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Fashion design drawing book


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Book for learning how to draw and everything about fashion.

Book for learning how to draw and everything about fashion.

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  • 1. d e s i g n Principles, practice, and techniques: r the r s e In artist lulian Seaman
  • 2. FashionI d e s i g n d r a w i n g c o u r s e
  • 3. I ash'one l. "--+= drawing G o ~ r s ~ Principles, practice, and techniques: the ultimate guide for the aspiring fashion artist Caroline Tatham Julian Seaman
  • 4. Introduction Howto usethis book Assessing your work FINDING INSPIRATION ILLUSTRATING FASHION lnspirationfile: Whereto start Unit 1:Visiting a museum The human body in proportion 50 Unit 2: Investigatingarchitecture Inspirationfile: Inspirationfile: Experimentswith med~a56 A fresh look at the fam~liar Unit 3: Mood boards Unit 4: Thetraditions of India Unit 5: Fineart and graphics lnspirationfile: Small details,big ideas 38 j lnspirationfile: Laying out your page 74 Unit 6: Designingfabric ideas 40 Unit 13: Illustratingbold print 76 Unit7: Startingwith embroidery 44 I
  • 5. IDLANNING AND DESIGNING lnspirationfile: Creating a cohesrve collectron Unit 14: Learnto loveyour roughs Unit 15: Planning a range E lnspirationfile: Designingto a brief ' Unit 16: Customer focus Unit 17: Occasions,seasons, budgets lnspirationfile: Color and fabric Unit 18: Color palettes Unit 19: Structuring fabric a ICOMMUNICATING YOUR VISION lnspirationfile: Clarityand communication Unit 20: Working drawings Unit 21: Real garmentsfor your portfolic lnspirationfile: Presentingyour work Unit 22: Practicalitiesof presentation Unit 23: Choosing a presentation style Unit 24: Presentingwith flair Fashion resources Glossary Index Credits All inquiries should be addressed to: Barron's EducationalSeries, Inc. 250 Wireless Boulevard Hauppauge, NewYork 11788 http:l/ Copyright 0 2003 Quarto Inc. All rights reserved.No part of this book may reproduced inany form, by photostat, microf xerography, or any other means, or incorpora into any informationretrievalsystem,electronic or mechanical,without the written permiss~onof the copyright owner. I Indexer: Pamela Ellis . . I Art Director: MoiraClinch Publisher:P,iers Spence Manufacturedby Pica Digital PIE Ltd., Singapore Printedin China by Midas Printing InternationalLtd. 9 8 7 6
  • 6. - ~ - --- -- . _ -- Fashion is. by itsvery ever-changini.& dscar ~ i l d eremarkedthat "Fashion is a form of uglinessso intolerablethat we haveto alter it every six months," but it is this continualevolutioni,$e ---.-constant reinventionof old trends and the creak~-nofjew ones,cat lendsthe fashionindustry its excitement anallg amor. FashionDesignDrawingCourse is aimed3 aspiringfashion-%Signers an-elllru~~t=and anyonew~than interest Inthe fascinatingworld of style. The book is modeled aroundthe fashion courses offered by colleges and universities,with twenty-four units each containinga projectto leadyou step by step throughthe processof illustratingterrific designs. You don't needto know all about the big fashion namesto take this course, nor do you need-tobe a genius with a paintbrushor sewing machine.The aim of this book is to unravelthe mystiquesurrounding fashion,and to show how designs can be created through a systematic processof researchand development,and the use of a rangeof illustration techniques.All you needto begin is enthusiasmand a willingness to b No experience required You don't needto be a sewingexpertto creategreat fashion designs.You can explorethe behavior of a made-up garment simply by draping fabric around a dressmaker'sstand,and then incorporateideas about pleatingand gatheringinto your illustrations. I Inthe first chapter, "Finding inspiration,"you will V A stream of ideas learnthat creatinga design is not a mysticalaffair but Useyour sketchbook to simplyabout researching,developing,and reinventing exploreyour first ideas about an inspiringtheme. Ifyou look at your surroundings 1a design. Don't betoo critical of your roughs-just letthe through the eyes of a designer,you will seethat ideasflow and you will be inspirationis everywhere-museums, art galleries,the surprisedat thevitalityof the i seashore,the city streets, evenyour familiar home and work you produce. garden can provideyou with raw material.This chapter will show you howto identify and researcha sourceof inspiration,and howto usethis inspirationto guide your <=I-3I designs,through the use of mood boardsfor example.Itwill also give I 4 Borrowing inspiration You can borrow motifsfrom paintingsto create print patterns-these printsare inspired by the work of Dufy.
  • 7. V Having confidence Learning howto fill the page boldly is an importantaspect of becoming a fashion designer.Whenyou show confidenceinyour designs youwill bewell on the way to convincingtutors, clients, and employersto havefaith inthemtoo. some suggestionsabout howto put your own special I spin on an idea. perhapsby enlargingscale to explore he unseendetails of an ordinary object, or by bringing the patternsand shapesof a paintingor a building intoa new context, or by usingyour sourceto inspire a fabric design that will be the focus of the garment. Once you have developed some great design ideas you needto be ableto representthem on the page. The second chapter, "Illustrating fashion,"will give you the confidenceto expand your drawingtechniqueto includemethods such as collage and mixed media. A mistake studentsoften makeis to believethey must jevelop a personaldrawingstyle early on, and then stick to it.This book encourages plenty of experimentation-if you keep pushingthe boundaries, your ideaswill always be fresh. Experimentsdon't alwayswork, of course, but you must havethe courage to fail-this is part of the learning process. One importantpointto keep in mind while working through this course isthat the final aim of any fashion design is to produce a real garmentthat can be worn on a real human body.An article of clothing drawn on a figure that iswildly out of proportionwill -lack authority becauseno one ' will be able to imagineactually wearing it.The second chapter therefore explains an easy paper-foldingmethodthat an inexperienced designer can use as a guide for creatingfashion figures. Duringthis part of the courseyou will learn to observe carefully and to honeyour representational skills,as you practicedrawing people and Capturingthe mood b A free representationof afigure can capturea posejust as well as avety 1detailed one. You don't need Iof garmentdesigns reflecttheir Arctic 1 source in aspects such asthe Inuit-stylefigures andthe snowflakeknit pattern. Developing I designs from one source produces distinctivework. -1
  • 8. garmentsfrom life.You will also learn howto be bold I will teach you howto work to a brief,to take into in your designs,filling each pagewith drawings that account considerationssuch as budget and seasonal show conviction. requirements,and to build a collectionaimed at V Goingwild The third chapter, "Planning and designing,"takes a target customer whose tastes you mightwell not Designersneedto be vour desianwork intothe wider context of the fashion shareyourself. practicalinfocusing their- industry.Being a successfuldesigner is not about producing flamboyantone-off pieces but about developingyour inspirationinto a cohesiverangeof I The final chapter, "Communicatingyour vision," work on a target customer, looks at how all these wonderful ideas can be best but sometimes it's good to letyourself go wild-this shown off to colleagues,tutors, employers,and clients. HusseinChala,,an skirt designs that share a strong look while offeringas much choiceto the customer as possible.This chapter When it comes to presentingyour concepts, remember that clarity is key-there is no point in was designed around a coffeetable. V b Communicating your ideas Presentyour designs in an appropriate style:these jewel-like illustrations capture perfectlythe sophisticationof the garments. Ifyou are studying at college,you could even take your presentationa step further by photographing your designs at the end-of-
  • 9. b Maximumimpact You shouldtry to present your designswith maximum creative impact.This dress was inspiredby film and theater postersfrom the 1940s,and the concept is reflectednot only inthe dress itself but also in aspects such as the dancing pose of the figure and the spotlight effect createdby spray paint used inthe background. V Competitive business Recentlygraduated fashion studentshaveto vigorously promotetheir designs at shows I inthe hopethat one of these eventswill catapultthem to catwalkstardom. creatingsuperb designs if no one can understandthe illustrations.This chapter explains howto support your creative illustrationswith flat working drawings and howto build a professional-lookingpresentation board, It also shows how every aspect of the presentation-from the style of drawingto the poses of the figures-can work togetherto communicate your vision with maximumimpact. Workingthrough FashionDesignDrawingCourse will giveyou the tools you needto create and illustrate designs, as well as the confidenceto set off on your career as a fashion designer,Your most important assets are an open mrndand a pairof fresh eyes; and i remember,as you venture intothis highly competitive yet rewardingbusiness,that fashion design should aboveall befun.
  • 10. How to use this book Fallowing the format of a college course, this book i! divided intotwenty-four units,each one lookingat Example Pages 14-19 in "Finding inspiration" contain an inspirationfile, a unit, and a an aspect of the illustrationof fashion design.The units showcase,and providea good illustrationof the structureof the book. are grouped intofour chapters, so you progress logicallyfrom finding inspirationto using illustration techniquesto planninga collectionto presentingyour ideas.Throughout the book, "inspirationfiles" provide background informationon topics approached in the units.Each unit sets a projectto complete, definingthe objectiveand describing exactly howyou go about achieving it.Answering the "self-critique"questionswill helpyou assess what you havedone, and you can also compareyour work to the designs in the "showcase"that completes each unit and presents successfulinterpretationsof the project. The inspiration file givesan overview of the topic of finding inspiration. 1Where to start The project inthe first unit isto visit a museum,introducing the readerto methodsof developinga source. 1- I Visitinga museum I Illustrationsshow examplesof imagesthat could inspirefashion design; the captions suggest how. "The process" provides a step-by-stepguide to completing the project. The showcase displayssuccessful interpretations of the brief. Eachunit contains"the project," a brief statement of the task, "the objective," a summaryof its aims, and a "self-critique"section of questionsto usewhen assessingthe results. Pagesfrom designers' sketchbooks show how ideas are developed. Finalillustrationsby other . designerssuggestways in which you could have approached the project. IS BOOK C
  • 11. Assessing your work Whetheryou are a student enrolled in a courseor simply working through this book on your own at home, it is essentialto keep reviewingyour working practice.You will not progress unlessyou look at your work critically,assessingwhether you have achieved what you set out to do. When you start to be artistically creative it is often difficultto judge whether what you havedone is any good.Oddly,what tends to happen isthat studentsare far too self-critical and fail to spot when they are on to a winning idea. Itis alwaysworth pursuingsomething that you knowworks for you. However,you also need to be able to ruthlesslyfilter out the ideas that are not working.At first,you may lean heavilyon the opinion of people such as tutors, but there will come a time when you know enough about yourself and your designsto select for yourself what works and what doesn't. Inthis bookyou are askedto carry out a self-critique on each project. Don't be too hard on yourself, but think honestly about whether your work has succeeded in the ways indicated by the questions. Here are some tips to helpyou with your self-assessment: Allow yourself to learn. Don't worry if atfirst your work seemsvery influenced by the styles of others. It is through imitationthat you will discoverfor yourself howto makethe best use of the techniques. a Don't worry if an experimentfails. A good designer is always curious, always pushing the boundaries.It is only through trial and error that truly original ideaswill emerge. Congratulateyourself for havingthe nerveto go beyondthe obvious and ask yourself what you have learnedfrom others. Some people will loveyour work, others will hate it-all you can do istry to betrue to your own special take on the world. the project. Muchof the design might give up without process hasto do with any appreciationof Don't betoo fixed in self-disciplineso judge their efforts. Even a your definition of your work honestly. throwawaycomment "success," as this will You should work freely from a friend such as, 1' close off avenues andtreasureyour "Icouldn't have drawn opened up by a happy rough ideas (they are that," will spur you on accident. So long as often more exciting to new successes. you knowwhat the rules than an overworked are, it can befun to concept), but you Don't be discouraged breakthem sometimes. needto know which if other designersor ones to reject. members of your class seem to be producing e Showyour work to . betterwork than you- family andfriends, just concentrateon and accepttheir developingyour own compliments.The most uniquestyle. Pay attentionto your instinct about what you have produced, and don't try to judge it through the eyes of experienceddesigners
  • 12. FINDING INSPIRATION People often wonder how fashion designers manageto come up with so many marvelous new ideas.The truth is that these ideas are rarely completely new: designers create by reinventingthe world around them. This chapter will show you how to develop designs from almost any inspirationalsource, whether you are exploring the world of fine art or the buildings of your town, Indianculture or the familiar objects in your home and garden.
  • 13. 4 This dress by Yves Saint Laurent was inspiredbythe work of Mondrian: a goodexampleof adesigner drawing ideasfromthe worldof art.
  • 14. Where to start One of the most daunting aspects of creativity is being faced with a blank page, but luckily ideas don't haveto be spirited out of thin air.A mistakeoften made by newfashion students is to design a series of individual garments that have no discerniblesource of inspirationand no cohesive "look."However,once you have establishedatheme, a multitudeof related ideaswill come tumbling onto your page. Inspirationfor design themes can befound everywhere,whether your source is a seashell on a beachor a splendid skyscraper,the fun of the fair or the Carnivalat Rio. If you research well, your topic will automaticallyinfluence your garment ideas; for example, the theme of a circus or fairground is likelyto produce a colorful,flamboyant look. With an inquiring mind almostanything cantrigger a creative spark.Thetrick is to beableto selectthe best routeto follow. As a commercialdesigneryou will haveyour customer in mindfrom the outset, and self-indulgentflights of fancy may becausethey are all aware of the broad trends. (However,designing from a completely off-the-wallangle has also produced some of fashion's greatestmoments.) Although nothing dates morequickly than fashion, lookingto the pastfor inspiration often produces great results.A whole era can becomean inspiration,andthe popularity of different erastends to wax and wane in cycles. Oneyear stylesfrom the 1950smight be in fashion; the next it's a '70s look that's popular. Designsthat were the height of fashion becomethe object of derision, only to reemergea generationlateras "must have" articles; wide-flared,low-risetrousers are a perfectexample. 4 Lookingup The ar~glcdeegancc haveto take a backseat.As a student, however, the furthest extremes can, and should, be explored. Anything can bewatereddown; it is much harderto spice up something dull. I A designershould alwayshaveafinger on ! the pulse of the time: musictrends, street of structuressuch as the Chrysler Building can be capturedin a I fashiondesign. Why notleta multistory buildinginspireatiered skirt,or add dangling beaded ribbonsto mimicthe pattern of itswindows? culture,fllms, fine art movements. It IS no coincidence that each fash~onseason has a discernible look; differentdesignersoften produce similar color rangesand silhouettes (the outline shapes of completeensembles) 4 b Global icons Glve adeslgn a 1950s feel by incorporatingthe dlstlnct~veshapeof a Cadlilac'stall flns (left) The EasterIslandstatues (rlght)are also lconlc referencesto these enlgrnatlcflgures Ina fashlon rllustrat~oncould have a strlkingeffect
  • 15. Structuredsportswear has inspired many iconic shapes- think football shirts and Dynasty shoulder pads. Cycling Lycra produced a whole newfashion concept (skintight garments in bright colors), as did sailing weal the synthetic waterproof clothing by Tommy Hilfiger. Chrysler Building in NewYork make it a superb example of an artistic endeavor that could easily inspire garment design. Hollywood moviescan also start fashiontrends; The Great Gatsby and the MadMaxseries popularized, respectively, 1920sflapper dresses and the "road warrior" look that combines punk and grunge. Your opportunities for exploring themes are unlimited.You can research ideas by visiting museums or wanderingthrough a city to draw and take photographsyourself, or you can absorb the paintings, sculptures,films, photography,and books createdby other people.The Internetis a great source of informationthat can be accessedfrom your home or college. The knack of working with inspiration is to avoid trying to absorb too much at once. Being selectivewith your research and disciplined in developingjust a few well-chosenthemes will helpyou produce a focused rangeof designs that hold together as a collection. b Sporty shapes I Patternsand styles basedon ethnic ideas A Cherry-pick ideas are recycledagain and again by designers. )riceyou havethoroughly researchedyour source,you Oneseasonthey might work with the weaves I can choose the aspectsthat attractyou mostto include in of LatinAmerican Indians;nextyear they might ' your designs.YOUmay decide to incorporatethe complex feature the prints of certainAfricantribes. color scheme, zigzag patterns,and layeredlookof clothesworn by Peruv~anQuechuawomen; alternatively, Fashionoften draws on other forms of art it may bethe trailing coat of a circus clown or a highly for inspiration.The art deco magnificence, ornate Carnival costume, reminiscentof tropical birds glistening reflections,and lofty symmetryof the andflowers,that inspiresyou The shape- alteringpadded shouldersof the 1980sDynasty look made referenceto the structured wear used for sports such as ice hockey andfootball.
  • 16. Visiting a museum Museums can sometimesseem dull or dumbed downto cater to with scale,enlarginga detail and reducingthe size of the piece as a schoolchildren.Don't be put off; a single collectionof antiquities whole. Don't restrictyourselfto looking at historicalclothesjust could keep a designer in ideasfor a lifetime.Borrowing and adapting becauseYou are designing garments, Inspirationcan come from ideasfrom the past IS notjust acceptable infashion design, but ceramics,Sculpture,jewelry, calligraphy, and even just from the an essentialway of obtaining raw materials.When you first visit a ambienceof the gallery. museum,it is best to spend at least half a day getting a general You do not need to take along allyour crayons and paintswhen overview of the exhibits.Take the time to find objects that inspireyou. It you visit a museum. Make plentyof notes in is only by looking morecloselyat a piecethat its detailsand subtleties your sketchbook so that you can become clear, and only when you draw it can you be surethat you are developyour ideas when you are back truly observingit.Your sketchbookwill then provideyou with hundreds at home or inthe studio. of starting points for planninga collection.Think both big and small; look at the overall shape of the object and also at the tiny detail. Play the project Visit a museumand browse until you find an areathat inspiresyou. Make notesand observationalsketches coveringseveral interestingsubjects.Then select atheme to inspire a small collection of garmentsthat obviously reflects its source. Completefour finished design drawingsat home or in your studio. the objective Select a source that inspiresyou. @ Makejudgments and choices before putting pencil to paper. Learnto observean object carefully. Adapt designsfrom the pastto creatework that is b An ancientsource uniquelyyours. The monumentalstatues Inthe : collect~onof Egypt~anant~qultles 1 at the Br~t~shMuseum~nLondon offer the enterarlslnafash~on, -student ideas about features SI lch an headrlranses and---. . -- . .----.----- -. .- jewelry, as well as more general stylizationtips.Haveyou looked closely at its detail? Haveyou noted its overall look? Were your drawings usefulto work from? Doyour finaldrawings-reflectthe source? , , 16 FINDINGlh 4 Fashionsof the past You can referto historical picturesfor intriguingimages of garmentsand accessoriesworn in past times.The color palettes and shapesfeaturedinthis representationof Ancient Egypt can be usedto ignite ideasfor contemporarygarmentdesigns.
  • 17. Ithe process Researchyour local museum or visit a nationalcollection. Spend at least half a day browsing before selectingwhat you want to concentrateon. Fill several pages of your sketchbook with color notes, doodles, and quick sketchesof objects and details relatingto an area that interestsyou. Then I choose a suitablesource (a single object or small numberof objects that you find inspirational) and make at leastten I quick drawings on site of all its different aspects. Concentrateon the overallshapefor some drawings and on minute detailsfor others. 4 Bold reworking Theseworking drawings show howsketchesand notes made on site can be developed. Here,references to gold and jewels, hieroglyphics,and stylized eyes are mixedboldly,giving a modernfeel to the work. I Back at home or in the studio, startworking on lour color palette (see page 104) and explore the possibilities of shape, exaggeratingsome of the lines, blocks, and planes in your drawings, and ,educingothers. Consider howthe aspects of the source that jou have noted in your sketchbook-lines, colors, outline, mass, decoration,texture-- might translateinto fashion designs. Draw )ut some rough ideas for garments, and then add color. Finally, completefour finished design drawings. A T Fabric ideas Papyrus (above) has an interesting texture, and the charms inthe form of fish, shells, and necklace (below) striking print motifs. - ood boards, p. 26 B Color palettes, p. 104 ,&signing fabri- ideas, p. 40 ? - = Ir- *--- ---Ts-A--ws .-- VISITING A MUSEUM
  • 18. Exploringa sourcethrough sketches and work~ngdrawings enables fashion designersto identify what reallyexcitesthem about the topic- whether ~tIS a strik~ngcolor combinat~on,the elegant shape of a vase, or a detail of a fastening in an old paintrng The illustrations prctured hereexplore and enlarge on the theme of Ancient Egypt,reflectingthe source's historicalbackground and at the same t~meforming a series of fresh and dynamic original creations The draw~ngsall echothe salrent features of the source and as a result have natural cohesionas a collection The consistency of the lim~tedcolor palettefurthers the impressionthat the designs were planned as a collectionfrom the outset A Fullof life Thoughthe drawings are finalized,they stillfeel unconstrainedand free, full of lifeand movement. Despitethe traditionalsource of their inspiration,the illustrationsare executedin a very light and modern way.
  • 19. Old and new The effect of these drawings is avibrant mix of ancient and modern.The work is -freshbecausethe inspiration of Ancient Egypthas been brought intoa modern context, not only through a contemporarystyle of ~llustrat~onbut also by incorporatingdeta~lssuch as the very h~gh-heeledshoes 4 Consistentcolor The color paletteof gold, black, pink, and blue used in the illustrationsis consistent bothwith the source and withinthe group of designs as awhole. This increases the impressionthat the pieceswere planned as a collectionfrom the start.
  • 20. Investigating architecture It may seem a little surprisingto use buildings as inspirationfor clothes. Bulldingdesigr is obviously meant for a long visual life,whereasfashion in clothes changeswith each season.However,bothforms arethree-dimensionaland structured,andwhether it is in the overalltheme of a building or just a detail, usefulideas arethereto befound. Agood designer needsto be a constant observer and lateralthinker. If you set outto investigate architecture, you will discovera wealth of interestingtextures, subtle colorways,and strongdesign features, which reflecttherr source but also emergeas design concepts intheir own right. Whether you choose to study a historicalbuilding likea church, a famous modern landmark,or evenyour own home, ideaswill emerge if you observeyour source closely. The reflectiveglass of a skyscraper might suggestthe useof a shimmeringmodern fabric; the peelingpaint of an old beachhut could stimulateyou to create a look incorporatingripped layers.Alternatively, letthe arcaded columns adorningthe LeaningTower of P~saevoke intricatesleeve details or bodice lacework.The perspectivelines of a building often provokeideasabout outline-think howthe GuggenheimMuseumcould suggest a billowingblouseor the art deco stylizationof the Chrysler Buildingmight be incorporatedinto a tiered silhouette. the project I b Bold statements The LeanlngTower of P~sa, Think in generalabout the sort of architecturethat could the Svdnev O ~ e r aHouse, II . - spark some design ideas. Select a building and make 1 the La Bocawaterfrontof extensive drawings in your sketchbook. Highlightthe elements (suchas overallshape, design details, and surroundings)that get you thinking. Take photographs. Then make photocopies of your researchandwork into them using paint, crayon, and ink. Distillthese ideasto illustratefour design ideas. the objective a Practiceobserving meticulouslyeverything aroundyou. a Makejudgments about the elements you want to use in your designs andthose you chooseto reject. a Useone form of creative work to create another. ) BuenosAires, and a glass skyscraperare allstunnlng examples of architecture that could lnsplrefash~ondeslgn
  • 21. 4 First fashion ideas Useyour flrst rough drawlngsto explore the shape of the bulldlngas a whole The fashlon parallels, such as a long flared dress or sklrt silhouette, will become apparent 4 V Deconstruction bulldlngIn depth Exploring the ,.----"--.A*- __._ - _.-$ jolntlng detalls, for example, may different parts of your garmentswill f~ttogether Try to match the colors and textures of your photographic researchso that your fabrlc ideas the process reflect the source, too By makingthese choices Start by lookingthrough you will soon learnto architectural magazines. discernwhat is of useto YOU, go your photographsand suspensionbridge out with a sketchbook sketches, whichyou might hav6become and camerato select a canthenwork intowith cords supporting a building and record its paint, crayon, and ink, silk bodice inyour shapeand'details. Look alteringthe image by reworkingof the at stairwells, elevator manipulatingcertain concept-provided that shafts,windows, doors, elementsto create thejourney from source decoration, colors, and somethingpersonal to conclusion is mapped textures, aswell as at the to you. Finally, combine out inyour research. building's surroundings, elementsintofour too. Take photographsto originalfashiondesigns. capturethe whole picture It doesn't matterif the and makesketches to resultis a million miles highlightthe elements awayfromyour starting you want to remember. point-the cables of a ;* Haveyou transformedone type of three- .- r . dimens~onaldesign into another?
  • 24. A fresh look at the familiar When discussing how fashion designers and illustratorswork, people oftenwonder where all the ideas come from. How can a designer produce such a volume of original work each season, apparently out of thin air?The answer, of course, is that it does not just appear as if by magic but comes from the systematic development of ideasoften triggered bythe everydayworld that surrounds us As a designeryou will learnhowto look anew andto investigatethese concepts in an original at commonplaceobjects and themes, and see way. An exciting personal approachto a smallest detail inthem possibilitiesfor inspiration and conceptwill add a uniqueflavor to a design. creativity. Oncethis is understood,the mystery With time, you mayfind yourself revisiting photographyor drawing is explodedand you can see howthe world certain ideasand images.This is perfectly smallobjectsl~keshellswill make you not~cetiny deta~ls,suchas splrals andswirls, aroundyou offers an endlesssourceof acceptableso long as you are ableto find an thatvou can useto aood effect ~nvour des~ans.- - imaginativepotential. original interpretationof your theme This huge rangeof choice may appear for each rangeof designs, and it is somewhat daunting atfirst, but you will soon part of the naturaldevelopmentof rdevelopthe ability to be selectivewith your your own recognizabledesign style. starting points, based on their potentialvalue As well as being of interestto to you as a source of inspiration.The key is to you, it is important that your sources use imagesthat truly interestand inspire you, incorporatevariousfactors that you 4 A The naturalworld Embroideryor laceworkideas can be derivedfrom something as mundaneas peelingrust or the skeletonof a leaf,and the undulatinglinesof freshly worked hillscouldbetranslated into stripes on a billowingblouse.
  • 25. A The treasures at home What interesting artifactsdo you have stashedaway at home? Lookclosely at an heirloomor a souvenirinorder to appreciateit anew. Antique text~les,with their intricatepatterns and richtones, are agreat source of inspirationand can beeasily investigated through books, museums,and the Internet. will be able to use later in your designs. The ollowing aspects should be considered: colors and how they are combined; texture; proportion; shape; volume; details; and decoration. Your starting point should satisfy your creative interest on as many of these levels as possible. You can then use your A Take a chance on me Fashionruns in cycles; popbands such as ABBA and the clothesassociatedwith them are constantlygoing in andout of fashion.What "outdated"styles can be reinventedto createcontemporaryideas? materialto create mood boards (see page 26), which will provide a focus for the further development of selected aspects of your research and help you to be disciplined in designing garments based on a few well- chosen and targeted themes. A Popular culture Streetart makesawonderfulcontrastto the natural world. Bright colors can inspirefantastic print ideaswith a contemporaryurbanslant. b Packaged culture Packagingcan bevery evocative of the culture fromwhich it originates, providing acompact set of colors,images, andgraphicsthat can conveythe essence of an entire country.
  • 26. Mood boards Creating a mood board is great fun and will help you be selectivewith the researchyou have gathered.This is the first stage of organizing your thoughts and collected images,enablingyou to channelyour creative excitementtoward a cohesive and targeted design outcome. Mood boards are made by arranging images and color ideas on a large board so that you can see at a glance howyour designs might evolve.They vary in their complexity but, as the name suggests, mood boards should always capture the mood or flavor of your design project,as well as reflectingyour target customer. In grouping your researchedimages you will haveto make decisionsabout editing and prioritizingyour selection,as well as confirmingyour season and color palette.Colors should reflect your chosen season- soft pastelswill suggest a summer story,for example- but whatever the season, the color palette should be applied consistentlythroughoutthe project. the project Select a theme and a season for your work, and consider who your target customer might be. Gather together all your research material. Usinga 20 x 30-in. illustration board as a base, arrangeand gluetogetherthe strongest images, and combine them with a color paletteor fabric swatches to make a collage.Also include imagesfrom currentfashion magazinesthat suit your chosentheme. Build a mood board that reflectsthe essence of your design project. the objective Prioritizeimagesfrom your collated research. Reflectyour target customer and chosenseason. Bringtogether creative inspiration and current fashion trends. Finalizea color palette. Create a mood board that summarizes your chosen design theme. 4 Color samples Paint-swatchcardscanbeused to helpyou selectaharmonious groupof colorsfor your palette. Avoid includingmorethan eight shades ineachpalette or your designs may becomeconfused and lackcohesion. 4 Magazine cuttings You shouldhoardarangeof fashionmagazines.Pickout V Fabricswatches Ifyou already haveideasaboutthefabrics that youwill usefor your final designs,include swatchesonyour moodboard.Rememberto keepthe presentationclean,simple,and neat. MEmm RUE - I createaan easy referencetool to use 1 sketching your rough ideas? Have you reflectedyour season and target customer? Haveyou finalized your color palette? e Haveyou usedthe most important ima e Haveyou summarizedyour theme? FINDINGINSPIRATION
  • 27. 4 Test the colors Examineyour chosen imagestigether to identify the key shades and best color combinationsto evoke your theme. V Think laterally Researchwidely, linking design concepts. Here,the color and cawing of an ornate pictureframe is visuallymarriedto intricately I embroideredfabric and athe process Researcha theme that inspiresyou, gathering itemssuch as postcards, magazineimages, and photographs.Selecting from this researchwill helpyou focus on what is important in the project. Combinethis inspirational researchwith imagesand trend predictionsfrom consumerand trade magazines,fashion web sitessuch as, andtop designers' web sites. Also gather imagesto reflectthe season and your target customer (see pages94 and 98). Experiencewill teach you what size of board suits you best, but try starting with a 20 x 30-in. boardthat allows room for lots of images as well as swatches of yarns and fabrics, and any wording. Handwritingon a mood board usually looks unprofessional,so use luxurious sari. 4 Refine your choice Layout allyour gathered researchmaterial so that you can compare the imagesand f - I selectwhich to useonyour mood board. 7 letteringor output copy from a computer. This is a good time to try putting together a color paletteto include )nyour board, using paintswatches, color chips from the standard color reference books produced by Pantone,or cuttings from magazines (for more informationon working with color palettes, see page 104). Avoid including images that are not appropriate for your selectedcolors, becausethey will detract from the overall effect. I Ensurethat all the imagesare cut out simply 1 and stuck down neatly. It is the imagesthat should grab the attentionand not , the manner in which you have mountedthem. Simplest is always best. "ZLSO 3ating a cohesivecollection, p Customer focus, p. 94 Occasions, seasons, budgets, p. Color palettes,p. 104 MOOD BOARDS
  • 28. successfulmood board, likethose pictured here, A h a s a uniquepersonality.~texpressesthe essence of the design ideasand sums up the theme as well as reflectingpracticalconcernssuch as the season and the target customer.As the board is built up, combining inspirationalitemswith picturesfrom magazines and informationabout upcoming styles, creativethemes are marriedwith current fashion trends. Inthis way, mood boards provideafocus for a creativeyet commercialdesign solution. The very act of deciding which imagesto include will help a designer narrowdown and develop his or her ideas.As key ideas become prioritized,a clear thought process evolvesand the job of producing .: designsthen becomes much simpler.The finished -' mood board shouldtell its own distinct story-being disciplined about creatingonly one board per project keepscreative efforts focused. A Classicalinspiration The classicaltheme of these boards has been inspired by the textures and forms of sculpture.A muted color palette,derived from the colors of marble. helpsto evoke a timelessand restrainedmood. 4 Seaside nostalgia- This board combines the unlikely themesof the seaside andvintage dress (particularlydress associated with travel).The final collectionwas called 'A '20sTrip to the Seaside."
  • 29. 4 Summer colors . A h~gh-summerdecorat~vetheme has i been createdInth~smood board _ through an eclectic mix of colorful images.This selectioncould be I narrowed down further stillto focus on artists,florals, or decorativetilework. P Cohesive color theming Imagesfrom fashion magazinescan sit happilywith researchmaterial. Here,folds of fabrics in shadesof greencreatea common identity. A A feminineapproach Thistonal paletteof colors evokes a stronglyfeminine theme. A Understatedsophistication Brownand neutraltones establisha sophisticated mood.
  • 30. . . . - - - : . . The traditions of India Inthis age of global branding, it can be refreshingto turn to non-Westerncultures in search of inspiration.lndia is a great example of a culture that preservesa strong identity in the modernworld becauseit is still very much connected to itstraditional roots.The wonderfully vibrant colors and intricate shapes of lndia are a marvelous 5 sourceof design ideas,whether drawn from the brilliant shades of the spices and printedfabrics, or ornate gold jewelry, or cloth woven with tiny mirrors,or the patternsI of hennahandtattoos. These colors and shapes have been part of lndian culture for ! . centuries and continueto be preserved by lndian communitiesaroundthe world, so I: i. you should have no problem gatheringyour research. !. By drawing on a sourcethat is strongly traditionalyou ensurethat your materials never date-because thev are not subiect to the whims of fashion.As a design student, you should explore as many cultures as possible; youwill uncover a treasure trove of designs that with only minor adjustmentsof scale or color can produce completelyfresh ideas. This project is a great opportunityto express yourself-so be as flamboyantas you like! Later in the courseyou will be considering issues such as customer profileand budget, so now is the time to explore some wilder flights of design fancy. the project Researchlndian culturefrom as manysources as possible. Gather lndian items,find fabric swatches, take photographs, and makedrawings and collages. Fill twenty pagesof your sketchbook with all sorts of gathered researchas well as your own work. Then start working into these found items, exploringthe colors and shapes you might want to use in your designs. Restrict yourselfto four finalized design drawings. A Moghulstyle The fabulous architecturefound the objective Researchlndian culture to draw on the design ideas of a non-Westernculture. in lndia is an excellent source of creative ideas.The dome of the Taj Mahalmight suggest the full curveof a bodice, whilethe intricateinlaythat covers its marblewallswould create a stunninqeffecttraced in silver- Put an original spin on these ideas. thread on an eveninggown. Achieve an interesting mix of cultural influences in your work. 74 Legendsof the gods I In lndiayou are never far from the Howwell havevou researchedlndian culture? I Hindugods and goddesses, Haveyou matched whose storiesare depicted your research? everywhere-on postersand 1 cards and in countlessfilms and B$ DOyour finished dra ' songs You may be lnsplredby the on the source or are they just derivative? 1 gaudy colors, the kohl-darkened I eyes. or the anclent dress of these typically lnd~anImages I r E . ~ ~ r - ~ ~ C F P F P - t P P - - ~ ~ ~ ~SZP-
  • 31. the process Research lndian culture by visiting museums, libraries, shops, markets, and temples. Talk to people, buy postcards, take photographs, and makewritten as well as sketched notes. Look for mirrored bags, spice samples, religious icons, and makeup designs. Listento lndian music and watch lndian films. Immerse yourself totally inthe research and fill . your sketchbook with cuttings, samples, swatches, and any style paint, crayon, and ink. Try to match colors by mixing paints to achieve the perfect tone. This is harder than you might imagine, so experiment with color combinations. Try different effects, using chalk, transparent paint washes, or crayons applied lightly over dried paint, to achieve the color and texture of your source material. (When matching colors you may Delicategoldjewelry or the intricatepatternsof hennahand- paintingcan betranslatedinto I textiledesign, perhaps using printing,embroidery,or beading. also find it helpful to refer A Street life to the numbered Pantone , Heapsof fresh producefor sale Inastreet market may lnsprreyou color chips. See page to try to matchthe glowrngtones of eggplant,or perhapsto 104for more details.) rncorporatethe shape of a corrander leaf rntoyour deslgns directions you may wish I Finally, complete four to follow. / fashion drawings inspired V Fillyour scrapbook Once you havesome , by your research. Try to Visiting a museu Organrzeyour researchby makrngyour sketchbookIntoa ideas, start working Into ' give them an overall look, Mood boards, p. scrapbook andfrllrng rtwrth as muchcolorful,stlmulatlng your research as before, perhaps through a materralas you can Gather photographs,textual first highlighting and uniform color scheme or lnformatron,fabrrc samples, Imagesfrom magazrnes,and then manipulating the silhouette theme. any other desrgnreferencesthat rnspireyou, suchas inspiring elements with examples of lndranscrrpts As you arrangeyour research. youwrll begrnto assemblea moodconceptandformulate a color palette
  • 32. Designs inspired by traditional Indiandress might be looseand flowing, or involve the clever use of wrapping and layeringas seen in turbans and saris.The color scheme maywell be boldly vibrant, reflectingthe richtones of the source material. When exploringan ethnic source, it is important to gather as many culturalreferences as possibleso that the sketchbook research and mood inspirationgels intowork that retainsthe distinctivefeel of the subject matterwithout being derivative.Traditional, non-Westerncultures offerthe designer awonderful sourceof fabric, silhouette,and embellishment ideas. However,a successfuldesignwill always put a new spin on these traditionalideas, perhapsmeldingthem in an original way or incorporating contemporaryinfluencesto create an original concept out of an ancient design.The - collection pictured here strongly reflects its culturalstarting pointwhile remaining essentially multiculturalin feel. 32 FINDINGINSPIRATION A b Embellishment The useof found items such as leaves,flowers, and beads collaged onto the imagesgives an evocative textured feel to these illustrations, A b Fusionfashion This strikingcollectiontakesthe textures and colors of Indiainto a newcontext,transformingthe originaltheme intoanotherconcept altogether.The rich, patterned fabrics and swirlingskirts clearly reflect the Indiansource,and the Western-style low-cut bodice contributesto the modern feel of the design.
  • 33. A A free-spirited collection The illustrateddesignswere finally made up into finished garments (with some changesto the color palette) and photographed. Care was taken inthe styling of the shoot to give the collection a flowing,free-spiritedfeel: a fashion photograph does not haveto betoo representational,but it should conveythe spirit of the designer's vision.
  • 34. Fine art and graphics An importantareafor the fashion student to explore is print design, and one of the best sources of inspirationfor this is the world of fine art.A print designer should be ableto imitatethe structure and style of a painting, and keeptrue to its color palette. Twentieth-century modernistpainting provides especially rich material, as the fresh brushwork and bright colors lendthemselves very well to print designs. painters favored by textile designersinclude Dufy (whowas himselfalso a print designer), Mondrian, Kandinsky,Mir6, Matisse, and Picasso. An alternativesource is public domain graphic ,; material.This is easily accessibleas, for example, .' books or as clip-art images,available free throughthe Internet.Great results can be achieved by adapting and coloringthese illustrations. There are no rules about which motifscan be best repeated-in fashion print anj~thinggoes! However,if designing a printfor a specific garment,you needto considerthe cut of the fabric. Printsfollowthe fabric's grain,so cutting fabric on the bias (diagonallyto the grain) will reorientthe print.Also, a "one-way"print, where motifs are aligned in one direction, has less cutting flexibilitythan an "all-ways"print. the project Choose either fine art or graphic materialas your source. Forthe first approach, try to imitatethe style of a painting that you like and design five textile print patterns.Forthe second, reworkyour source materialby photocopying, enlarging, and adding marksto createa squaredesign for a headscarf. Try at least three colorways (i.e. makethree versionsof the design in different combinations of colors). the objective Observe in detail the source material, noting colors, brushstrokes,andtextures. Experimentwith scale and coordination. * If you choosethe scarf option, discover how a change of colorway can alter the dynamic of a design. the process Ifyou decide to design the print patterns, researchsome postcards of paintingsthat you think may besuitableto convert into a repeatable print idea. Chooseone picture, and observeits various sections and details.Then design at leastfive prints. Try to work in the style of the artist, taking care to usethe same density of color and similar handling of paint or crayon. Itcan be interestingto experiment with differentscales of shape and alsoto make 4 Creatingart from art The strong shapes and colors in the work of painterssuch as Mondrianlend themselves very readilyto print design. Here,key aspects of the original painting were abstractedto achievea design that refers recognizably to its sourceyet is itselfa unique and beautifulcreation. Investigating architecture,p. 20 I two or more designs coordinate (becausethe designs comefrom the samesource, there is a good chancethat they will coordinate automatically).Try designing both "one- way" and "all-ways" prints. You will be pleasantlysurprised at low many great print ~deascan come from just one painting. Forthe scarf project, select your graphics and make creativeuse of a photocopier.You can blow imagesright up so that the edges begin to fragment, giving an interestingtexture. Then iyou makethe painting or graphic your own by using it in an unexpectedway? Didyou experimentwith scale and coordination? - Are your colorways balanced?
  • 35. cut out shapes and arrangethem in several ways, differingthe scale. These images can be juxtaposed withfine lines or other markings.Also experimentwith color combinations.When you are satisfied, commit yourself to a design. Stick downthe black-and-white images, and photocopy them severaltimes to work on your chosen colorways.You can then work into the designs with paint, crayon, and ink. It is often best not to usetoo manycolors; by restrictingyourself you simplify the processof balancing colors.You will see that makingdifferent colorwaysof the same design can achievevery diverse results. 4 Buildinga design These illustrations demonstratea progression from graphic materialto rough printdesign, The motifswere selectedand sketcheswere madeto test the design and the color scheme.The motifswere 1 then arranged inthe chosen design,which was photocopied to allowfor the use of differentcolorways.
  • 36. The lines, shapes,and patternsof existingworks of art and graphics can provide great inspirationfor fashion designers.There isn't a painting in the world that couldn't be made to yield ten print designs,and the potentialfor manipulatinggraphic material is endless.The key to success in the first part of the project-using fine art to create print design-is to observe the works in great detail and imitate closelythe style and techniquesof the painter.Intheir bold geometric lines,the print patterns shown here have a clearly recognizablesource in paintings by Dufy and Mondrian, while being at the same time original designs. The different colorways of the scarf designs demonstratehow dramatically a new color palette changesthe look of a piece. It is often best not to usetoo many colors; restrictingthe color palette simplifiesthe processof balancingcolors and makes it easier to achieve a strong statement. 4 t Repeating the motifs Here,thework of Dufyand Mondrianhas been usedto createa collectionof print designs.Just by taking one small p e t of a paintingand replicatingit aroundthe page, a familiar artworkcan be reinterpretedintoa
  • 37. I A Differentcolorways The scarf printswere made in different combinations of colors, demonstrating how much a simple alteration in coloring can change the I lookof a design. A An integrateddesign The finalscarf print has been slightlyalteredin minordetailsbut still reflects clearly itsjourney from individualgraphic motifsto integrateddesign.The individualcomponents have beenblown up or reduced in scale, using a photocopier,to produce an interesting divergencein line strength.
  • 38. One simple way to see something in a fresh light is to experiment with its scale. If a small part of a commonplace object is blown up to a much larger scale, it will appear new and instead of being boring and familiar might becomethe source of creative ideas. It is this sort of in-depth consideration of a source that puts an individual stamp on your work. IA Take a closer look The most insignificant p items canprovoke ideas-perhaps an - interestingseam detail could bebasedon theway thesecogsfit together. By describing the details of an imageor object in a much largerscale-through drawing, photography,embroidery, or using a photocopier-you will havealready startedthe creative process.When experimentingwith scale inthis way, it is usefulto try to abstract the elementsthat most interestyou, instead of aiming simply to create a realistic representationof your topic. For example, a close-upof insectwings may inspireyou to createsome original color combinations or scale-likepatterns.Letyour series of drawings or photographsevolve to becomeincreasingly abstract.This process of selection and developmentis important-you are on your way to creating a uniquedesign solution inspired by your research. Ask yourselfwhy you are attractedto the imagesyou havechosen:what is it about pebbles or snowflakesthat interestsyou?The A b Unexpected beauty Some man-madeobjects are extremelybeautifulwhen seen upclose.This circuit boardmightinspireideasfor beadingor textured knitwear. 4 Inspired by science 1 1 Scientificbooks and magazinesare agood source of ideas.Inclose-upimages, colorsare distortedand unexpecteddetailsmay be revealed.Imaginehowthis iridescentwing could be translatedintosheerfabric.
  • 39. 1 4 A Natural answerwill point your developmentsin the rightdirection;this is what you should try to captureas you abstract out the important elementsof your research. Inthis way, somethingas ordinary as paint peelingfrom a wall will becomea wonderful mineof ideasfor layersof textureand color-and you will start I to seethat wallthrough the eyes of a designer. wonder Natureis an endless sourceof shapes and patterns.The intricate folds of a red cabbage might inspirepleatsof chiffon,frills,or ruffles. 4 Inspiration underfoot Smooth black pebbles could be investigated individually,interms of their subtletexture and flecks of contrasting colors, or seen as a L arour, of similarly A Layers of possibility Repetitiveman-made 'IIn the grain patternscan inspireprint Wood grain providesanotherexampleof nature's designs; looka littlecloser ability to generatebeautifuland uniquepatterns. and layersof rust or Here,the weather has also played its part by discolorationmay evoke causing interestingcracks,which might be evoked ideas aboutfabric layering. in a design through printing,pleating, or gathering.
  • 40. Designing fabric ideas V Rapid research Photographyisagreatway to quicklygather useful research.Usingablack-and-whitefilmwill help focusyour mindon texture andlinear pattern, . whereas color photographycan provideyouwith a good startingpointfor your color palette. The close examlnatlon of the surface detallof your source of lnsplrationcan stimulate excltlng ~deas about textures and colors,whlch will influenceyour cho~ceof fabrlcs Insteadof relylngon fabr~csthat you can buy,you mlght dec~dethat you want to deslgnyour owntextiles, using methods such as embroidery, dyelng, knitting, or printing These or~glnaltext~lescan then be ~ncorporatedIntotruly uniquegarment deslgns As a general rule,when you let your ornate textlle Ideastake the lead,your garment des~gns should become slmpler to let the beautyof the fabrlc be seen and appreciated the project Choosea theme that allows the examination of detail and would be suitableto inspire interestingtextile ideas. Exploreyour conceptthrough drawings or photography. Usea mood board to helpyou select a color paletteand finalizeyour fabric ideas. Choosethe strongesttextile the process concepts and let them inspire some simple fashion Choosea promising designsthat display the fabric ideas in their best light. theme to research; an old graveyard, for example, offers many interesting the objective texturaldetails such as Selectan appropriate starting pointfor carvedstonework, rusty textile development. railings,and layered photographs, scanning -, view your subject as an will helpyou focus on Expandyour ideas about creatingdifferentfabrics. leaves. Photographyis a imagesinto a computer shapesand textures. Assess your strongestfabric conceptsto inspireyour good way to gather and using software Consider howyour rough fashion designs. researchquickly. You can researchthemeswould Photoshopto manipulate betranslated onto fabric. SELF-CRITIQUE overallscene or in close- scale and color. You can embellishfabrics Was your chosensource of inspirationsufficient1 up, and the very act of Grouptogether your through methodssuch detailed to inspiretextile ideas? looking through the color photographs and as cutting, bleaching, Haveyou expandedfrom the original starting point to viewfinderwill giveyou a createcolor palettesby painting, dyeing, printing, createuniquetextile designs? fresh perspectiveon the selecting the important beading,or applique. You Have YOU usedthe strongest t .---.. ...,- ~ r source. Then make shadesand identifying could even design an ih garment designs? further sketcheseither on ideafor an entirely new Isthere a good balancebetweenthe fashion and site or later inthe studio, combinations (see page textile, generatedthrough textile elements of your designs? using the photographs 104). Alternatively, knitting, for example. Use as reference.You can limiting yourself to black- a mood board as a focus, =-------=-- also digitally edit the and-whitephotography gathering any trims,
  • 41. A Creating a theme Compilinga mood board will enableyouto combine imagesfromyour research materialwith fashion ideas. All the selectedmaterial shouldwork togetherto createa commontheme or "mood." beads, ribbons, or print effects that you may wish to use. Finally, sketch some fashion designs that show off your textile ideas to best advantage. Remember that an intricate fabric is often best shown in a simple garment shape. A Simplicity in design Simplify imagessuch as representations of overlappingleavesdown to repetitive patternsthat can be used ina decorative way. These printswere inspiredby art nouveau examples of leaf designs. 4 A Trying out ideas Startto sketchyour rough garment ~deaslncorporatlng fabrlc ~deasthat reflectthe shapesand patternsof your researchmaterial Try placlng the fabrlc concepts on a flgure In different scales and proportions Mood:board~,~p.'26' embroidery, p.44 Structuringfabric,
  • 42. Developing a fabric concept in conjunctionwith a garment design allows for total I controlof the creative process-giving a designer the opportunityto produce a ! truly original collectionthat reflectsthe researchmaterial in a uniqueway. To give , I designsa strong overall look,the inspirationof the sourceshould be shown in differentways. For example, it is not just the surfacetreatment of the fabrics that u ; strongly reflectsthe theme inthe garments illustratedhere-even the poses of the figures are reminiscent of the graveyard source, Here,the simplefashion shapes are a suitable vehicle for displayingthe fabric ideas.When designersinvest a great deal of effort into creatinga beautifulfabric, they tend to keepoutlines as simple as possible.An elaboratesilhouette combined with a complextextile can leadto a confused overalleffect.Conversely,the illustrationof the textile should not be so over-the-topthat it detractsfrom the silhouette.For clarity, garment designs can always be presentedaccompanied by fabric swatches or separatetextlle illustrations A Devore design W l to burnthe design intothis store-purchasedsilkvelvet. 7
  • 43. a~ Starting with embroidery The previous unit demonstratesthat fashion design can be driven by fabric development.Inthe same way, embroiderycan be used as the starting pointfor a garment idea.You can draw on paintingsfor patterns and shapes to develop intoembroiderydesigns.The artist Gustav Klimt,for example, used intricateandI ~ ornate patterns,and hiswork would be an ideal startingpointfor this exercise.You may haveyour own preference,but be sureto choose a source that containssufficient decorativeinformationto inspireyou i throughoutyour investigations.Lookfor shapes and patterns that can be simplifiedand adapted to your own design ends. As you incorporateyour embroideryideas into garment designs,take your lead from the pages of 1 your fashion magazines,The size. amount.and placementof embroideryused by designerstends to I I vary as fashion changesthroughthe seasons. the project Select a work of art that you find inspiring. Explorethe patterns,colors, and shapes of the chosen piece, using painting,drawing, photography,gatheredresearch, scrapbook ideas, and fashion magazinecuttings. As you work, gradually isolatesimple patternsand shapes that are easily interpretedinto embroidery ideas, and use these to inspire some rough fashion designs. 4 Patternand rhythm Chooseworks that show astrong sense of patternandrhythm, like this painting by Gustav Klimt.The swirlingshapesare idealto translate intoapowerfulembroidereddesign. 4 A Widening your investigations Originalphotographycanbe combinedwith researchfrom , magazinesto suppot?your observationsof an artist'swork. ' Useasketchbookto abstract out simplepatternsfrom your photographs.Inthis case,the I wrought-ironrailings providea strongdecorativetheme. -. the objective Select a suitable starting point for embroiderydevelopment. Combinetextile and garment design by using intricate ornamentationin a fashion context. I Selectyour ideas inspire i ' Was vour chosen source of insairation suitablv detailedfor the develoamento .".. your fashion designs. - -fn;3;*e2*;Ts& .*.*."L - - = - embroidery as well as fashion ideas? $1aL4aLUljlii;~~&q&gisf~%~ Did you let your decorativeconcept takethe lead in the garment des~gn, intricateornamentationwith simple design? HWC?you taken- the strongest id$,a~hr~ughto rough sketch sta -- -*- I
  • 44. the process Beginby looking at a numberof your chosen artist's works, but stay focusedby editing down the starting points. As always, thejourney of selectionis vitalto the designprocess. You mightwish to combine gathered researchwith photographsof your own that capturea similar seriesof shapes and patterns.This kind of primaryresearch adds to the originality of your design solutions-but keepit simple. Drawor paintyour own interpretationsof the work, evolvingthese into simplifiedand abstracted patterns and shapes. Still workingthrough your ideason paper, use collageand machine embroideryto begin evolving decorative ideas. Echothe shapes and patternsthat you have observed. These piecesare drawings in themselves-done with a sewing machinerather than a pen! Begin by using the colors of your source material, but feel free to move away into your own palette.Changingcolors can be a productiveway to give a newtwist to a familiar pattern. ' Nowwork your "mbroidery ideas into some rough garment designs. Rememberthat a simple garment shape will show off embroidery to best effect. Pockets, collars, necklines,hems, and cuffs can all be good placesto site decoration, or you might want to be bolder and place a design within the front Ir back bodice or on a leeve. Decorationcan Je usedonce or repeated a number of times over the garment, in a random 1 or engineeredpattern. ' V this stageyou should ~lsoreconsideryour f choice of colors and 1 makethe palette appropriateto your target 1 customer (see page 94). Selectyour strongest jeas to pull together as hefinal fashion designs. 4 V Isolatingshapes Drawingor paintingyour own interpretationsof an artist'sworkwill encourage youto examine your source materialclosely. Useyour sketchbookto establishsimplifiedrepetitive patterns,derived fromyour startingpoint. C' P ~ W I OVisiting .iseum, Fineart and graphics, p. A Drawingwith a sewing machine A sewlng mach~necan becomea toolfor Idraw~ngHere colored paper has been usedto experiment w~thcomb~nat~onsof colorsand shapes - --
  • 45. Embroideryideas can betranslateddirectly onto fabric and usedwith fashion designs as appropriate,or they can be developedfurther as print ideas or texturesfor knittedstitches. It is possibleto combine a number of thesetechniques,embroidering intoa print idea or printing over a knit,for example. It might bethat a collectioncontainssome garments that are printedwhereas others are knittedor embroidered-but they should all reflect,even if only distantly,the essential elements of the initial research. The four final garment designs illustratedhere have evolved a longway from the initial starting point, and referencesto Klimt have become subtle.The finished collection has beenshaped by the designer's own sense of style and reflects the sourcewithout being overwhelmed by it. 4 Beversatile 4 A rnemed outline A set of simple patternscan The curvesand swirls of the be used in manydifferent source material are reflected ways. For example, inthe silhouettesof the embroideryideas can be garmentsas well as intheir echoed in knittedstructures embroidereddecoration. or print designs.
  • 46. V Communicating clearly By showing the decorativedetail separately fromthe garment itself,these four final illustrations can make a strong statement about both. Some of the embroideryideas have beendevelopedfurther into knitted textures.These designs have moved away from the originalsource to become strong concepts intheir own right. 4 'IUsing a template Life-sizepapertemplates of these garmentswere used to finalize the placementof decoration.The embroidery designswere drawnstraight ontothe template. STARTING
  • 47. ILLUSTRATING FASHION Nowthat you have developedsome great design ideas, it'stime to look more closely at the techniques of fashion illustration.This chapter discusses creating figures, whether through an easy paper-foldingmethod or by drawingfrom life, as well as exploring the wide range of mediathat you can use in illustratingdesigns and looking at howto lay out your page effectively.Throughoutthis part of the course, you will learnto observe carefully and to representwhat you see in a bold and individualway.
  • 48. Upper Chest arm Pelvic area 0 0 Joints uThigh As a fashion designer you should always rememberthat clothes are madeto beworn by real people.It is important,therefore,to gain some understandingof the structure and proportionsof the human body. The exercise in figure drawing described in There are obvious differencesinthe Unit8 will introduce you to a simple and easy male and female forms, such as narrower system that you can useto draw figures that waists and wider hips for females and are roughly in proportion. The exercise has squarer chests and faces for men. However, nothingto do with creativity but will helpyou these variationsshould be incorporatedonce grasp the possibilities and restrictions of the ' the basics have been sketched. Maleand framework on which your creationswill hang. female bodies can both be broken down into A Vitruvian Man LeonardodaVinci is renownedfor his realistic representationsof the human body.He drewthis illustration of a preciselyproportioned figureto accompany his notes on Vitruvius.This architect wrote in Romantimes that the human body is the ideal architecturalmodel because it fits, with arms and legs extended,intothe perfect forms of both the square and half heads . The heightof a realistic human figurefrom crownto toe is aroundseven-and-a-halftimes the heightof the head. For fashion purposes,this can be stretched (belowthe waist only) to eight-and-a-halfhead sizes.
  • 49. I F ~simple block shapes. The head can frayed as an egg; the chest as a laper basket; the pelvic area as a wide isticvaulting horse; the limbs astapering --.,thefeet and hands as cones; and the b a sballs. Onceyou havedrawnthese Pbsinthe relativesizes shown (opposite), ~traighffowardfront view, you can move t fiaroundlike parts of awooden drawing qmyto createthe poseyou want. A b Exploring movement A wooden artist's dummy can helpyou analyzemovement. There is a convention infashion illustration When you come to draw from life, a grasp of that afigure should be elongatedto give it these principles will helpyou enormously in moreelegance. However,that elongation understandingthe mechanicsof the figure in should involveonly the legs. A real-lifebody front of you. It is always good to rememberthat will measure around seven-and-a-half-head these "rules" are just conventions,but by sizes; in fashionthis increasesto eight-and-a- gaining a basic understandingof the structure half heads, with the extralength added below and proportions of the human body you will be the waist. All the other proportions of the basic better placedto breakthe rules later. block shapesshould be basedon reality. A b Free illustration A drawing based on an awareness of correct body proportionscan still be free in execution andwill stillallow you to experiment with the presentationof the garments.
  • 50. An exercise in figure drawing If you are inexperiencedin drawingfigures, usingthis easy methodcan add to the confidenceof your illustrations by ensuringthat your figuresare roughlyin proportionand all drawnto the same scale.The simple shapes and proportionsof the method ensurethat the figuresare easy to draw and look correct. Furthermore, by grasping howthese basic shapes fit togetherto form a humanfigure,your drawingswill become better anchoredon the page and the poses more convincing. Forthe sake of this exercise,the body,brokeninto its component Parts,remainsunclothed. After You haveCompletedthe task,you should keep the drawings as a reference,YOU can always come backto this book, but nothing stays inthe memory better than something learnedby actually doing ityourself. the project Using a simple paper-folding method,divide your pageto makea Proportional blueprintof the humanfigure. Then draw inthe basic block shapesthat representdifferent Partsof the body to make an easy-referencetool for use when You create fashion drawings inthe future. the process The humanbody is remarkablyconsistent in the way it divides up into sections. Makea mark the objective just below the top of a pageof paper (11 x Gain a framework to strengthenthe more creative 14 in.). Then draw a aspects of your work. straight plumb line down Practicedrawing an elongatedfigure to use in the page, leavingabout fashion illustration. an inch atthe bottom, and markthe end of the line. old your page at the halfway point between the top and bottom marks. Foldthe page again, finding the halfway point on the plumb line as before,and then fashion designs inthe future? 1 repeat once more. Flatten out the sheet, and you can nowfill in your ION . 0 4 The folded- paper method Onceyouhavefolded your page,markingthe w creases as described below,youcanbegin to sketchinthe standardbody shapes to achieveacorrectly proportionedfigure. proportional blueprint of the humanfigure. Fromthe top markto the nextfold draw your egg-shapedhead. Divide the line betweenthis fold and the next, and mark acrossthe plumb line. This markforms the base of the neck and the shoulders.The nextfold indicatesthe middle pointpf the rib cage. One fold down is the navel, followed by the crotch on fold four. Ignorefold five. Onfold six mark your ball-shapedkneecap, and ignore fold seven. At the levelof the bottom mark, fill inthe anklewith anotherball shape. The gap left at the bottom of the page is for the cone- shapedfoot, which will protrude by about half the distanceof the spaces betweenthe folds. You now have an eight-and-a-half-heads fashion figure that you can useas a basisfor I your designs. Ifyou wish to elongatethe figure further (some designers work to a nine- or even ten-heads measurement) rememberthat extra length should be added only belowthe knee. Usingthe block shapes, you canthen draw inthe remaining body parts to fill out the figure. Draw
  • 51. 4 Usingthe framework Us~ngthe "e~ghtand a half heads" proportions as a rough framework for your ~llustrat~onsw~llsupport even the most "- styl~zedrepresentation of a f~gure the chestfrom the neck basethrough fold two andthree-quartersof the way down to fold three. Drawthe pelvic box up from fold four, extending three-quartersof the way to fold three. When you add the limbs, remember thatthe upper arm is shorter thanthe lower. The elbow,with arms hanging, is just above navel level; the wrist is just belowthe crotch. Drawingfrom I life, p. 58 I A Manipulatingthe basicforms This sequenceof drawrngsshows how scr~bbles The bas~cformsremalnIn proportion, but have made uslngthe folded-paper method can be been manipulated, the lhmbs rotatedto createa worked up ~ntosketchesfor a f~nal~llustrat~on sense of life and movement AN EXERCISE I
  • 52. Althoughit is essentialfor a fashion designer to strive to breaknew ground and sometimes disregard conventions,it is neverthelessalso usefulto be grounded in a few basic design principles.It is importantfor designers always to keep in mind the fact that,whateverflights of fancy they may be exploring,their garmentswill eventuallyhaveto fit on a humanbody. Infashion illustrationit is usualto stretch the legs a little,but all other body parts shouldconformto their real proportions.This simplefolded-paper system achieves a patternfor a fashionably elongated but correctly proportionedfigure that can then be used as a foundationfor illustrations such as those pictured here. It is always possibleto breakcompletely with convention,but a student should start I with a framework to support the free - ideasthat mightfollow. It is only - once the basic principleshave been Babsorbed that a designer can enjoy true artistic freedom. 4 A Hidden structure These figures haveall been created usingthe folded- paper method, butthe nuts and bolts of the construction are hidden under afree-and- easy representationof the garments.A stylized depiction of garmentsis morelikelyto be successful ifthe viewer can accept the underlyingfigure as realistic.
  • 53. Experimentswith media One of the most important aspects of design drawing is the ability to "loosen up."Often a budding designer will freeze up over an important drawing, whether it'sfor presentation, publication, or just to show to someone else. Spontaneity is lost and any freedom that existed in the private sketchbook suddenly becomes rigid and dull. We can all be a bit uptight about our work; One of the best exercises for practicing let's face it, fashion is known as a somewhat boldness is to allow yourself a very short time uptight industry. However, a bold, flamboyant to complete each illustration. Limityourself illustration is more likelyto sell your concept to quick sketches, and try out as many than an overworkedand nervousone, so you approachesas you can. Perhapswork on a needto havethe courage of your convictions. larger sheet of paperthan usual.Try different crayonsand paints; if by natureyou prefer a thin, hard pencil,force yourself to use bright colors applied with a wet, broad brush. Even if you returnto your usual methodsafter the exercise, the experienceof exploring different mediawill giveyour illustrations an extrazest. A Varying the effect -heseillustrationshaveall been drawnto the proportions described in Unit 8. Noticethe variety of effects achievedby using differentmedia, such as oil pastel,felt-tip pen, gouache, and pen. Experimentingwith different techniques is essential to improvingyour abilityto illustrateyour designs. i ILLUSTRATING F/
  • 54. Many of these experimentalattemptsare destinedfor the wastepaper basket, but don't worry. Thereare so manyways of putting your ideason paper: pen and ink, watercolor, oil pastel, conte, felt-tip pen, charcoal, poster paint, and soft pencil. These mediacan even beaccompaniedby colored paper and tissue, foundtextures, or cuttings from newspapers and magazinescollaged onto the drawing. Onefun exercise is to quickly sketch a friend, or even your own reflectionin the mirror, resistingyour naturalinstinct to look at the page. Try drawing in a continuous line,without taking your hand off the paper. The results might be rather bizarre, but this is a good way to practiceobserving your subject, and expressing what you see, without worrying about howthe whole picture is developing. You can also experiment with making doodlesand scribbles. Thesetoo will achieve afreedom in mark-makingthat will be lacking if you aretoo concernedwith the final outcome of the picture. Thesescribbles and sketches should be private. Itis herethat you can dare to fail. Infact, you will not haveachieved anything if all these experimentswork, becauseyou will not havetested yourself beyondthe boundariesof your ability. It is only by going that bit further that you can makean excitLng breakthrough. If you are really brave,you will keepthe failed drawingsas a reminder of your creative journey (just remember not to include them in your presentationportfolio!). Gouacheand watercolorpaints Softpastels 1 Graphite-.. w- Charcoal r Watercolor paints Paint palette
  • 55. Drawingfrom life It cannot be stressedtoo strongly that if you are I designing clothes, however exoticyour sources,you mustalways rememberthat at the end of the day you are designingfor a human body.Practicinglife drawing is therefore a very valuable exercisethat will helpyou observe clearly and assess quicklywhat you see. Using a model meansyou do not haveto invent anything out of thin air.The informationis in front of you-all you needto do is interpret it in your own individualstyle. You may havethe opportunityto draw from life in an art-schoolenvironment, but you can also improviseif you are working at home by askinga friend to pose. There is no needfor your model to befashionably dressed. Normaldaywearwith a few additional accessoriessuch as hats,scarves,boots, or sunglassesis quite sufficient.It is more importantfor the class tutor, or you if you are working at home,to persuadethe model to exaggeratethe poses,and to changethem often.Accentuationadds dramato the drawings,and responding quicklyto the changing poseswill bring spontaneityto your work. the project other students in Spenda day practicing life drawing either in classwith a the roomfires up your enthusiasm professionalmodel, or at home having persuadeda friend and creativity-as to posefor you. If you choosethe privateroute, there ar well as givingyou bound to be some giggles at the outset.That is not a valuable practicein problem-the exercise should befun. Try to achieve figure drawing. fifteen drawings by the end of the session, spending no morethan two to five minuteson each. the obiectiveI Makeover reality in your own style. Improveyour ability to observequickly and well. Achievefreshnessand boldness in illustration by getting the poses down on paper as quickly as possible. B,"pseesIntfhestZng? "^ ' ' ' Capturethe spirit of the garmentswhile representing observationaltechniques? them graphically. ION the process Firstspend a few minutes drawing the pose and the garmentoutlines in what you considerto beyour own style. Be bold. Quickly capturing the pose,you haveto assess the essentialsand get them down on paper very fast. Avoid makingfeeble: sketchy pencil marksthat result in tentative "hairy- lined" outlines. Next, try not to look at your paper, and make a continuous line drawing, without removingthe pencil from the paper. Keepthe poses changing every few minutes. Now you can use some paints, choosing just three or
  • 56. Capturingthe poses Thesefigureswere illustrated duringa life-drawingclass.The limitedtime availableto complete each pose has , resultedinimagesthat capture the essence of the garments andmake a strong statement. ifyou do not havetime to worry about getting outlinesexactly right,you are morelikelyto achieveimagesthat arefluid andfull of lifeand spontaneity. four colors. Apply the color with a broad brush, jotting down the poses with quick brushstrokes. Nowyou can start mixingyour media. Perhapsbegin by representingthe clothes in paint but use crayon or oil pastelto delineate the facial features. Rememberto try to make each drawingfill the whole page and exaggeratethe poses to bring drama to the illustrations.Sometimes it can be productiveto ask the modelto adopt unusualposes, either seated, standing, or draped over a prop (whichyou maywish either to include or leave out in order to make use of the white space left on the page). However, be surethat the pose does % not interferewith the communicationof your ideas. An exerciseinfigure I drawing, p. 52 Learnto lovevou
  • 57. 0ne of the most stimulatingaspects of working with a life model is havingto use every second of the session to best advantage.The challengeof responding quicklyto fast-changing poses brought an urgency and spark to these drawings.A bold commitment can makeany drawingstate its case: these figures were drawnto fill the whole page,with the model'sextremeposes exaggeratedto bring energyto the picture.Unexpectedcolors enlivenwhat might have beena dull subject; a cursory glanceat a magazine provesthat, in fashion images,skin is not always flesh-colored, hair not always natural.The confident use of different media, such as gouache and oil pastel,can also lendvibrancyto a posed subject. It is importantnot to be afraid to make mistakes.Done quickly, some drawings will inevitably not be successful,but the ones that are will retaina freshnessthat is destroyed by overworking an idea. 4 b Exploitingcolor / and medium , These illustrationsuse both 7 color and mediumto good effect.The purple hair and greenishskin harmonizewell , , with the tones usedfor the clothes.The limitedcolor ' palette hasensuredan unclutteredrepresentationof 1the garments. Usingonly pencil and paint applied boldlywith a wet brush,the essenceof each pose has been swiftly identifiedand captured on paper. ION
  • 58. Lessis more Eachpage hasbeenfilledwith an interestingcompositionthat not onlygives a graphic representation of the individualgarmentsbut also suggeststhe spirit of the ensemble. TOO muchattention to detailcan underminecommunicationof the overall designtheme.
  • 59. Exploring collage As a designer it is essentialthat you explore allthe drawingand illustrationtools availableto you. One of the most liberatingtechniques is collage.There are so many ways to use this medium-you can use bold cutouts of colored paper,tonal newsprint,or colors and texturestorn from magazines. An unusualway of working with collage is to take the technique intothe lifeclass. Either by freehand ripping or moredetailedcutting you can represent an illustrationwithout drawingat all.Just as with the life- drawing sessions,working quicklyadds spontaneity to the result.You are forced to make instant decisions to get the idea down on paper beforethe pose changes.This can be testingwhen you haveto find boththe source material and then cut and apply it. Don't go for the obvious choices;you can create an interesting illustrationby using unexpectedblocks or strips of found images (as shown opposite). Collage frees you from the needto use drawing skillswhile at the same time increasingyour visual vocabulary. Using other means of realizingthe model's poseswill open up your drawingto new approaches. Collage-makingmay seem like the type of thing you did in grade school, but that is not surprising,because you were not encumberedin those early days by preconceivedideas.As a designer youwill needto banishthe baggage of ordinary expectation. - 4 Creative collage ,u can cut up magazines, wallpaper or fabric the project Access a pile of old magazineson any subject. Makesure they contain lots of photographsto usefor your own creativepurposes. Either enlist a friend to spend a day as your model, or attend a life class. Make up to five representationsof your live model, using materialtaken from the magazines. Naturallythese will take a little longer than drawn poses,but set yourself a challengingtime limit for each representation. the objective Explorea newway of getting your ideas down on paper by using cuttings as your medium, ratherthan more conventionaltools such as pencil and paint. Freeyourselffrom preconceivedideas of how an image can be usedso that your work will be original and have spontaneity. SELF-CRITIQUE Haveyou filledthe pagewell: Didyou use materialfrom magazines in an inventiveand unexpectedmanner? Doesthe result reflectfresh speed of execution? Didyou resist using a pencil as possible, though you may not wish to include props such as chairs. Us scissors or a craft knife, or just rip the paperto ge your cuttings readyto apply; then pastethem to the page.Try not to spend too long on any individual illustration; instead keepyour work fresh by setting a time limit for completing each piece.Accentuatethe figure on the pageto createa dramaticeffect. Don't betempted to enhancethe pictures with your own freehand drawing and painting. k Duringthis unit you ' should befocused on learningto usethe magazineimagesto best effect. samples, greetingcards, posters, packagrng, L and a hostof the process haveto select, cut, rip, EE ALSO other items. Bring a good-sizedstack ,- and paste paper onto Drawingfrom are, p. 5t of magazinesto the the page! Notjust pencil, p.70 4i Q session. Ask your model Think laterallyas you to fall into an interesting work with your material, page, P. 74 pose-and the more combining unlikely colors uncomfortablethe pose, and textures.Always try the lesstime you will to fill as much of the page
  • 60. 4 b Quick thinking You will haveonly a few mlnutesto cut or rlpthe material, and then glue ~tdown One tlme-savrng and sophlstlcatedoptlon IS to make use of "negat~vespace" (leavlng blank what m~ghtusually be drawn)
  • 61. Exploringdifferent ways to illustrate garments can be liberatingfor a designer. Although putting pen or paintto paper is the obvious approach,the use of collage can produce particularlyintriguing,contemporaryresults. Collage is infact often used infinal design illustrations,but workingwith it inthe spontaneousenvironment of a lifeclass is an especiallyinterestingand challengingtechnique.The needto select, cut, and pastevery quickly in responseto fast-changing poses added freshness and a sense of immediacyto these illustrations.They fill the page and makea statement: the biggerthe image on the pagethe stronger the effect will be. A bold tearing approachworked well in conjunctionwith morecarefully cut outlines.(Ifthe result looks a little rough at the edges,the presentationcan always be improvedlater by feeding itthrough a color photocopier.) working with collage,the designer is continually challengedto think one step ahead.The results, however,are wonderfully unpredictable. 1 "64 ILLUSTRATINGFASHION 4 New approaches This collage enlivensthe subjectwithitsjuxtapositionof unexpectedcolors and patterns. Creating acollage encourages the designerto think more deeplyaboutthe color palette, fabrics, and overallstyleof the garments. 4 Restrictingcolor The restrictedcolorpaletteof these collageillustrations createsafresh, moderneffect. The scrapsof paperwere selectedfrom magazinesfor their interestingtextures and coordinatingtones, andthenton out or cut with a craft knife.
  • 62. 4 Creating an illusion Cuttingsfrom differentsourcescan be collaged togetherto createthe overall effect of a humanfigure wearinggarments. It is not necessaryto represent everypart of afigure to makeit believable: here, "negative" (white) space, used at the ankles of the girl, for example,lendsvitality to the illustrations,
  • 63. Drawing from your wardrobe It is never easy to put that first mark on a blank sheet of paper.A valuable exercise,therefore,for the student of fashion design is to practicedrawing a collectionmade up from garmentsthat already exist, giving an overall lookto a selectionof unrelated items. By choosing piecesfrom your own wardrobe,you are makingsure that you start with clothesthat you like and already coordinateto best effect everytime you go out.You know on which occasionsyou would wear them and therefore havesome ideaof the style of illustrationthat might be appropriate-casual, chic, or glamorous.Sometimesyou needto be very literal in your drawings;at other times you can be more flamboyant.Inthis unit,you will explore howto project not simply the shape and color of the clothes but also the overall image. Boldness is oftenthe best approach-be confident and use your own style in your illustrations. the project select four combinations of garments from your wardrobe that could be loosely described as a collection and combinethem in differentways. Experimentwith various styles of drawing. Finda commontheme to makethe selection look like a coordinated collection. Complete four illustrations of the outfits. V b Planninga range This selectionof tailoredjackets, trousers,and a skirtseemed likelyto workwell together as a collection. Photographthe piecesyou select,cut out the photographs, andthen make some pencilsketchespairing itemstogether. the objective Take a more detailed look at clotheswith which you thought you were familiar. Focusyour mind on differentstyling possibilities and color combinations. Think of the bestways of representingthe fabrics and overall imageof the clothes you are portraying.
  • 64. Hangup the garments or laythem out on the floor. Take photographsand doodlesomefigures on sketchpaperto come up with ideasfor poses. Try out paintsand crayonsto create a color palette that, with some artistic license, represents the actual color of the garments. Next, try to givethe collectionan overall look. Thiscan beachieved byapplyingcommon themesto the series of illustrations. For example, you could draw the Y b Capturingthe colors Havingtested a few color swatches,use crayonsand paintsto practice making representationsof the fabrics used inyour selectionof garments. figuresin similar poses, or representthem all in a minimaliststyle, or make usethroughout of areas of white "negativespace" that omit an outline. Youwant your work to lookfresh so don't betoo uptightaboutthe finished drawings-be bold. Work quicklyandjust keep going if the first attempts are unsuccessful. F Remember the details - These markswere made to test different ways of representingthe hair of the --posed figures. Didyou coordinateth r '4 DidYOU findthe best mediumto representthem? Haveyou usedsimple but effectiveposes? Doesyour collection havean overall look?
  • 65. Illustratingfound garments,ratherthan original ideas, is a very usefulway for a designer to develop observational skills. By lookingclosely at clothesthat seemed familiar,it is possibleto spot previously unnoticedaspects of constructionor embellishment.Whether it is the cut of a neckline or the detail of a fastening,this new observation can be of use in a designer'swork. It is importantto select carefullythe garments to be illustrated,consideringwhich elementswill form the main strengths of the planned collection.This task introduces the processof planninga range (seepage 88).As can be seen from the examples here,the garmentsmay befairly ordinary individualpieces but,when put together in a stylizedway, they form a collectionwith a powerfuloverall image.Oncethe poses have beenworked out and the colorways mixed,the designer needsto decide on the most strikingway to get the imagesdown on paper.This is where it is important to choose a strong style and cohesivetheme that will hold the garmentstogether as a collection. ION V Consistentstylization These sketchedfigures explore stylized aspects, such as horizontallyextendedhair and an outstretchedarm,that will be applied to the whole series of illustrations. b Minimalist theme These minimalist representations focus attentionon the silhouetteand color palette. This consistent approach. along with the other uniformly applied stylizationdetails, ensures that a group of unrelated garmentsis given the feel of a planned collection.
  • 66. A Reading between the lines These images make bold useof "negativespace," leavingsome white areas untouchedso that the invisiblelinescan be read. The picturesare clear without beingobvious and are more interestingas a reqult. 'IMaking a wave Extendedhair is an unusual theme common to allthe figures. A A sense of unity Repeatingposes, such as plac~ng the figureswith hand on hip or left arm extended,givesthe series of drawingsa sense of unity. DRAWING FROM . .-
  • 67. Not just pencil the process Fromthe vast range of inspirationtoward which you were directed earlier in this book, select a theme on which to base your collection. Try out your chosen colors together to makesure they are a good combination. Next, quickly test some ideas by first drawingwith oil pastels, then washing over the markswith watery but full-colored paint. The oil pastelwill resistthe paint and create interesting contrasts. Then lay out four sheetsof paper (20x 30 in.) in front of you. Using pencil, and covering as much of the page as possible, confidently drawthe outlines of your designs. Now methodically apply the oil pastels, color by color to all the drawings simultaneously. Keep your nerve! Finally, usethe paint, applying one color at atime to all the illustrations. When one usesthe term "drawing,"the most obvious tool that springsto mind is a pencil,with all itsvarious grades from hard to an almost creamy softness.However,as you haveseen in Unit 10,you can "draw" evenwith paper torn from a magazine. When you useyour imagination,there is no limit to the materialsyou can employ to achieve the lookyou want. Slow-dryingpaints,such as oils, are not really suitable for use in fashion illustration,but there @"- is a wide rangeof other mediato choose from, including colored felt pens,water- based paints,crayons,or a mixtureof several of these. In recentyears,the mouse on a personalcomputer has to some designers become equal in importanceto the penciland brush.Some materials may suit your way of working betterthan others,but untilyou havetried a large selection,you will never know. Experimentingwith newways of working is very stimulatingand also enjoyable.It is worth repeatingthat it is never a crimeto try and fail. It is understandableto want to have pride in your work, but youwill produce only mediocreideas if you always play it safe. the objective Experimentwith using mixed mediato open up new approachesto a design. Explorethe ideathat a collection of drawingswill makea better presentationif atheme is strongly and consistently illustrated. Createa cohesivelook by applying colors t, simultaneouslyto all illustrations insteadof completing one picture at atime. . the project Usingsome of the more easily availablematerials,such as gouachepaint and oil pastels (water-basedacrylics and crayonsdo not work for this project),select a restricted rangeof colors: perhapsthree pastelsand three paints.Designa collection of four costumeswith a theme and distinct color look. Ensurethe final drawings makea bold statement about your concept. Didyou choose colors that work well together? "" ( ere your final illustrations bold? dthey havea cohesivelook portray~ngtne essence your designs? Was full use made of your different materials?
  • 68. A Mixingyour media The colors andthemes of these roughs were adjusted for the final designs (see pages 72-73), but the technique used was the same. Here,yellow oil pastel was applied to allfour drawings, followed by white, and then pink.Then I roughs,p. 84 I I Planninga range. p. 88 Ipaintwas added, one color at a time. JST PENCIL 71
  • 69. t I xperimenting with applying and mixing different media can achieve stunning I Eresults Unusual combinationsof techniques lend a freshness and originality to I fashion illustrationsthat really makesthem stand out from the crowd.As seen inthe designs pictured here,a strikingeffect can be achieved by using oil pastelas a starting point and then adding awatercolor wash over the pastels,exploitingthe cravons' propertiesof resistance.By choosing the color palettebeforethe design is II. . committedto paper,and then applyingthe colors step-by-steponto the whole series of designs at once, a designer can ensure that the common concept comes through stronglyover a whole series of illustrations.Working inthis way, all the pictureswill 1I- - come to completion at the same time and a powerfuloverall lookwill emerge. 4 A b Vibrant colors Inthesefinal illustrations,the initial color ideashavebeen rejectedfor a moresubtle mix of understatedtones.The resistantqualities of the oil pastels have beenusedto createa paint-freeaura around eachfigure, highlightingthe wash of the water paint and makingeven muted,subtle colors lookvibrant.
  • 70. 4 V A Unifyingfeatures The group of drawings hasbeen givencohesionthroughthe use of well-delineatedfigures, eachwith an aura, aswell as through the consistencyof the colorwayandthe uniformmedium-level applicationof the media. A Fantasytheme The four illustrationspicturedaboveform a strong collection unifiedby the theme of the fairy tale. Eachpage is filledwith design ideasthat expressthe costumefeel of the collection.
  • 71. Laying out your page A designer is inthe business of visual communication,whether the informationis presentedpurely ~ictoriallvor with the addition of words. The pages of this book have been designed to impart the informationof text and illustrationwith maximumclarity and visual impact.That iswhat you should ar to in any work that is to sellyour ideas successfully to the client. Whenstudents start out illustratingdesigns, they tendto be a littletentative about attacking the dauntingblank page infront of them.The resultcan often bea small, faint drawinginthe corner of the page or, only marginally better, inthe center surroundedbyvast areas of white paper. It is importantthat your drawingsreflectthe spirit of the subject. If,for example, you are illustratingsomethinginherently bold, such as " a Hawaiianbeachshirt collection,the drawings must beequallybold. It is alwaysworth making rough sketchesto planyour page and ensure that the informationyou aretrying to portrayis foremost. For example, drawingan elongated figurewith long legswhen the point of interest is a shirtwastesvaluablepage spaceto tell your real story-the wild print of the shirt. It isworthwhilerememberingthat you don't want your pageto be cluttered. Mostof the areashould befilled but notwithtoo much information; the phrase"less is more" is very often appropriatehere. It is the main m that you aretrying to put across; remer minimalistexamplesin Unit 11, Drawin your wardrobe. It cansometimes helpto prepareth with a color wash or areas of colored F give atexturefrom whichto work up yc image.Another techniqueto ensurey( page isto think outside its edges.You this by layingthe sheet of paperyou a 4 Don't cramp your style Fillyour pageboldly by laying it over a larger sheet and drawingover the edges, or by startingwith avery largepage andcroppingit laterso as to achievethe best composition.
  • 72. working with onto a larger sheet and then drawing over the edges. This will allow you to avoidthe trap of cramping your style as you approachthe edge of the page.The same effect can be achieved by starting on a sheet of paper largerthan you intendto display, completingyour illustration,andthen cropping it bravelyto producethe best composition. When planninga page it is usually bestto start at the top and roughly plot where you want the head (or evenjust half the head) to be, then work down the figure. You must also be constantlyaware of the side margins.The magicword to strive for in page layout is , "balance." That doesn't meanuniform 4 Balanced stance P I : -. 1 Thlsfeet-apartpose frlls the page Ina sat~sfylng way, the extendedleft hand echolngthe posltlon L. of the r~ghtfoot s y ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e t r y ,just an innatefeel that the picture is well composed and at the sametime tells the mainstory of the garment. Infashion illustration you will mainly be working in "portrait" format, in which the sheet is positioned with its longer edges at the sides and shorter edges at the top and bottom (as opposed to "landscape" format, in which the longer edges are at the top and bottom). However,this is not a hardand fast rule. As you see, this book is in a squareformat, which produces a landscapespread across two pages. rial run 1. ... -good ideato experiment with different page layoutsbefore committing yourself to the final design. '(I Doublevision Using morethan one figure inthe same illustrationcan strengthen the impact of the garment-but be careful not to loseyour focus
  • 73. Illustrating bold print It is just as skillfulto be able to illustratethe work of other designers as to portrayyour own.This is the job of the fashion artist as opposed to the designer- althoughfashion illustratorswill, of course, bring their own design skillsto the interpretationof the garments they have beencommissioned to depict. As a fashion designer, however,it is also essentialfor you to be able to communicateyour ideaseffectively on paper. In order to do this you needto havethe skills and objectivity of an illustrator at your fingertips.A good designer is a good illustrator. Inthis unityou will look at illustratingthe print designs of found garmentsto practicethe process of observingclothes closelyand capturing their story on paper. By doing this, youwill learn howto usethe pageto best effect to make as strong a statement as possible about your own design ideas. Forthis exercise, it is best to illustrate a simple but striking subject, such as a Hawaiianbeach shirt. These garmentsare timeless,andthere will be many examples availablefor you to choose from. the project I Researchimages of Hawaiianbeachshirtsand complete at leastfour boldillustrationsusingany mediumyou think appropriate.Thistheme couldespeciallysuit oil pastel and gouache, or perhapsbright inkswith penand brush. the objective Observecloselythe garmentsto be drawn. Work out ashorthandway of depictingthe print. Findasuitable posethat fills the pageand makesa strong statement aboutthe shirt. A b The mostI unlikely sources 1 Visit a charity store or delve into your friends' wardrobes j to see how many ! sensationalprints vou can unearth. A Surfer's paradise Here is a possible selection of shirts to work with. The brighter the better for this exercise! the process Researchstriking beachshirts bytaking photographsof displays instores or cutting imagesfrom magazines andcatalogs.You will havethe color and design referenceson hand, so this is nota creative exercisebutatest of technical skill in copying color andform faithfully. Try to reproducethe colorsexactlyand exploredifferentways of representingthe motifs. Displayyour illustrations to besteffect in poses that bothfill the pageand highlightthe printthat
  • 74. you are featuring. Draw A b Mix and match preliminaryoutlines in Exploreways of matching colors and motifs.If light pencil; then start using paints,mix them working in the colors, to achieve the bright markingthe head and colors of the clothes. features of the shirt such Your shorthandfor as the sleeves and collar. conveying the motifs could be literal or Completeyour four .! impressionistic, as drawings by adding demonstratedin the details such as hair and a examples here (whichare background, if desired. tryout illustrations of the shirt prints picturedopposite). SELF-CRITIQUE Could you really go to town in illustrating your Iselection of shirts? Howwell haveyou matchedthe colors? Doyour motifs look likethe originals? Isthe scale correct? Didyou choose a suitable medium? I Drawingfrom your wardrobe, p. 66 Notjust pencil, p. 70 Color palettes, p. 104 I
  • 75. b Powerful design Althoughthe rangeof colors used inthis design isfairly broad,the strong shapes of the patternensurethat the representationis not cluttered. The overall effect of the image isvery bold. Boldness is always the best policy in realizing a design drawing. Subtle designs are moredifficultto render becausethe minor nuances can easily be lost.An uncompromising "betweenthe eyes" statement producesthe most striking results, whether it involvesa strong silhouette or vibrant colors, or a combinationof both.The bright patterns of the Hawaiianbeach shirts illustratedhereprovided a great starting pointfor demonstratinghowto represent motifsvibrantly and makebest use of the whole page.The salient aspects of the garmentswere identifiedand captured on paper. Becausethe printsare the focal point of the designs,therewas no needto get too involved in detail relatingto the shape of the garments.The completed illustrations are not reliant on colorways or silhouettesto hold the looktogether but on the consistent and strong page-fillingrealizationof the shirts. Becausethe focal point of the designs isthe print and notthe garment,the innovative decision was madeto drawfrom the back, a point of view often neglectedwhen illustrating
  • 76. A Usingafuller figure Another interestinginnovationmade was to modelthe shirtson afuller figure.This isthe body shapethat will best show off the garment's most interestingfeature-the print. 'IOriginaltools The printshavebeen carefully observedand their colors and motifsfaithfullyreplicatedinoil pastel,felt-tip pen, andwater-based poster paint-which maywell have beenthe tools used by the original print designers.
  • 77. PLANNING AND DESIGNING As a designer you cannot affordto be self-indulgent, but should insteadtry to produce work that is commercially viable. This chapter explains how to develop a cohesive collection and planyour rangeto offer as much choice as possible.You will also learn how to target your designstoward a customer profile and specific end use, and to work within the constraints of the seasonand budget. The chapter also examines how to apply a color paletteeffectivelythroughout a collection and to structure fabric to createthe silhouettes you want.
  • 78. A To besuccessfulin the commercialworld, / designerssuchas ,' John Galliano have to plancollections that offercustomers bothexcitement andchoice.
  • 79. Creating a cohesive collection Fashiondesigners develop awhole range of related ideas to produce groups of garments that work not only as stand-alone outfits but also as a collection.A consistent approachto importantfactors such as color,shape, pattern,and proportionhelpsto createthis cohesion. It is this systematicdevelopmentof ideasthat enablesthe designerto think laterallyandto getthe most out of each concept. With practice and experience, you will learn not to settlefor the first ideathat comes along but to push yourselfto generate a series of related concepts.You may be surprised at the results as you progress away from your starting point and down new avenues of creativity. The collections that you developwill havea natural cohesion becausethey contain similar and relatedthemes, andyou will soon find yourself creating a coordinating rangeof garments ratherthan separate and unrelatedoutfits. An importantfactor in this process is to learnto be comfortablewith thinking out loud on paper. This meansfeeling relaxedabout noting down your ideasand sketching out series of designs. You must learnto loveyour roughs! A blank page can be intimidating,and it is easyfor the novice designerto becomeso concernedwith the appearance of the initial sketchesthat the actualdesign processtakes second place. With practiceyou will gain confidenceand be more relaxedabout encouragingthe flow of ideas. Rememberthat you arejust developingyour thoughts, not trying to create a masterpiece. It does not matter howwell executedthese roughs are; they are for your purposes only and do not needto bejudged by anyone else. All that matters is that the roughs assistyou in working through your stream of ideas. Using the more casual mediumof a scrapbook may helpyou relax about your rough work, and you will be able to combine drawn ideaswith i ; cuttings from try keepinga demonstrateshow designers needto plan coord~natlngrangesw~tha un~fyngoverall look I V Drawingon the ideas bank Store garment-deta~l~ngIdeasInyour sketchbook ant select themesto apply to a group of garments In order to ach~evea naturally coheslvecollect~on so that you canjot down ideasasthey come. 1 With time you will discoverwhich methods work bestfor you.
  • 80. 4 Distinguishingdetails A Thinking out loud on paper Decorativedetailscan be usedto unify a range; This page of sketchesis an exampleof alternatively (as here) d~fferentdetailscan addvariety to planningon paper Don't worry ~fyour ~n~tial a rangethat shares a common outlinetheme. drawings are quickly executedandvery rough.
  • 81. Learnto loveyour roughs It's time to start thinking like a designer!The moreyou A variety of shapes can relax and not worry about how someone else Initially,you could explore a might respondto your drawings,the bettertheywill be. number Of garmentshapes using "flats." Remember Rememberthat you are not yet producing final that you are aimingto illustrations or even communicatingyour ideasto produce a collectionof anyone else.You are simplythinkingout loud on paper. outfitscomprising related Ifyou feel daunted by the blank page, try beginningby butvaried garment types. jotting down a list of words as ideas come intoyour head,You might include descriptions such as "rounded," "sophisticated," "feminine,"or "soft" to evokeyour target customer and the kinds of garments that you might design for her or him.This will make startingto sketch much less intimidating.Your rough sketches may be drawn on a figure or as flat garments with carefullyconsidered proportions. the project Chooseyour theme and produce some first rough garment ideas, considering in particularwhat it is that inspiresyou about your research. Selectthe strongest ideasand expand on these, using a layout pad.Trace over your initialvisual thoughts to produce a series of designs, changing one element with each new drawing.The result will be a series of variations on atheme. the objective i the process easily traced one on top step-by-stepa series of Createa set of ideasthat holdstogetheras a collection. Think carefullyabout of the other, but take care relatedgarments. Now Use roughsto expand on your starting point. your starting point, not to work into the paper you are truly thinking like Avoid the obvious and developyour own uniquestyle. considering its colors, too heavily,as it can a designer, as you create a Assess your ideasas you work and developthe textures, shapes, bleed color through to the a cohesivecollection. strongestdesigns. patterns,and symbolism. sketch below.Work by Aim to produce about Jot down some ideason tearing out one drawing twenty rough outfit ideas. paper, using words as and laying it beneath As you work, keep in well as quick sketches. a clean pageto make mindthe inspiring Taking the stronger ideas the next, adaptingthe features of the starting Customerfocus, p.3 further, produce some previousdesign. Push point. Assess all the Workingdrawings, rough designs on a yourselfto produce lots rough drawings by layout pad.The thinner of ideas, changing one placing them nextto eack paper of the layout pad elementwith each new other (you can photocop! -----fi-S-?cTT1- = 3d---e7z1-.Lak-=-fs will allow designsto be - drawing and building up your sketchbook pages NlNG
  • 82. A Layeringsketches Work with a layout pad, drawing garmentseither on the figure or, as shown here, as flat sketches.Tracing ideas one on top of the other encouragesa progressionof ideaswhile ensuringthat garment outlinesremainrelated. 4 Consideringall Rememberto work through ideasfor back views as well as thinking about the front of ISELF-CRITIQUE 4 Were you confidentenoughto notedownyour ideasin an unself-consciousway? Didyou expandfrom your startingpointto create uniquedesigns = . ratherthan simplydrawingthe obvious? 4- -= ;iHaveyou chosenthe strongestideasfrom y o m u g n s r I Doyour five chosen roughslook as if they belongtogether ', I in a collection? LEARN TO LO- - -
  • 83. The creatlon of roughs IS an Important part of the des~gn process,especially ~fthe deslgner IS trylngto glvethe collectlona strong overall look Roughs are usedto get all the related Ideasabout a source down on paper Only once thls has beendone IS ~tposslbleto assess all the sketches objectively and declde whlch work best as a collectlonand shouldtherefore betaken to the next stage As shown here,the successfulroughs are those that work as lnd~vidualpleces but also lh themes in common. The designs pictured hereare clearly relatedto one another in boththe details and the sihouette,yet are each interestingand uniquegarmentsin themselves. Refiningideas beyondthe rough stage ensuresthat designs progress beyondthe obvious and preventsthe collectionfrom being derivativeor repetitious. 86 PLANNINGANDBESIGNING the feel of a cohesivecollection, unifiedby an Asian look and design themes such as I 4 The creative basis As ever, the successfuldevelopment of ideaswas supported by the compilation of a strong color palette and mood board, inthis casefeaturing anAsian theme. I Firstthoughts b This roughwas usedtc establishsilhouetteand proportion;the decorative detailwas added later in the process. the fringing and embellisheddetails. I
  • 84. 4 V Finalizingideas Thesefinal illustrations reflectWesternized fashion shapeswhile retainingsubtle referencesto the Asian theme of the roughs. B D 'IOfferingvariety An ideasuchas drapingsoft fabric can be appliedin manydifferent ways to similargarmentshapes. A Pattern, color,and silhouette These illustrationshavebeen given a unifiedfeel bythe pattern andcolor of the fabric and bytheflared silhouettes of the designs. LEARN TO LOVE YOUR#OUGHS -
  • 85. Planninga range The words "range" and "collection" are often used interchangeablyin the fashion industryto denote the group of garmentscreated each season by a designer. However, "range" also has morespec~fically commercialovertones. Rangeplanning involves consideringyour designs in terms of a complete wardrobe of coordinatinggarments, incorporatinga balanceof tops, bottoms, dresses,outerwear, and so on.When you see garments by your favoritedesigner displayed in a boutique,you are experiencing range planning.The newness and trendiness of the garments are obviously important,but the boutique also needs to appealto its customerswith a variety of options of garment type that coordinate and are interchangeable. Sometimes a client will brief a designer to create a specific range.This might be a swimwear, bridal, or eveningwearcollection,for example, and the choice of itemsto includeinthe rangewill bevery much dictated bythe brief.Ifyou have been asked to design an eveningwearrangeyou will probablywant to includea large number of dresses-as incollections of eveningwearby Versace.It is perfectlyacceptableto biasyour rangeto one garmenttype in this way so long as the decision is based on the client's brief. the project First brainstormideas about a daywear range,without worrying too much about the appearance of your sketches.Then mapout garmentsthat you think might be suitablefor inclusion inthe rangeand consider howthey can beworn together as outfits. Finally, illustratethe best combinations asfinished drawings of eight outfits. the objective Select designsthat hangtogether as a collection. 0 Offer a good choice of individual pieceswithin the collection. e Createa rangeof garmentsthat look good in their own right but can be easily mixed and matchedto makedifferent outfits. I b Choices Whenvisitingyour favorite boutique, observehowthe I choice of garments ava~lablehas been plannedas a rangeof m~x-and- match outf~ts. Conranis showing a range of eveningwear piecesthat coordinate as a collection becauseof their common colors, shapes,fabric treatments,and silhouettes. the process You should be gaining confidence in your rough sketches as you work through the projects in this book. Again, just rough out the ideas as they come to you and do not worry too much about what the sketches look like-you do not haveto show them to anybody . . else. There is no strict plan at this stage, simply an outpouring of thought about garmentsthat might constitute a daywear range. Reconsideryour raw ideas,as you havedone in previous projects,this .=eT= a.e z - s* --m-3ac=---e7-- time exploring how they
  • 86. Every collectionthat a designer creates involvesa degree of range planning- the aim should beto tempt customers into buying as many items as possible. The ranges illustratedhereoffer a good choice of garmentsthat clearly coordinatewhile avoiding unnecessaryduplication.All the itemsare highly interchangeable,and the outfitsthat have been puttogetherwould look equally good reformatted into newcombinations. However,planning a range is morecomplicated than simplythinkingof as many different sorts of garment as possible.Afall collectionsuch as the one featured opposite,for example,will require avariety of piecesthat can be layeredover each other and mayfeature long sleeves for daywear items.The age group of thetarget customerwill also affect the types of garment that are planned intothe range-the trendy workwear separates pictured below,for example,would probably be aimed at ayounger age group. A b Coordination is key A "workingwardrobe" startingpoint might inspirethe inclusion of dungareesorvests withina range. However,itwould still be necessaryto offer a choice of other piecesto appealto the target customer andto providea coordinating range. A One source, many designs Developinga rangeof designs from one source of inspirationgives cohesionto a collection.The historical working mantheme investigatedhere provoked many ideas aboutfunctionalworkwear separates,which were h incorporated intothe rangeshown below.
  • 87. 4 A A well-planned range It should be possibleto imaginemixing up all the garmentsin a range and creatingnewoutfit combinationswithout any loss of overall effect. PLANNINGA RANGE
  • 88. Designingto a brief As a fashion designer, you will always have a client or target customer in mind.You cannot afford to be self-indulgent and simply create designs to suit your own tastes. It is, however, perfectly acceptable to develop a recognizable style.You will notice that all the famous fashion houses have their own particular style;the clothes have a unique flavor that reflects the philosophy of the designer. A Trend awareness Skirtsfor men,suchas this example by DriesVan Noten,have been inand out of fashion in recentyears Makesure that your designsare in linewith the latest style trendpredictions. There are various limitations associatedwith working to a design brief and it is best to confirm them beforeyou begin.Your budget, for example,will be dictated by the price at which your garments can be sold. It is common in the fashion industryto establisha rigid and logical price structure for all the piecesin a collection-a vest top will becheaper than a long-sleevedgarment, for example-and your designs should reflectthis. A garment that is very embellishedwill have a high perceived value, but you must be certainthat the customer is willing to pay the increasedprice. You also needto be sure you are designing appropriate garments for the time of year when they will appear and that your work is in line with fashion trend predictionsfor that season. Another very importantfactor is the nature of your target customer.You should aim to construct a profile of the kind of personwho is likely to wear the designs you will producefor each project. Fashion designerscall this imaginary, or indeed sometimes real, person their "muse." You can createyour own muse by building up a selection of magazine images that representyour customer.You will need to consider gender, age, economic status, lifestyle,occupation, and anything else that could influence choice of fashion.What does your muse do for a living?What does he or she liketo do on the weekend or in the evening? Where does he or she live?The answers to these questionswill help you to build up the profile. V Lifestyle patterns What isyour customer'ssocial life?This designby Ghost isaimed at someonewith sophisticatedtastes.
  • 89. / V P Broad customer appeal Duringyour career you might be called upon to design for awide rangeof potentialcustomers.This may sometimes requireyou to design garmentsthat do not matchyour personaltastes. Just as designers maketarget customers thefocus for their work, so retailersestablish target markets. Each market may capture a IInumberof lifestyles,and each retailer may target morethan one market. Itwould bewrong for a large retailerto expect an 1Syear-oldto wear the same outfit as an 80-year-old, althoughboth customers might shop in the store. A clear understandingof the lifestyleof boththese customersand the marketsthat they representwill ensure that the garments producedfor them are appropriate. Bear all these considerations in mind to avoid lapsing into designing only what pleases you personally.You needto maintaina delicate balancebetweenyour own style and designs that appealto your customer.As a designer, you may sometimes haveto cope with creating garments that you personallydislike. The measureof a true professionalis the ability to work with enthusiasmand passionon designs that are focused on someoneelse'staste.
  • 90. Customer focus As a fashion designeryou needto developthe ability to work with enthusiasmand passionon projectsthat might not appealto you personally.It is not enoughto want to create only the designsthat you like.The fashion designer differs from the artist in that there will usually be a customeror client in mind, who will ultimately be payingfor the garment, It is the designer's challengeto satisfy the desires of the customer,and there is littleroomfor self-indulgence. the project Pick an advertisement from a currentfashion magazine that features a personwho looks interesting.The advertisement will suggest a lifestyleassociatedwith the persondepicted.You havejust metyour latest customer! Inthis unit you will design a collection of eight finished outfits targeted at this person. Challengeyourself by choosing someonevery differentfrom the peopleyou havedesigned for in the past. the objective Learnto researchyour customer's lifestyle. Targetyour collection appropriately. Practicethe ability to work outside your personalpreferences. Add a project with a very differentflavor to your portfolio. I Didyou truly challengeyourselfwith your choice of customer? Haveyou beenableto work beyond mer designing garments that you like? I Didyou maintainyour enthusiasmwhile workin on stylesthat come less naturallyto you? Are you satisfiedthat you have produced an interestingdesign outcome? ..-_ I --3''. ' .- * - * - A Dare to experiment When choosing the image of your potentialcustomer, challengeyourself to select someonewho would wear garmentsthat arevery different fromyour previousdesigns. I the process does he or she live,work, worn, and how expensive Lookthrough some of and go on vacation? How they are likely to be. Put your fashion magazines wealthy is this person? together a color palette, andfind an imageof an What sort of car does isolating no more than interesting person.Try to your customer drive, and six to eight colors that go for someone for whom which newspaperdoes you can see within your you would not normally he or she read?Where is chosen magazineimage. consider designing: your customer likely to Finally, draw your a personfrom a different wear the clothesthat you eight finished outfits, gender or age group, for are designing? Gradually rememberingthat they example.Advertisements build up a complete are not intendedto are good to work with lifestyleprofile of your pleaseyou but to appeal becausethey usually new customer. to your customer. suggest a lifestyle Nextyou can startto Endeavorto maintain associatedwith the planyour range, aiming both enthusiasmand peoplefeatured. ultimatelyto produce professional pride in your Start byjotting down eight finished outfits. As work eventhough it might words that describeyour you do this, consider not beto your own taste. chosen customer. How your customer's lifestyle, old is he or she? Where where the clothes will be
  • 91. $ . A Appropriate ideas The outlinesand fabrics used inthese designs are consistently I targeted at a customerwith moreconservativetastes. Keep I referringto your l~festyleresearch.are your ideastruly appropriate to your customer's needs? h Matching design to personality An extrovertedcustomer might inspireyouto illustrate Ina stylethat d~splays exaggeratedposesand proportionsas well as bold I silhouettesand fabrics. fl A Presentation ! Your resenta at ion should also reflectthe customer profile; here, both design and presentationare targeted at ayoung, extrovertedcustomer.
  • 92. Designers haveto strike a delicate balancebetween appealingto their own tastes and pleasingtheir customers.Good design and design that appeals to a designer personally are not necessarilythe same thing. As the garments illustrated heredemonstrate,being a successfulfashion designer is not about creatingwildly flamboyantcostumesthat look great on the page but are impossibleto wear, but about channelingfashion sense and originality into a customer-targetedoutcome. It is importantfor a designer to build up a profileof the target customer.This should influence all aspects of the collection,includingfabric, color, cost, the formal or casual natureof the garments,and the style of presentation.Clothes are about far morethan keepingwarm-they are a signalto others of what we feel about ourselves. Understandingthe client andthe client's aspirations means understandingwhat messageshe or shewould like to give out.A successfulcollection is perfectly constructedto reflect these signalsand so to satisfythe customer. A V The process of selection The strongestof the first ideaswere selectedto sketch in moredetail. These knitwear designs were appropriateto the relaxeddaywear needsof the target customer.
  • 93. 4 Y Suitable fabrics The lifestyle of the customershould be reflectedinthe choice of fabrics as well as in the garment silhouette.It is importantto considerwhether the fabric needsto be easy care, suitablefor packing, stretchy, economical,or very comfortable. I ! Y The rightfit The f ~ tof a des~gn1s also I~festyle- related The garment m~ghtbe figure-huggingor it may havea morecomfortable,casual look. A Targeted presentation Commercialdesigns are often best represented by a clear and simple presentationstyle.
  • 94. Occasions, seasons, budgets Now that you have begun to understandthe lifestyle and aspirationsof your customer,the next step is to refineyour research still further and makeyour collectioneven morefocused. A commercialdesigner will often focus on just one element of a client's lifestyle, perhapsfor an eveningwear,lingerie,or swimwear range.It is also importantto establish whether your collectionwill appear in the summer or winter, since this obviously will influence choice of fabric and garment style.The size of your client's budget is another importantfactor.There is no use creatinga wonderful collectionof garmentsif they are not affordable,and similarly,a customer with high aspirationswill not want clothesthat do not give off the right signals about status andwealth. the project Continue building the customer profilethat you began in the last unit, focusing on certain specializedaspects. Also considerthe seasonduring which the customerwill be wearing your clothes, andthe size of the customer's budget. Sketchyour rough ideas, stopping from time to time to revisitthis initial research. Then finalizea collection of eighttargeted garmentillustrations. the objective Take your researcha step further to explore specializedaspectsof the customer's lifestyle. Designgarments that are appropriatefor their end use. a Consider season and budget. Channel your inspirational ideas into a commercially targetedoutcome. A Specificend uses Swimwear madefor the pooltends to come in performancefabrics and sportswear colors. Beachwearismore relaxedandoftenfeatures playfulpatternssuch as florals or animal prints. 4 Customer aspirations Aweddingoutf~tshould alwaysstealthe show anthe bride'sspecial day the process appropriateto a specific wool for winter, or an Look back at the research end use? Sportswear,for embroidery idea on you compiled inthe last instance, must be soft chiffon could be unit about the lifestyleof constructedfrom a fabric translated onto a heavy your target customer. that performswell under velvet drape. Usingwords or found extreme conditions and How much your imagesfrom fashion canwithstand a great clothes will sell for will magazines,continueto deal of washing. also dictate howthey are build up the story, this Also consider the made. Isthere a great time taking the research season. Are the fabrics deal of handwork?Are further to encompass warm enoughfor winter thefabrics expensive? specializedaspectssuch or can you make useof Willthe garments haveto as sporting or vacation activities,or special layering?Your ideas can I be dry-cleaned?Would be putto different your customer bewilling occasions such as seasonaluses; for to pay morefor all of partiesor weddings. instance, a shape created these things? During Shouldthe garmentsbe in boned satinfor a productionthese kinds of formal or casual?Are the spring collection could factors are constantly fabrics you are using be re;created inthick revisitedas pilot
  • 95. garmentsare produced and, if necessary, styles revisedto allow the designsto remainwithin the appropriatecosts. Once again, check your ideasagainstthe detailed customer research. Canyou imagineyour customer wearing these garments inthe way thatyou intend? Finally,draw up eightfinishedoutfits. a,,lr* A Partystyle A collection almed at a younger age group mlght incorporate eye-catchlngfabrlcs and sexy, provocat~vestyling -2- A Usingspecial fabrics Sportswearmust stretch and mold aroundthe body and should be easy to wash. The stretchyqualitiesof sportsfabrics also makethem idealfor use infashionable maternitydesigns. I 4 A Nightlife choices Femalecustomersmay want eveningwearto give an impressionof glamor and sophistication,while ri maleformal garmentsare often moresober. Rememberto keep referringto your lifestyle research. bevery expensive becausethese Ipieces are specialized,incorporating high-performancefabrics. SELF.CRITIQUE Haveyou truly gotten insidethe mind and lifestyleof your target customer? Hasthe collection evolved towardyour researchand away from your personaltaste? Lookingback over your research,canyou imagine. iur customerwearing the ina real-lifesituation? Are your final d e s i g ~ ~ jt appropriatefor the occasi . season,and budget?. OCCASIONS;, a AS, BUDGETS !
  • 96. It would bewrong for a student to start off with a predeterminedset of restrictions; the emphasis of this book is on using researchto spark ideas. However,once creativity has startedto flow, it can be channeledintoa commercialoutcome.The lasttwo units have been intendedto helpthe designer with this channelingprocess, focusing first on creatinga customer profileandthen on taking the researcheven furtherto consider special end uses,as well as the constraintsof season and budget. The cost of clothesto the customer is a particularly importantfactor although one that is often ignored by students. Designerscreate garments to be sold: if their prices are exorbitantly high,their collectionswill not sell.Anyone can create beautifuldesigns if money is no object, but it requiresa talented designer to find the best possible creative solutionwithin a tight budget. The designs illustratedhereshow a strong sense of the target customer, and of where and when the client would wear the garments.The collections havecredibilitybecausethey are well researched:they are stylish and original yet also consistentwith the needsof the customerand the season,and could be sold at an affordableprice. b Thorough research Producingwork for a specific V Occasionalwear These garments would all be suitablefor a sophisticatedcustomer, but would beworn in differentways, at a summer wedding, for example, or as smart workwear. occasion and customermight requirethe compilation of a new, moretargeted mood board. AND DESIGNING
  • 97. the details Des~gnershave to cons~der , howthe~rgarmentsw~llbe " worn What accessories, such as hats or jewelry, m~ghtbe requ~red?Are the des~gnssu~tablefor the season?Canthe customer afford them? A Work and play Work andweekend rangestargeted at 4 the same person may bevery different. V Special requirements Functionalworkwear may havea specific end use, perhapswith associatedtechnical or safety requirements. OCCASIONS, SE
  • 98. I Color and fabric Two of the most importantfactors choice of color and fabric. The sa remade in another color or fabric Color paletteschangefrom seasonto season. Not only do individual colors move in and out of favor, with brown becoming "the new black," but there are also subtle evolutions in the shades of colors used. Every designer needs to be aware of the predicted color trends for forthcoming seasons.Thefashion industry shares this knowledgethrough trade shows, styleweb sites, and magazines-which is how similar ranges of colors appear in our stores each season as if by magic.The cynic might suggestthat this is the fashion industry's clever way of encouragingsales, as customersdash out to buy this winter's red dress or pink sweater. However,the evolution is also a naturalprocess. Fashionis chargedwith reflecting how peoplefeel about themselves and the world aroundthem, andjust as themes and inspirationscome and go, so too do color palettes.Fabricchoice also changescyclically because certaintextiles move in and out of fashion and also becausethe properties of performanceor warmth of differentfabrics are strongly associatedwith particular seasons. Fabric and silhouette cannot be separated. The drape and behavior of your chosenfabric will havea direct effect on the appearance of your garment. Imagineremakingan existing style in a differentfabric. What would be the effect of its bulk, stiffness, transparency, softness,fluidity, or tendencyto crease?Jeans madein satinor swimwear made of fur would becomevery different concepts. You needto consider your choice of fabric carefullyat rough-sketchstage. It is not enoughto design shapes and then look for a influencingyour designswill be your .meshape or garment silhouette will give a totally different effect. fabric that will give you the right effect. Sensitivityto your materialsand the developmentof shape should take place simultaneouslybecausefabric and silhouette are denendent unnn each nther. I,;::! g-.t A b Matchinathe source d Inthls pa~ntingwere reproducedas samples of dyedfabrlc, providingthe basisfor two sets of color selections (rlght),fromwhlch color paletteswere later established 1
  • 99. -4 A Harmonious groupings Gather samplesof any fabrics,trims, and yarns that you are considering usingto establishhowdifferenttextures as well as colorswill work together. b.---4 A Usingswatches Comparing same-size fabric swatches will helpyou to see clearly the best combinations and also to judge proportions. Compare alyour swatchgroups with trend predictions-are your color choices in linewith current fashions? -4 Fabricand outline Your choice of fabric will affectthe construction of your designs. Soft fabrics, for example,can easily be encouraged to fall in softfolds
  • 100. Apalette is a limitedselectionof colors that a designer uses in a collectionto ensurethat all the color elements sit together in a controlledway. Restrictingyourself to a set of colors is an important part of the creative process: a garmentor outfit can be totally reinventedby merelychanging its colors. The more colorsyou include in a palettethe more challengingit is to use.A limited palette ensuresthat designs havea naturalcontinuity.As a ruleof thumb, novicedesignersshould-avoidpaletteswith morethan eight colors.As you gain experience,the number of colorsyou usewill become a matter of personalchoice in keepingwith your design style. When creatinga color palette,many studentsand designersusethe reference books of tear-out color chips produced by Pantone.These uniformly sized color blocks are convenientto use and looktidy on a mood or presentationboard.All the colors have individualreferencenumbers,recognizedthroughout the fashion industry,which you can quotewhen talking to clients,dyers,or manufacturers to avoid confusion about exactlywhich shadesyou mean. - the project Isolatethe importantcolorsfrom your researchand create color chips (or usethe Pantone shades) to selecta palette.Then usethe paletteas afocus while you are designinga collection.As you sketchout designs, vary the combinationand proportion of colors usedwithinthe garmentsandout-fits. Assess the balanceof colorswithin the collectionas awhole. Then createeightfinal drawings, usingthe mostsuccessfulcolor combinations. the objective Establish aworking color palette. , @ Vary the combinationof colors to see howthis affects the designs. Developa collectionwith a successfulcolor balance. Color palettes A Visualizingthe designs If possible, usecolor swatches madefrom the actualfabrics thatyou are considering using inthe designs.This will giveyou the most accurateideaof howthe colorswill V Experimentfirst Working from your rough ideas, create simple outlinesketchesof your collection. These canthen be photocopied a number of times so that you can try out various color combinations.
  • 101. ur mood board will olorsfor your theme. Isolatethese as color magazinecuttings, paint, or samples of yarn wrapped around a card. Useanythingthat shows aflat area of color, but avoid patterns.Startto groupthe chips into a palette, rememberingthat it is easier to use no more than eight colors. It is very importantto adhere to your paletteas you sketch out your design ideas. Start by drawing roughs in black- and-whiteoutline form; photocopy these and color each set differently, using your palette. Dramatic color combinations produce exciting results,so be daring! Try using colors in different proportions. Combinationsthat work well in a palette can be ruined by an ill-considered use of Designingfabric 7 ideas, p. 40 - a black velvet evening I dresswith a side split can look fantasticwith an occasionallyglimpsed red lining. However,the proportion. For example, same dress in red and A Playing with proportion Varying the proportion and combination of colors can give a strikinglydifferentlook to the same design. Try out a number of variations. ] black stripes would not I be at all as sophisticated. Always keepyour research in mind and try to evoke a similar use of color in your designs. Finally,draw eight outfits, 1 using the best color combinationsfrom your rough experiments. color palette? Do you see a l~nkbetweenthe colors in you researchandthose in your final designs? Isthe balanceof colors in your collection effective? ' Finally,pick out those designsthat create the strongesteffect. Becareful to ensure that they sitwell together as a collectionand are all still relevantto the originalpalette. Hasthe palette been usedsuccessfully in the designs?
  • 102. Establishinga color palettefirst and then using it in the generation of roughs and final drawingsensures a consistentset of designs, as demonstratedhere. Adjustingthe proportion of colors can put a new spin on an illustration,giving it an individualfeel while still tying it intothe collectionas a whole throughthe use of a common palette. Even moredramatic effects can be achieved by applying an entirely new color palette.These illustrations could be recoloredby scanningthem into a computer and substituting new colors, by feeding the outlines through a color photocopier and adjusting the color balance,or by redrawingor photocopying the designs and repaintingthem. Changingthe color palettewill alter the whole look of a range:the same floral design might be colored in greens for a high summer jungle story, in pinksfor a spring feminine theme,or in blue and white for a nauticalfeel. I 4 V Judging the effect The most accurateway to assess color combinationsis to experiment with samplesof the actualfabrics that will be used. Colorsmay appear differently,depending on factors such as the thicknessof pile, how matteor shiny the fabric is, I and decoration likesequinsor beading.
  • 103. 4 V b Variations on a theme Thesefinal illustrationsreflectthe originalpalette, althoughthe proportionsof colors used have been variedfrom garmentto garment to give each one an individualidentity. b Breakingthe rules Cohesionis a positivefoundation for a palette,but adding a surprisingsplashof color in an unexpectedshade can lend a sense of dramato a design.
  • 104. Structuring fabric We have seen how importantchoice of color is to the outcome of a project. Fabric has a similar impact and needsto be as carefully considered. Unit 6 (pages40-43) discussed how a fabric embellishment idea can be the focus for a design; this unitwill look at howthe structuringof fabric can drive garment construction,whether through methods such as pleating,draping, or binding, or through the creationof entirely newfabric structures usingtechniquessuch as crochet, knitting,or applique.As you gain experience, youwill see howfabrics have particularpropertiesand behave in very different ways, You needto learnto harnessthe inherent propertiesof fabrics,whether you are working with clinging jersey, chunky knits,or high- performancesportswear.As your confidencegrows, you will want to controlthe effect of fabric from the earliest stages of the design process.Then, ratherthan relying on store-purchasedtextilesto fit your theme, you will be able to manipulatefabric to dictatethe volume and shape of your garments,as well as their surface appearanceand texture. the project As you put together a mood board and color palette, experiment with structuring fabric to create a silhouette. Exploreyour ideas by manipulatingpaper; then consider howthese ideas can betransferred ontofabric, either through techniques such as pleating and draping or through methodsthat create an entirely newfabric structure. Choosethe strongest roughsto create afinal collection that incorporatesyour fabric structuring ideas. the objective Take an active role in fabric manipulation. Developstructuring ideasthat drive your designs. Ensureyour fabric developmentis in line with fashion trends. r I-. ,. the process Gather researchimages using drawing and photography,and identify the key shapesand structures.Treatingyour 4 A Analyze your source Chooseasource,lrkethis brkertheme, thatwrll inspireideasabouttexture, volume, andconstructionto guide youwhen structuringfabrrcto create a s~lhouette. page as a piece of fabric, startto sketch out structuring ideas. Don't worry at this stage about the practicalitiesof achievingthe effects; just let your imagination run wild. Still working on paper, experimentwith methodssuch as gluing, stapling, hand and machinestitching, cutouts, and applique. Rememberthat you are looking for ideasthat will support the construction of the garments. Nowthink about how these first thoughts can betranslated onto fabric. You could create a fastening using fabric ties. Stitching and gluing could bethe meansof structuring a finished garmentor might provide seaming ideas. Layering, pleating,and draping are
  • 105. allways of creating such as crochet, volume in a garment. You patchwork,or knitting. mightconsider how Rememberto keep an cuttingfabric on the bias eye on the work of other (placingpatternpieces at designers.All these a45-degree angleto the wonderful effectsshould fabric selvages and grain) not distract you from the would affect structure. fashion overview. Bias-cutfabric hasfar Finally,select your greater drapethan usual strongest roughsto use and clings to the body in putting together a in avery flattering and collection of finished feminine way when used designs structured in skirts and dresses. aroundyour experiments You could even build in fabric manipulation up a completely new J and distortion. fabric, using techniques V Fashionable useof fabric ItIS Importantto keepaclose eyeonwhat is happeningto fabric structuring wlthlntheworld of fash~onWhat arethe other designers doing?What arethe keytrends?Suchconsrderatlons wlllstopyoufrom becomlngoverlyself-indulgent Y Building a newfabric You canstructurefabric by attachingsmallpiecestogether to createanoveralldesign. Explorethese ideason paper. $6Doesyour fabric manipulationreflectyour res%~%@f1 LAre the fabrics appropriateto the fashion silhouettes? @ Are your concepts d~sciplinedand truly fashionable- have you avoided being self-indulgent? *:-, - - -b v *-TI STRUCTURING FABRIC $a
  • 106. The construct~onof these garmentshas been driven by the structuringof fabric, I V Structureand embellishment whether through the building up of newtextiles or the manipulationof existing Knittedstitchescan be usedto givethe garment fabric to createvolume and shape.Thinking about howfabric will behavewhen volume as well as surface decoration. - ~ shaped into a garment naturally leadsto a moredetailedconsiderationof the garment itself.Designersneedto be aware of the structural natureof differen and incorporatethem intotheir fashion ideasaccordingly.Bulky knitwear,for example, can be designed only into certain shapes,and is boundto be heavy and hot. Clingingjerseys, on the other hand,will mold aroundthe body,and fine velvets will drape into soft folds. The behavior of fabric can be exploredby molding samples aroundthe curves of a dressmaker'sstand, or around a real body,using avolunteer. Ifthe fabric has a complex structure-an ornate crocheted pattern,for example-it is importantto remember that the silhouette should be kept simple in order to avoid a confused overalleffect. 4 V Drivingthe design Structuringideasinspiredbythis Arctic themeincludeknitted - snowflake stitchesandthe use of chunkyfabric to createa bulky, hoodedoutline (shown belowright).Thoroughresearch willyield ideasaboutvolume, shape, and proportion. I?.
  • 107. A b Volume on the body Methodsof fabric manipulation such as folding, pleating,and draping can be usedto give volume and shapeto relatively simplefabrics,
  • 108. COMMUNICATING YOUR VISION The most wonderful ideas and stylish drawing techniques will count for nothing if you cannot presentyour designs effectively. This chapter explains how to support your illustrationswith flat working drawings and represent your ideas as three- dimensionalgarments. You will also learn how to create professional-looking presentationboards,to choose the most appropriate illustrationstyle for your work, and to communicateyour vision clearly, accurately,and with maximum impact.
  • 109. ownwork at a . .
  • 110. Clarity and communication It is important to remember,when you illustrateyour designs, that you are making abstract concepts from 'f your imagination realto other people.Your fashion drawings may be very creative and evolve intoworks 41 , of art, but it is important that they can still clearly and accurately describe your design intentions.When t you show your ideas to a client or a pattern cutter,they must be as clear about your designs as you are. 3 r This does not meanthat you haveto sacrifice combination of these terms. As the names As a commercialdesigner, working as part .: creativity. Dependingon your style of drawing, suggestthey are accurate, clear, and easy-to- of a team, clear communicationwill be your work might be unambiguousor somewhat understandrepresentationsof your design paramount, and you will often find yourself open to interpretation.Look critically at your finished drawings and decide whether or not they will be absolutely clear to a first-time observer. If you are in any doubt about clarity, even madeto scale, but this is not necessary it is bestto support your illustrationswith flat (and measurementsare also not always working drawings. expected).So long as they accuratelydescribe You will hearthese types of drawing referred how your garments are constructed,and to in differentways: flat drawings or "flats," include any necessary design details, working specificationdrawings or "specs," technical drawingswill successfullysupport your more drawings, or working drawings-or any 4 Keep it simple Ifyou areworkingwithverytextured fabrics,suchas thosepicturedhere,you needto maintainabalancebetween depiclinglhalLexlureandkeepingyour illustrationsclear.Inspirationalmaterial canbeincludedon apresentationboard to reinforcethe moodof the collection, butavoidoverloadingthe boardwith so muchdetailthat itbecomesconfused. 114 COMMUN
  • 111. You will find that undertakingthese kinds of drawing is a useful discipline that will benefityour creative process. Making working drawings will force you to be crystal clear about your intentions,to provide preciseproportions, and to make decisions about positioning and type of seam, pocket, fastening,and neckline-clarifying all those detailsthat are so vital to the design of beautifulclothes. V Conveying texture These garmentsall feature interestingtextural detailthat might overloada garment illustrationor working drawing.One way to displaytexture is to mountfabric swatches (likethose illustratedleft) separatelyfrom the garment illustrationsthemselves. A F Providingthe detail Flattechnical drawings help to clarify howthe illustratedgarments areconstructed.They can also defineexactly how andwhere I surfacepatternor stitchtexture isto be placed on a garment. I CLARITY AND
  • 112. Working drawings Creativefinal illustrations of your collectionwill often need to be supported with clear and accurateflat working drawings.This will allowyou to be artistic inyour illustrations,knowingthat they are supported by technical drawingsthat providean unambiguousand precisedescription of your garments.Your working drawings should record exactly howyour clothes are to be constructed,and how all the details,trims, and finishes are to be applied. Completingthemwill force you to make decisions aboutthese factors,which might otherwise have been left open to interpretation.You will be surprisedat howthe processof makingworking drawingsforces you to think moredeeply about your designs. the project Lookthrough your wardrobe at home and pull out a range of differenttypes of garment. Laythem out neatly on the floor so that you can observeevery detail. Photographthe garments so that you startto relateto them asflat illustrations.Try representingwhat you see as accurate flat line drawingsthat clearly describethe construction of the garments and their details.Then practice by making working drawings of your previousillustrations. the objective Assess critically the construction of existinggarments. Practicemakingdrawingsthat accuratelydescribethe proportion, makeup, and details of your garments. 8 Apply what you have learnedto the exact description of previousdesign illustrations. As a resultof this process, think in more detail about your designs.
  • 113. Laythem out as simply exactlywhat you see. positions,necklines, and Selecta rangeof your as possible, with The first few drawings sleeveand body shapes, own garments. You could no creases.Avoid will take the mosttime as well as front and back even buy afew items overlappingsleeveswith to complete. After that views.You canoutline from a charitystore and garmentfronts; either you can placeone of your drawingswith a take them apartto slightlythicker black investigatetheir or fold them over on underneatheachfresh pento highlightthe construction.Work with themselves.Take photos page inyour padto use garment silhouette. as astarting point as you Ifyou arefinding it variety of difficult pieces. Thesewill be easier to sketchthe next one. This difficult to get going, start will saveyou time as you bytracing in pencil over draw the collection, your photographsand working drawingsback clothesfrom above, ensuringproportionsare ratherthan at an angle, outlinesin pen. Inthis usingthem as a basis so laythem out on the emphasizing similarities for further developments, floor insteadof on atable. layout pad, start to draw you will deepen your selectionof garments can useas afoundation understandingof your collection. Rememberto Finally, referto your describeeveryaspect of previouscreative the garments, including illustrationsand make their proportions,seam working drawingsof details, trims, pocket these. As you take the 4 When figures are needed ' Sometimes detailssuch as necklinesneedto be representedon the body so that the exact scale and proportion can be shown. b Not always necessary Some fashion illustrations might not needto be supplementedwith additionalflat drawings. Ifthey are clear and unambiguous,they can communicateyour design ideas sufficiently : 3 DOyour working drawingsdescribeyour designsmore tFY accuratelythan your creative illustrations? I
  • 114. With practice,working drawings can be produced with great speed.As the illustrations heredemonstrate,they are very useful either mountedon a presentationboard, giving detailsthat might otherwise havecluttered up the illustration,or as part of the creative process, representing existing garmentsto providea basisfor related but original designs.Traced over on a layout pad,working drawingscan be used inthe same way as figure drawingsto generate rangesof ideas.The ability to makeworking drawings is a useful skill for a designer to show in a portfolio,becausecommercialdesignersare more likelyto work with this type of drawingthan any other. Clarity and accuracyare the goal. Working drawingsshould communicateeffectivelythe preciseconstruction,proportion,and embellishment of the design, so much so that they could be handed over to a patterncutter or machinist in the confidencethat the ideaswill be re-createdexactly. 4 A Supporting creativity Thesework~ngdrawlngs prov~dethe deta~ls,enabl~nga morecreat~ve dep~ct~onof the smockedtop A Reinterpreting existing designs Usingflat working drawings to representgarmentsfeatured in fashionmagazinesmay inspirethe creation of a rangeof relatedbut originalpieces. B-G YOUR VISION
  • 115. and detailed. WORKING DRAWINGS
  • 116. Real garmentsfor your portfolio This projectwill allowyou to presentyour designs as three-dimensionalgarments.We are not dealing herewith the technical aspects of garment construction-that is an involvedtopic that would fill another book. However,you can still representa design as a finished piece by mocking up a garment that can then be captured with photography.Ifyou have actually made up any of your designs already, then you will be able to practicestylingthe garments so that they can be photographed to best effect. You will find this projectto be a wonderful learning experiencethatw~lladd to your creativity.The bestway to learnabout garment constructionis to practice taking apart and making up realitems.You will then becomefamiliarwith the shapes of patternpieces, and methodsof seaming and finishing. Drapingfabric on a dressmaker'sstand is another routeto garment design, involving observationof howthe fabric actually behaves on the body (which can only be imaginedat the sketchingstage). Some designerswork best in this way and start by draping fabric beforethey even pick up pen and paper. the project Selectsome design illustrationsthat you would liketo represent in garmentform. Wrapfabric arounda dressmaker's standor modelto createan impressionof finished garmentsthat you cancapturewith photography. Ifyou havealready made up garmentsfrom some of your illustrations,experimentwith differentways of styling clothesand photographingthem. the objective Represent real garments inyour portfolio. Practicestyling your designson a modelor a stand. Developdesign ideasby draping fabricsor garments on a modelor a garment stand. UR VISION the process Startwith a lengthof fabric drapedover the standor body and manipulate it as the designdictates, by folding, tying, stretching, binding, or gathering. Aim to mimicthe way the fabric would behaveon the body if it were constructedas a garment. Piecescan be cut away or pinnedin placeasthe shapeof the garment is evolved, but this might not be necessary. Alternatively, experimentwith styling and photographing garmentsthat you have already madeup. Whileyou areworking, keep your mindopento new ideas, becausethe processof folding and drapingwill encourage you to developnew designsolutions.For example, as you are creatingpleatsof fabric as suggestedby an illustration,you might noticethatthe folds createa scallopededge on a sleeve, or a drapeof fabric overthe hips, in a way thatyou had not anticipated. These sortsof ideascan be incorporatedintothe rangeand usedon other garments, or reconsideredand exaggeratedwithinthe existingdesigns. They might even becomemore importantthanthe original concept. Alternatively,they can be noteddown for usein a future project. Style garmentswith flair to representthe spirit of the design illustrations. Try out as manyoptions as possibleto display your work. You could arrangegarments on a model, a stand, a hanger, laidflat on the floor- clothes haveeven been photographedon a dog! Experimentwith different options and beas creative asyou can. Keep in mindwhat you are trying to achieve: the positiverepresentationof your design concepts. V Capturethe mood Photographsof finished
  • 117. A Teamwork Why not team upw~thother I students?These photographs were the result of a collaborat~on between a fash~onstudent,a photographystudent,and a young model The Imageswere garmentsto style? used ~nallthree portfol~osl Haveyou useda wide rangeof methodsto mock up and stylethe garments? V Styling garments Doyour photographssuccessfullycapturethe Exper~mentwlth d~fferentways of proportionsand stylingof the garments? 1 styl~ngand accessorlzlngthe Haveyou avoidedamateurish presentation? clothes onthe stand Cons~der uslng Itemssuch as jewelry, or hats and gloves b On the catwalk If your college hasan end-of-yearshow, be sureto captureyour designs on film and then mountthese imagesfor your portfolio.
  • 118. Photographsof three-dimensionalgarments,either real or mocked up,take fashion illustrationa step further and allowthe representation of finished pieces in a portfolio.As shown by some of the images here,the photographydoes not have to be particularly "arty"to show off the designs to great effect. Usingvideo or still photographyto capture designs as they come down the catwalk at an end-of-year event will give their presentationthe feel of atop fashion show. Piecesdisplayedon a stand or draped around a body can sometimes be best photographedthrough close- ups of garment sections ratherthan through a styled photo shoot approachthat could look amateurish if the quality of the photographyis not very good (another option is to collaboratewith a photographer).The use of a digital cameracan be productive,allowingthe imagesto be further manipulatedwith a computer.The digital editing processcan result in new design ideas as well as in creative presentation. b Intriguing shots Photographing designs indifferent locationsand using up and long shots Ia mixtureof close- - adds variety and interest to the presentation. A Letting go Successful collaborationwith a photographer involves relinquishingcontrol over the portrayalof the garmentsto a certainextent, and allowingthe photographersome creative free rein.
  • 119. 4 A ? Options for presentation Catwalk photographs can be either mounted as a separateseries of images or combined with illustrations to make integrated presentationboards. ? All the angles I A stylingdetailsuch . , as this one onthe back of a garment should be captured on film,too. A The glamor of the show The excitement and glamor of a college catwalkshow will show off your garments to stunningeffect. Usingeither still photography or avideo camera, professional-lookingimagescan be achieved. -.E- REAL GARMENTS FO
  • 120. Presentingyour work Fashion designers are in the business of visual communication,and effectwe presentation of work is all important.Your brain may be teem~ngwith innovative ideas and you may produce the most original 4 designs, but none of this will matter if you are unableto communicate your vision. Inthe fashion business, first impressions really do count.When you show your work, you need to ensure that your presentation looks as professional as possible-organized, well mounted,and clean, as well as accurate, clear,and creatively appropriate. Your illustrationscan be mountedon foam boards or on card (the boards are sturdier but can be bulky to transport), both of which can be bought from art supply stores. Boardsare available in various sizes and your choice will be influencedby factors such as personal preference,your audience (if you are presentingto a large group the board must be big enoughfor them to see), the trend of the moment (whichcould equally befor very large boards or pocket-sizedpresentations),or the size of your illustrationsor portfolio. With experienceyou will find the size that suits you best, but start by using a 20- x 30-in. board, .' and be preparedto try out differentoptions. I Avoid using a combination of different sizes, which can makeyour portfolio seem messy. It is worth emphasizingthat the work you presentshould beclean. Carryinga portfolio around, it's easyto get finger markson the boards and for card edgesto becometattered. Makesure that your presentationis always fresh. Even recycled ideas can havea marketif they look as if they havejust been produced. A Displayingwork V Transportingprojects I Mountwork on board or card,or usea plasticfolder. Factors such as the size of your illustrationsand A sturdyportfolio isthe safest and most efficientmeansof transporting portfoliowill influenceyour choice of size and color. work. Build up a collectionof different sizesto houseallyour illustrations. I A sturdy portfolio is essential. A selection in different sizes can be useful; you can store work in some and keepothersfor showing presentations.Makesurethat your portfolios are relativelyeasyto carry, evenwhen laden with work. For protective storage, plastic envelopesare invaluable. If used in presentation,plastic will reducethe picture's color slightly and give it a glossy sheen. Sometimesthis can enhance the illustration, but if your artwork looks better matte,don't present it this way. You will also needto choose carefullyyour style of illustration as well as your approach to the presentationas a whole, to ensurethat
  • 121. work is shown off to besteffect. Ifyour designs A Simplicity A b Harmony are very delicateyou might wantto usean IYou don't haveto Working drawingsallow a ephemeral style of drawingto capturethem on fabric moreartistic depiction of- paper, perhapsaccompanied by flat working I swatches or the garments,while a working drawings colored background can drawings.The delicatefeel of your designs onyour board- be effective(thisone sets would then also influenceaspectssuch asthe use of color, the choice of fabrics, the style of photography,the poses of the figures, and the arrangement of all these componentson the board. Inthis way, all the elements of a presentationwill beworking together to promoteyour ideas. Bewareof trying too hardwith finished sheets. You can always use a color photocopierto tidy up an exciting but possibly scruffy exampleof work from your sketchbook, which was produced in aflurry of creativity. Sketchbooksoffer a good glimpse intothe soul of your work. You may not alwayswantto revealthis to a client, but sometimesit may help to convincethem of the creativejourney that has produced the finished ideas. sometimesit's best just to let the illustration speakfor itself. off the rich, sober design paletteof the garments) Be careful, however, thatthe color does not overwhelm the illustrations 4 A Work-in-progress 'Ideas in sketchbooks often have a livelinessthat can be lost infinalized work If presentingyour sketchbooks, makesurethat there are no sharp objects (suchas staples) to take the viewer by surprlse PRESE WORK 125
  • 122. Practicalitiesof presentation Embellishingwork with unnecessaryextras can show a lack of confidence in the main concept, so whether you feel your designs call for an understated presentation or for a more elaborate themed approach,you must be sure that you don't includeanythingthat does not contributeto the impact of the designs.You want someone seeing your illustrations for the first time to be struck by the quality of your design statement-not by the decorationsurroundingit.A simple presentation has morechance of being successful,and will not offend anyone'stastes, although a more creative presentationstyle can create a strong impact (seeUnit 24, pages 134-137). Decorationsuch as edgings must never overwhelmthe illustrations,and colored backgrounds should be usedonly if they complementthe design palette. Includeitems such as working drawingsand swatches if they add to the clarity of the presentation,and remember that your work should appear clean and tidy. Do not use spray mountto stick your imagesto the board, as this can cause respiratory damage. Dry-mountingimages is a safer techniquethat involves placing a sheet of adhesive backing onto an illustration and then heatingin order to adherethe imageto the board. However,this is a laboriousprocessand it is simpler and quicker to use an adhesive stick or double-sided mounts. the project Select a few of your favorite illustrationsfrom the same projectto mount on a 20- x 30-in. board or boards. Don't worry about achievinga very dramaticstyle: this unit is about practicing well-organized,tidy, and effective presentation. Include items like fabric swatches if you wish, so long as the imagesare not obscured.You should choose and arrangeyour illustrationsto reinforcethe impressionthat they are part of a cohesivecollection. the objective ' 8 Include itemsthat contribute to the impact of your designs. 8 Create a professionalpresentation. 8 Presentdesigns in a way that makesthem look like part of a cohesivecollection. the process Select a few designsto presentfrom the same project. Before mounting, you maywant to crop them to removetattered edges or makethe composition more focused. Usea scalpel and ruler or a guillotine. Clean up any smudge markswith a soft eraser. Reproducingillustrations in a different mediummay give a more professional finish, so considertaking photographs or making photocopies.You could 1 even scanthe pictures into a computer in order to further manipulatethe designs, and then print the results. A Mounting illustrations A boardcanbebuiltwith simple tools:acraft knifeandruler (for cuttingstraightlines),scissors (forcuttingcurves),andsellotape, adhesivestick,andpeel-off mounts(forattachingwork). Drawingsthat have been made using charcoalor pastelwill smudge if they are not treated.Spraythem with afixativeaccording to the instructions on the can. For health reasons, it is bestto spray outside. Neversign your illustrations as ifthey were finished works of art. However good they are, your drawings are I Will a viewer understandthe design story? Isthe board practicalfor you to take to a clien;$,. 8 Could you have presentedyour illustrations differentlyto greater effect?
  • 123. not ends in themselves but commercial representationsof ideas for garments. You can mountyour work straight onto the white foam board or stick down a sheet of thin card , as backingfirst. One : (expensive)option is to I cover the board with hand-madepaperwith raggededges and then mount straight-edged illustrationson top of that.Alternatively, you could use a board exactly the same size as the illustration,so that no background shows at all. Resisttrying to be too clever with your mounts. A controlled useof borders can helpto give a moredefined presentationbut if in any doubt keep it simple or avoid them altogether. Colored paper canwork as a backingfor designs in a complementary palette,but be careful that the use of color does not detractfrom the image itself. You don't want to overload your board, but clarity can be added with itemssuch as fabric swatches (if your textile is complicated it is betterto displaythe detail with a small sample rather than trying to capture it in the garment drawing) and flat working drawings. Decide how many illustrationsyou want to include on the board and, beforesticking anything down, arrangeall the illustrationsand other items. Don't try to cram on too much information and don't overlapthe illustrationsso muchthat you can't see the designs. If you are presenting on morethan one board, you can repeat color and composition to givethe group a cohesivefeel. Start sticking down the imagesonly when you are happy with the overallcomposition. The easiest way of attaching itemsto a board is by using adhesive stick or peel-offdouble-sided mounts.The advantage of peel-offmounts is that they make removing Imagessimpler if you decide to remountthem. 'IClear and cohesive presentation Conveyinformationabout fabricsusingsmall swatches or drawingsto avoid overcomplicatingthe garment illustration.Multiple boardscan be given cohesionthroughacommon ' composition-both of the boardsbelowfeature two I figures inthe same positionand pose,with an identicalpositioningof creativeillustrations and 1 working drawings. Presentingwith flair,
  • 124. The images featured here demonstratethat effective presentationscan be either boldly simple-featuring only the garment itself and focusing on color and silhouette rather than on detail-or complex, incorporatingfabric details,for example, that may be as prominentas the garment itself.Muchdepends on personaltaste as well as on the natureof the garment: if the interestof a piece lies in the textilethen the portrayal of this aspectwill be important.There are certain ground rules,however,that apply to every type of presentation.They should be stronglycomposed (as here), with the viewer's attention drawn immediatelyto the central concept-whether that is ajacket, a whole outfit,or a combination of fabric and garment. Presentationsshould also always be neat and clean, and give the impressionthat they have been professionally produced. Multiplepresentations representing different pieces belongingto the same collection should be given cohesionthrough the repetition of aspects such as the composition, the use of color and decoration,and the positioningand pose of the figures. 4 Strong statement Thls bold des~gn1sbest presented Ina conf~dent, understatedway- there's no needfor swatches,work~ng +! , drawings, edg~ngs,or m.e any other ernbell~shrnent V Repeating the motifs These illustrationsgo right upto the edge of the board so that no background isvisible.The presentationemphasizesthe cohesion of the collectionthrough the use of a repeatedpose.
  • 125. 4 V Using borders Borders can be successfullyusedto add defin~tionto a presentation lllustrat~onscan beframedwithinthin lines orwide edgings (as below),but th~ssort of decoration should only be appl~edif ~tdoes not d~minishthe ' impact of the design concept Borderswould seemtoo busy around a complicated print design,for example,which would be better presentedon a plainwhlte background
  • 126. - -- Choosing a presentation style Completing a number of presentationboards, each showinggarmentsillustratedin a different style, will helpyou show off the versatility of your work to best advantage.This unit is intendedto helpyou choose illustrationstylesthat are appropriatefor your designs and that will presentthem intheir best light.You should choose a style of final illustrationthat both conveys your original inspirationand reinforces the design ideas,without taking over from the garments themselves.For example, if you have drawn inspiration from a naturalsource such as a shell,you mightwant to replicateits soft colors and delicatelines inyour illustrations.You would also needto considerthe nature of the garmentsthemselves-neither a very bold nor a very painterly style would be suitable for illustratinga moreconservative,commercialdesign. Try to use a different style of presentationfor every project. Byvarying the flavor of each board,youwill ensurethat you build up a diverse body of work to appealto a range of clients. the project Gathertogether inspirational research, mood boards,and rough sketchesfrom some previous projects.Consider how appropriatethe styles of drawing are to the original themes. Then experiment with different methodsof illustration, inspired by your researchand roughs. Support the designs with technical drawings, fabric swatches, and color swatches where appropriate. the objective Draw designs inthe methodthat showsthem to best advantage. Challengeyourself by varying your presentationstyle. Create presentationboardsthat will giveyour portfolio impact andvariety. the process Layout all the elements of your chosen projects in a large space, including rough ideas, researchmaterial, and any mood boards. Place imagesside by side and comparethe designs (if your work is in a sketchbook, photocopy the pagesfor this purpose). Reconsiderthe methods by which you havedrawn (or intended to draw), your finished designs.The most appropriate illustration methodwill be closely tied to the levelof detail that you needto show for each design. Iftransparentlayers are an important feature, illustrations might involve subtle color washes to suggestthe see-through natureof the fabric. However,you would need to show more detail where garments include print or embroidery.It is not necessaryto mapout every stitch-this can be done on the flat working drawings (see Unit 20, pages 116-1 19)-but your illustrations should show the scale and position of the decoration. I A Firstinspirations Letyour researchguide you inchoosing the most suitable method of illustratingyour designs.An effective presentationgoes beyond accuratelydepicting the garments: it sums upthe whole mood of a collection. The fine linesand natural colors of these shellimages might suggest a precise, delicate style, perhaps using watercolors or penand ink. communication, p. 11 Presentingwith flair,
  • 127. Lookto your research for clues about the best style of illustrationto depict your designs. A soft femininetheme might requirea painterly approach,whereas a moderntheme might find you scanning images into a computer and manipulatingthem with illustration software. Think creativelyand aim to build up a varied set of styles within your portfolio to illustrateyour flexibility and adaptability. To communicateyour design concept clearly Thinkcarefullyabout the moodthat you are tryingto convey.Dramaticdesignscan be very painterly),consider including items such as traditionalapproach. working drawings, samples of fabrics or yarns, or evensmall 4 A lialanced style examples of inspirational Rememberto balancethe creativeeffectof your be temptedto overload presentationstylewiththe the board with too much needto accuratelyrepresent informationor the clarity A Elementsof a presentation thefit of the garments and of the presentation Inadditionto displayingthe illustrations,the .thetextures of thefabrics. will suffer. presentationshouldincludewhatever is necessaryto communicatethe designsclearly, whether that isflat technicaldrawings,fabric swatches,trims, color palettes,or examples of inspirationalmaterial. Doesthe style of illu Doyou haveprofessionalpresentationsto add to your portfolio?
  • 128. Designers vary their illustrationstyle from projectto project, building up a portfoliothat contains a range of presentations,each one telling a different story both in terms of design and style of presentation.This demonstrates versatility and ensuresthat each project has its own distinct personality.The illustrations can be made using pen and ink,paint, collage,felt-tip pen, computer scanning-anything goes, so long as the illustration style contributesto the overall theme and communicatesthe designer's vision. The creation of effective presentationboards is a detailedand time-consuming process. Plenty of time should be allowed: it is easy to get bogged down in the rough planningstage and end up rushingthe final presentation,which will spoil the impact of the ideaswhen they are shown to potentialclients or employers.A good presentation,likethose illustratedhere, displaysthe garments in a way that is attractive but also easy to interpret.The golden rule is simplicity. Itemssuch as swatches,working drawings, I and trims can be included so long as they add clarity rather than detractfrom the impact of the garment itself;they are not always necessary. 4 A A dramaticstyle Thesefinal presentationsare simple, bold, and graphic, playing with silhouetteand transparency. An alternative approachwould have beento include moredecorative and fabric detail.
  • 130. Presentingwith flair When deciding howto presentyour work, think back to whatever it was that first sparkedyour excitement about your theme.Your creativity does not have to be impeded by the needfor clear and simple presentation.It is true that you should not overpresent your work so that the style of presentationbecomes more powerfulthan the content. However,if you maintain a careful balance,a creative presentationwill add to the overall impact of your design project.This final unit is intendedto maximizeyour creativity in presentation-encouraging you to think not only about your drawing styles but also about the poses of the figures,the use of fabrics, colors, lettering,and decoration,the possibilitiesoffered by different media, and the overalleffect of the board.Your aim should be to channel all these aspects intothe creationof presentationsthat will communicateyour vision to colleagues,teachers,employers,and clients. the project Gathertogether all the elements of a previousdesign project.Thesewill includethe original sources of inspiration,your primaryand secondary research, your sketchbook work, roughs,working drawings, final illustrations,and any photography.Consideringthis material and the natureof your design theme and your target audience, decide on the most appropriate method of final presentation.Pickout your key designs and presentthem in a mannerthat supports and promotes your fashion ideas. the objective e Create original boardsthat reflectyour uniquestyle. Strengthenthe impactof your design ideas by using complementarymethodsof presentation. Tailor your presentationto your target audience. Balancethe clear communicationof your ideaswith exciting and creative methodsof presentation. the process Finda largetable or a cleanfloor spacethat will allow you to lay out lots of images. Groupthem together so that you are ableto see your initial inspiration, roughs, and final illustrationsside by side. Stand back andtake a critical look at your developments. What was it that attractedyou to this topic, and how have you expandedupon these !I ideasas you worked on the project? Isthe theme still strongly reflectedor haveyour designs evolvedaway from your starting point? Start to identify elements that could be usedfor presentation,such as interesting motifs, color combinations,textures, A Strengthening the designs These presentationboards inthe style of 1940sfilm posters reinforcethe impact of the glamoroustailoring of the designsthemselves. styles of lettering, garment styling ideas, methodsof photography, and types of paper. Decideon how you want to presentyour ideas. If your work has a glamorousfeel inspired by film stars, your drawings could be supported with some excitingstyles of photography,perhaps using dramatic lighting or black-and-whitefilm. Do not slavishly copy existingstyles, no matter how authenticthey areto your research, but reinventyour inspiration in a moderncontext. Always ask yourself whether potential clients will be ableto relateto your methodsof presentation.Buyers working in a commercial arena might be alienated presentationof your design ideas? Doesyour style of presentationsupport and ad your garment designs? Haveyou used a stylethat looksfresl Haveyou consideredyour target audience? m r " v M . - e-4-X ,FE+,I-rr"Xr*rie,gi ~ W t + C P P
  • 131. by a very dramaticstyle of presentation,whereas a client with whom you 1 are working on a bridal collection will have a romantic expectationof both the designs andthe style of presentation. Remember that you are trying to achieve a balancebetween communicatingyour design conceptswith clarity and creating a visually exciting presentation.You should I also choose a style of illustration appropriateto your theme, as described 1 in unit 23 (pages 130-133). Make sure that ! 4 A Creating excitement Eventhe poseof your flgures can reflectyour source Ihe "showgirl"stance of thesefigures reinforces the glamoroustheme * and lendsafeellngof movementandcelebration tothe pictures. the arrangement on your board is not over- crowded (for some useful practical tips see Unit22, pages 126-129).If necessaryyou will have to selectwhich itemsto ' include, prioritizing garment illustrations, working drawings, and I fabric swatches. presentation 'IReinforcingyour ideas A "showgirl"themewill inspireadramatic approachto silhouette,fabric choice,and styling-and this can begivengreater authority 4 with adramaticpresentationstyle. PRES
  • 132. Although it is important not to overembellish a presentation so that it has more impactthan the garmentdesignsthemselves, a carefully prepared presentation will support and strengthen the illustrations.These presentationsunderlinethe glamor of designs based on the worlds of film and theater invarious ways. Dramatic photographyand the use of a billboard poster style suggest a film-startheme, and sketches reminiscent of costume design, the use of spray paint and star motifs,and the portrayal of showgirlfabrics like satin,boned silk,diamanteembroideries,laces, and feathers all evokethe theater. MarilynMonroe'sfamous billowing-skirtpose is reproduced in one set of drawings; in another,Judy Garland'sruby slippersadd a witty touch. If stuckfor ideaswhen presentingdesigns, it is always usefulto think back to the original source. Garments inspiredby a beautifulgarden,for example, might well be photographed laid on flowers or hangingamong branches.So long as the presentation supports the designs,there is always opportunityto be creative. 4 'V Evoking the inspiration The fabric used here is evocative of the Wizard of Oz inspiration. F Restating the source The MarilynMonroe-style posesof these illustrationssupport the cinematictheme wonderfully, adding authority to the concept. ATlNGYOUR VISION
  • 133. b Elaboratina on the details" Fabr~cstrlms, and other detallscan make great presentatton tdeas-used as an b Presenting a sketchbook Eventhe cover of this sketchbookwas embellishedto coordinatewith the design story. edging on a board, perhaps,or to decorate the cover of a sketchbook-so long as they do not detract from the designs. ' 4 Creativefreedom If illustrationsbecome rather painterly,as here,they can be supported with working drawings-allowing scope for bothclarityand creativjty. Bold photography, using angled shots, accentuated poses, and creative cropping, will reinforcea flamboyant design.
  • 134. Fashion resources Courses in fashion design The following list comprises only a very small selection of the many colleges and universitiesworldwidewith departmentsof fashion design. Whether you are lookingfor an evening class or for full-timetuition in an undergraduate or postgraduatedegree, the huge variety of options available should mean that you have no problem infinding the coursethat's right for you. AUSTRALIA Royal Melbourne Instituteof Technology G.PO. Box 2476V Melbourne Victoria 3001 t.: (++61) 3 9925 2000 CANADA InternationalAcademy of Design 1 and Technology 1253McGill College Ave., 10thfl. Montreal Quebec H3B2Y5 t.: (++I) 514 875 9777 MontrealSuperior FashionSchool LaSalle College 2000 Ste-CatherineSt.W. Montreal Quebec H3H 2T2 t.: (++I) 514 939 2006 DENMARK CopenhagenAcademy of Fashion Design Ngrrebrogade45, I.sal 2200 CopenhagenN. t.: (+$45) 33 328 810 FRANCE Creapole 128 r. de Rivoli 75001 Paris t.: (++33) 14488 2020 Esmod Paris 16 blvd Montmartre 75009 Paris t.: (++33) 14483 8150 I Parsons Paris 14 r. Letellier 75015 Paris t.: (+ +33) 1 4577 3966 ITALY DomusAcademy Via Watt 27 20143 Milano t.: (+ +39) 2 4241 4001 Polimoda via Pisana77 1-50143 Firenze t.: (++39) 55 739 961 NETHERLANDS Amsterdam Fashion Institute Stadhouderskade55 1072AB Amsterdam t.: (++31) 20 570 2500 www.amfi.hva,nl I SPAIN lnstitucionArtistica de Ense-anza c. Claudio Coello 48 28001 Madrid t.: (++34) 91 577 1728 U.K. Universityof Brighton Mithras House Lewes Rd BrightonBN2 4AT t.: (+$44) (0)1273 600 900 Central St Martin'sCollegeof Art and Design SouthamptonRow LondonWCI B 4AP I t.: (+$44) (0)207514 7000 De MontfortUniversity The Gateway Leicester LEI 9BH t.: (++44) (0)116255 1551 KingstonUniversity Cooper House 40-46 Surbiton Rd KingstonuponThames Surrey KT1 2HX t.: (++44) (0)20 8547 7053 www,
  • 135. University of Lincoln Admissions & Customer Services- - ... Brayford Pool Lincoln LN6 7TS London College of Fashion 20 John Prince's St. London W1G OBJ t.: (++44) (0)20 7514 7344 www.lcf, Universityof the Arts London I 65 DaviesSt. LondonW1K 5DA t.: (++44) (0)20 7514 6000 Universityof Manchester lnstitute of I Science and Technology PO Box 88 Manchester M6O 1QD t.: (++44) (0)161 236 3311 www, ! Nottingham Trent University Burton St. Nottingham NGI 4BU t.: (++44) (0)115941 8418 i RavensbourneCollege of Design and Communication Walden Rd Chislehurst Kent BR75SN t.: (+ +44) (0)20 8289 4900 RoyalCollege of Art Kensington Gore London SW7 2EU t.: (+ +44) (0)20 7590 4444 The Surrey lnstitute of Art and Design UniversityCollege Falkner Rd Farnham Surrey GU9 7DS t.: (++44) (O)1252722 441 U.S.A. American lntercontinental University (Buckhead) 3330 PeachtreeRd, N.E. Atlanta, GA 30326 t.: (++I) 800 955 2120 www, American lntercontinental University (LosAngeles) 12655W. Jefferson Blvd LosAngeles, CA 90066 t,: (++I) 888 522 2255 Brooks College of Fashion 4825 E. PacificCoast Hwy Long Beach, CA 90804 t.: (++I) 5625976611 Cornell University 170 MarthaVan Rensselaer Hall Ithaca, NY 14853 t.: (++1')607 254 4636 FashionCareers of California College 1923 Morena Blvd San Diego, CA 92110 t.: (++I) 6192754700 Fashion lnstitute of Design and Merchandising (Los Angeles) 919 S. Grand Ave. LosAngeles, CA 90015-1421 t.: (++I) 213 624 1201 Fashion lnstitute of Design and Merchandising (San D~ego) 1010 2nd Ave. San Diego, CA 92101-4903 t.: (++I) 6192352049 Fashion lnstitute of Design and Merchandising (San Francisco) 55 Stockton St, San Francisco, CA 94108-5829 t.: (++I) 415 675 5200 1 Fashion lnstitute of Design and / Merchandising (Orange County) 17590GilletteAve. Irvine,CA 92614-5610 I t.: (++1)949851 6200 Fashion lnstitute of Technology Seventh Ave, at 27 St NewYork NY 10001 t.: (++I) 212 217 7999 FASHION RESOURCES 1 .I
  • 136. InternationalAcademy of Design and Technology (Chicago) 1 North State St.,Suite 400 Chicago, IL60602 InternationalAcademy of Design and Technology (Tampa) 5225 MemorialHighway Tampa, FL33634 KatherineGibbs School 50 W. 40th St. NewYork NY 10018 Parsons School of Design 66 FifthAve., 7th Floor NewYork, NY 10011 t.: (++I) 2122298590 School of FashionDesign 136NewburySt. Boston MA 02116 t.: (++I) 6175369343 Universityof NorthTexas School of Visual Arts Office of UndergraduateAdmissions PO. Box 305100 Denton Texas 76203-5100 t.: (+ +1) 940 565 2855 Fashiondesigners online If you are stuckfor inspirationor want to bringyourself up to date on forthcoming trends,why not check out the web sites belongingto the top fashion designers? Here are just some of the good sites: www, www, www, I www, www, www, www, ~ ~ ~ , l a c o s t e . c o m www, www, www,
  • 137. color palette A limited selection of 'colors used by a designer when creating a collection to ensure a cohesive color scheme. color theming Giving the items in a collection a common identity through the repeated use of certain colors. colorway The choice of colors used in an individual piece. Changing the colorway can alter the look of a garment dramatically. cropping Trimming an illustrationto alter the focus of the composition (removingan unwanted area of empty space, for example) or to remove tattered edges. Glossary "all-ways" print A print with motifs that are not aligned in any one particular direction: the fabric will work in the same way whichever way up it is. art deco A design style, popular between the two World Wars, that was characterizedby simplicity,bold outlines, geometrical order, and the use of new materials such as plastic. bias cutting Cutting fabric with the pattern pieces placed at a 45-degree angle to the selvages and the grain. brief The client's, employer's, or tutor's instructionsto a designer,setting the parameters of a design project. clip-art images Copyright-freeimages available through the Internet. collage An image created by sticking items (such as paper cuttings or pieces of cloth) to a surface. From the French coller (to glue). collection The group of garments produced -. each season by a designer. Usually these items have certain features rn common, such as color, shape, and pattern. customer profile Informationabout the lifestyle of the target customer-such as age, economic status, and occupation-that guides a designer in creating commerciallyviable collections. dry-mounting Placing adhesive backing onto an illustrationand then heating in order to adhere it to a board. grain The fabric grain is the direction of the woven fibers, either lengthwiseor crosswise. Most dressmaking pieces are cut on the lengthwisegrain, which has minimal stretch; when bias cutting, pieces are placed diagonally to the grain. layout The composition of the illustrationon the page. A bold layout,which fills the page and makes the design statement with confidence, is often the most successful approach. mixed media A combination of different media within the same image. Possible media include color pencils, oil pastels, crayons, gouache, watercolor paints, pen and ink, or even a computer or photocopier. mood board A board displaying inspirational research,current fashion images, fabric swatches, and color palettes. It should encapsulatethe most importantthemes from the research and act as a focus during the creation of the designs. "negativespace" Part of the illustrationleft deliberatelyblank so that viewers, who might have expected these areas to be filled in, will read the invisible lines through the white space. "one-way"print A print where the motifs are aligned in one direction. More expensive to use for making garments than "all-ways" prints since extra fabric is requiredto align the print correctly. Pantone color chips Individuallynumbered shades, supplied in color reference books. The numbered shades are recognizedthroughout the internationalfashion industry. portfolio A case used for storing, transporting, and displaying illustrations. presentation board A light foam board available in various sizes from art supply stores. Used for presenting work to tutors, employers, and clients. range Used interchangeablywith "collection" to describe the group of garments produced each season by a designer "Range" has also more specifically commercial overtones, indicating a selection of coordinating garments that offers maximum choice to the customer within the parametersof the range. roughs The quick unconstrained sketches that a designer uses to "think out loud on paper," developing a research idea into a range of designs. silhouette The outline shape of a complete ensemble. target customer The person who is likely to wear the designs produced for each project. A designer should construct a profile of the target customer in order to ensure that the garments are commercially focused. target market The range of target customers that a retailer aims to satisfy. working drawing The representationof a garment as it would look laid out flat, rather than drawn on a figure. Used to convey precise informationabout the construction, trims, finishes, and any other details of the pieces. Also known as "flats," or technical or specification drawings.
  • 138. Index Page numbers in italics refer to captions A ABBA 25 abstraction 38, 45 accessories 107, 121 adhesive 126, 127 Adobe Photoshop40 "all ways" print 34, 35 Ancient Egypt, inspiration from 16, 18-19, 18, 19 antique textiles, inspiration from 25 .. architecture,inspiration from 14, 15,20, 20-21, 21, 22,22, 23 art, inspirationfrom 6, 34, 34-36,35, 36, 44,45 art deco style 15,20 art nouveau patterns 41 B back view 78, 85 balance 75, 75 bias, cutting on the 34, 109 borders: use in presentation 129 bridalwear 88, 98, 135 budget 30,92,98-99, 100 C Cadillac 14 Chalayan, Hussein:skirt 8 children's-wear 133 Chrysler Building 14, 15,20 clip-art images 34 clutter, avoiding 74 collaboration 121, 122, 122 collage 45, 57, 65 in life drawing 62, 63, 64 collection, creating a 82, 82, 83, 84,84, 86 color: chips 104, 105;see also Pantone chips combinations 27, 104, 105, 106 in life drawing 60 matching 31 in presentation 128 simultaneous application of 70, 71, 72 swatches 104 theming 29 color palette 17,26, 27, 29, 40, 45, 72, 94, 102, 102, 104, 106, 107 changing 106 for a collection 86 consistent 18, 19, 68 creating 67, 105 limited 18,23, 36, 60, 64, 104 of a painting 34 colorways,variant 34, 35, 35, 36, 37 Conran,Jasper: collection 88 coordinating garmentssee mix-and-matchrange crochet 108, 109 cropping 49, 74, 75 customer: profile 30, 92 target 26, 27, 28, 45, 84, 90, 92-93, 94, 96, 98, 100, 100 taste 93, 94, 95, 96 D daywear project 88-91 decoration see embellishment design: brief 92-93 fabric 40-42, 43 layout 74-75. 75 print 6, 34, 34-35, 35, 36, 37, 46 devor6 velvet 42 drawings: figure 50-51 ; folded-paper method 52, 52-53, 54,54 fixing 126 life 51, 58, 58-59, 59, 60; collage 62, 63, 64 roughs 82,84-85, 86, 88, 105,106 working ("flats") 83, 84, 85, 114-115, 115, 116, 116-117, 118, 118, 119, 133; in presentation 125, 125, 126,127, 130, 131,132, 135, 137 jry-mounting 126 lufy, Raoul 6, 34, 36, 36 lyeing 40 E Easter Island statues 14 elongation in fashion illustration50, 51, 52, 54 embellishment32, 40, 110,118 cost of 92 embroidery 40, 44-46, 47, 98,130 inspirationfor 24 machine 45,45, 47 site of 45 end-of-yearshow 8, 121, 122,123 ethnic styles 15, 15, 32 eveningwear 88, 98, 99 experimentation 56-57, 70, 72 F fabric 102 bias cut 34, 109 design 40-42,43 draping 6, 102, 102, 103, 108,110,120 grouping 103 manipulation 108 properties of 108 structuring 108-1 09, 709, 110 swatches 42, 43, 103,135 textured 114 fashion illustration51, 76 figure drawing 50-51 folded-paper method 52, 52-53, 54,54 film see movies, inspirationfrom fixing drawings 126 flats 83, 84, 84, 85, 114, 115, 133 see also working drawings G garment: construction 89, 108-109, 110,114, 115, 116,117,118, 119 mocking up 120 Ghost design 92 graphics material 34, 35, I 36,37 graveyard, inspiration from 40, 42, 43 hggenheim Museum 20 lair, representing67, 68, 69 I .iawaiian beach shirt 74, 76, 76-77, 78 henna hand tattoos 30,31 iilfiger, Tommy 15 rlindu gods and goddesses 30 I illustrationstyle 42, 43, 66, 124-1 25, 130-1 31, 132,135 India, inspirationfrom 30, 30-32,31, 32, 33 insect wing 38, 38 Internet 15 see also web sites J Jackson, Betty: collection 82 . K Kandinsky,Wass~ly34 Kl~mt,Gustave 44, 44, 46 knittlng 40, 46, 46, 47, 108 109,110 knitwear designs 96, 110 L La Boca, Buenos Aires 20 lacework, inspirationfor 20,24
  • 139. j;;. ., .. - ; : ; . . 4 : , . 41': . ,. ' . , .;,:! .. # 4 * . ,! : . i!,?, : , . ... I . , , , < , . ' 3::.,*:,. layers 39, 39, 98, 130 ripped 20 layout 74-75, 75 LeaningTower of Pisa 20,20 Leonardo da Vinci 50 life drawing 51, 58, 58-59, 59, 60 collage in 62, 63, 64 lifestyle profile 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98 lingerie98 Lycra 15 M magazine cuttings 26, 26, - 27, 28, 57, 82 Matisse, Henri 34 medra: experimenting with 56, 56-57,70 in life drawing 60 mixed 70, 71, 72 -, Mir6,Joan 34,35 mix-and-matchrange 88, 88, 89, 90 Mondrian, Piet 34, 34, 36,36 mood board 25,26-27, 27, 28, 28, 29, 40, 41, 86, 100, 104,105 motif(s): illustrating77, 78 repeated 34, 35 see also pattern(s) mounting 126, 127 movement of human body 51, 53 movies, inspirationfrom 15, 134, 137, 137 "muse" 92 museums, inspirationfrom 15, 16, 16-17 N neckline 117 "negativespace" 65, 67, 69 0 observationalskills 68, 76 or1 pastels 70, 71, 72, 72 "one-way" print 34, 35 outdated styles, inspiration from 25 overall image 66, 67, 68, 72, 73, 86, 86, 87, 117 P packaging, inspiration from 25 page format 75 Pantonechips 27, 104, 105 papyrus 17 past, inspirationfrom 14 pattern(s): repeating41, 45 simplified 41, 44, 45, 45 see also motif(s) pencil 70 photography 31, 40, 40, 44, 45, 66, 67 of architecture 21, 21 black-and-white40 . close-up 24 digital 40, 122 in fabric structuring 108 fashion 33, 137 of garments 120, 122,122 in presentation126 for working drawings 117 Picasso,Pablo 34 pleating 108, 120 portfolio 118, 122, 124, 124, 131, 132 pose: exaggerated58, 59, 60 repeated 69 presentation 124-1 25, 125, 126-127,128, 128, 133 board 104,118, 124, 124, 127,132 complex 128 creative 9, 134, 134 elements 131 inspirationfrom source 6, 136 style 8, 130, 130-131, 131, 132,134 themed 135, 136 print design 6, 34, 34-35, 35, 36, 36, 37, 46 coordinating 34 illustrating76, 77, 78, 78, 79 printing 40 proportion(s) 25, 41, 86, 115,117,118, 119 color 105, 106, 107 of human body 50, 50-51, 51, 52, 52, 53, 54,55 R range planning 66, 68, 83, 88,89, 90, 90, 91 roughs 82,84-85, 86, 88, 105,106 S sailing wear 15 scale 16,37, 38, 41, 119 of decoration 130 scarf project 34-36, 37 scrapbook 31, 82 sculpture, ~nsprrat~on from 28 seas~de,~nsprrat~on from 28 seasons 27, 28, 92, 98, 100, 102 colors 26, 29 var~atrons44 hape 25, 40, 98, 102, 108,109 see also srlhouette s~lhouette9, 42, 43, 86, 87, 102,110,117 In presentatron 128, 132 theme 31 s~mpl~f~cat~onof pattern 41, 44, 45, 45 ketchbook 6, 137 in portfolio 125, 125 sk~rtsfor men 92 skyscraper w~ndows, ~nsp~rat~onfrom 14, 22,22 ource 17,42, 136, 736 analyz~ng108 I natural 39 pec~ficationdrawings 119 spontane~ty,developing 56-57 ,portswear 98, 99, 108 structured 15, 15 storage 124 street art, inspiration from 25 styl~zat~on53, 54, 55, 68,68 swatches: color 104 fabric 27, 42, 43 paint 26, 27 in presentation 126, 127, 127,132,133 swimwear 88, 98, 98 Sydney Opera House 20 T target customer 26, 27, 28, 45, 84, 90, 92-93, 94, 96,98,100,100 target market 93 templates 47 texture 17, 25, 40, 108, 114, 115 tracing 84, 85, 117, 118 trends 27, 28, 92 color 102 in fabric structuring 109 v Van Noten, Dries: skirt for men 92 Versace collection 88 vintage dress, inspiration from 28 Vitruvian Man (da Vinci) 50 volume 25, 108, 110, 111 W wardrobe, drawing from own 66-67, 116, 117 watercolor 70, 72 web sites, fashion 27, 102 working drawings 114-115, 116, 116-117, 118, 718 in presentation 125, 125, 126, 127, 130, 131, 132, 135, 137 see also "flats" workwear 90, 90, 101
  • 140. Credits Quarto would like to thank and acknowledge the following for permission to reproduce their pictures: (Key: t top; b bottom; I left; r right; c center) Caroline Tatham: pp.1, 2(1), 3(t), 4(tc,tr,b),5(l,r), 6(t), 7(b), 8(1), 9(tr), 11, 24(bl,tr), 25(cr), 27, 28, 29, 38(br), 39(br), 40, 41, 42, 43, 44(tr,b), 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 74(1), 75(t), 82(r), 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 93(bc), 94, 95, 96, 97, 99(tl,bc), 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125(tc,tr), 127, 128(1),129, 130, 131, 132, 133. Gamma/KambourisDimitrios: 88(t). Gamma/ Simon-Stevens: 13, 34. GammaNan der Stockt Laurent: 81. Heritage ImagesIBritish Museum: 17(br). Heritage Images/Corporation of London Libraries and Guildhall Art Gallery: 16(b). Heritage Images /National Motor Museum: 14(1).Holly Marler: pp.g(tl), 39(tc,br), 111, 125, 134, 135, 136, 137. Julian Seaman: pp.2(c,r),3(b), 4(tl,c), 5(cr), 6(bl), 7(t), 15(cl),35, 36, 37, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 59, 60, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74(r), 75(b), 77, 78, 79, 125(tl), 128(c,r). Roisin Dunn: pp.l7(lt,c,b),18, 19. Saskia Mullins: pp.6(br), 74(c), 125(b). Sherina Dalarmal: pp.31(b), 32, 33. Timothy Lee: pp.l4(tr), 21, 22, 23. 8(r), 9(b), 15(tl,tr,cr),25(c,b), 31(t), 44(tl), 82(1), 88(b), 92, 113, 76(t). All other photographs and illustrations are the copyright of Quarto Publishing plc. While every effort has been made to credit contributors, we would like to apologize in advance if there have been any omissions or errors.
  • 141. ashion Design Drawing Course is the ultimate guide for aspiring designers, fashion artists, and everyone who loves style. Organized into twentpfour instructional units to reflect the C courses of top design colleges, this book covers every aspect of fashion illustration, from finding the inspiration for fabulous r designs to the techniques that will allow you to put your ideas I across with irresistibleeffect. *Find inspiration by seeing the world in a new way .r*learn to draw fash~onand communicate your vision *Plan a collection by targeting your customer and choosing fabrics and colors to create a cohesive look *Build an ey6-catching portfolio that will sell your designs .Compare your work with c o l ~ rillustrations showing examples from top designers and outpnding students Caroline Tatham was the lead tutor in fashion at Central Saint Martin's College of Art and Design in London. She has worked internationally as a designer, product developer, and brand manager, and sells her knitwear designs worldwide. Julian Seaman is the author of several books on fashion design. He is a visiting tutor at Central Saint Martin's, and an internationally-known print designer and painter. $23.95 Canada$34.95