specify (white) papers – Use ISO 5631-3 Colour L*a*b* D50/2° • To evaluate Fluorescence in papers – Use ISO 2470-2 (Note 8.4) on D65 Brightness – Use ISO 11476 (Note 10.3), ISO 11475 (Clause 10.3). Whiteness • Organize UV calibration of D50 illuminant is a MUST September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 49
  50. 50. Dot Gain – TVI • ISO TS 10128-2008 « Methods of adjustment of the colour reproduction of a printing system to match a set of characterisation data » – When measuring quality of a print thru reflectance, you are indeed integrating all variations, variations coming from base, thus paper, variations coming from inks, from press, etc… – To define Dot Gain or TVI of a paper is a misunderstanding September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 50
  51. 51. Standardization – What next? • There is no ISO compliant paper – See Paperdam statement Sept 2009 – We recommend publicly available colour profiles and characterization data (ECI, PSR, FOGRA…) • ISO TC 6 Berlin, support creation of NWI – Develop ISO 5630-7, aging under light conditions to evaluate light fastness – Develop D 50 UV calibration rules • ISO TC 130 Beijing, support creation of NWI – How to measure proof papers – JWG (joint working group) liaison TC 6 – TC 130 September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 51
  52. 52. The last slide – 3 points • The daily challenge in a paper mill is to fulfil paper specifications communicated in Technical Data Sheets, in this order – Brightness and shade – Smoothness (PPS,…) – Gloss – Anything to satisfy printing results at printer • Process Management at printer and at papermaker is the topic – For a given grade, work on process consistency and not on upgrade of paper definition to reach better printed results • It is common interest of all players in this market to help standardization and support quality of printed media at lowest cost September 2009 Printing by the numbers / Kolseth-Lanat-Sävborg 52
  53. 53. Thank You

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