d e s i g n
Principles, practice, and techniques:
r
the
r s e
In artist
lulian Seaman
FashionI
d e s i g n d r a w i n g c o u r s e
I
ash'one l. "--+= drawing G o ~ r s ~
Principles, practice, and techniques:
the ultimate guide for the aspiring fashion a...
Introduction
Howto usethis book
Assessing your work
FINDING INSPIRATION ILLUSTRATING FASHION
lnspirationfile: Whereto star...
IDLANNING
AND DESIGNING
lnspirationfile:
Creating a cohesrve collectron
Unit 14: Learnto loveyour roughs
Unit 15: Planning...
- ~
- --- -- . _ --
Fashion is. by itsvery nature.an ever-changini.&
dscar ~ i l d eremarkedthat "Fashion is a form of
ugl...
V Having confidence
Learning howto fill the page
boldly is an importantaspect
of becoming a fashion
designer.Whenyou show
...
garmentsfrom life.You will also learn howto be bold
I
will teach you howto work to a brief,to take into
in your designs,fi...
b Maximumimpact
You shouldtry to present
your designswith maximum
creative impact.This dress
was inspiredby film and
theat...
How to use this book
Fallowing the format of a college course, this book i!
divided intotwenty-four units,each one looking...
Assessing your work
Whetheryou are a student enrolled in a courseor
simply working through this book on your own at
home, ...
FINDING INSPIRATION
People often wonder how fashion designers manageto come up with so many
marvelous new ideas.The truth ...
4 This dress by
Yves Saint Laurent
was inspiredbythe
work of Mondrian:
a goodexampleof
adesigner drawing
ideasfromthe
worl...
Where to start
One of the most daunting aspects of creativity is being faced with a blank page, but luckily ideas don't
ha...
Structuredsportswear has
inspired many iconic shapes-
think football shirts and Dynasty
shoulder pads. Cycling Lycra
produ...
Visiting a museum
Museums can sometimesseem dull or dumbed downto cater to with scale,enlarginga detail and reducingthe si...
Ithe process
Researchyour local
museum or visit a
nationalcollection.
Spend at least half a
day browsing before
selectingw...
Exploringa sourcethrough sketches
and work~ngdrawings enables
fashion designersto identify what
reallyexcitesthem about th...
Old and new
The effect of these drawings
is avibrant mix of ancient
and modern.The work is
-freshbecausethe inspiration
of...
Investigating architecture
It may seem a little surprisingto use buildings as inspirationfor clothes. Bulldingdesigr
is ob...
4 First fashion ideas
 Useyour flrst rough drawlngsto explore the shape of the
bulldlngas a whole The fashlon parallels, s...
..
22 FINDING INSPIRATION
INVESTIGATINGARCHITECTURE 23
_I
A fresh look at the familiar
When discussing how fashion designers and illustratorswork, people oftenwonder
where all the ...
A The treasures
at home
What interesting
artifactsdo you have
stashedaway at
home? Lookclosely
at an heirloomor a
souvenir...
Mood boards
Creating a mood board is great fun and will help
you be selectivewith the researchyou have
gathered.This is th...
4 Test the colors
Examineyour chosen
imagestigether to identify
the key shades and best
color combinationsto evoke
your th...
successfulmood board, likethose pictured here,
A h a s a uniquepersonality.~texpressesthe essence
of the design ideasand s...
4 Summer colors
. A h~gh-summerdecorat~vetheme has
i been createdInth~smood board
_ through an eclectic mix of colorful
im...
. . . - - - : . .
The traditions of India
Inthis age of global branding, it can be refreshingto turn to non-Westernculture...
the process
Research lndian culture
by visiting museums,
libraries, shops, markets,
and temples. Talk to
people, buy postc...
Designs inspired by traditional Indiandress might be looseand flowing, or involve
the clever use of wrapping and layeringa...
A A free-spirited collection
The illustrateddesignswere finally made up into
finished garments (with some changesto the
co...
Fine art and graphics
An importantareafor the fashion student to explore
is print design, and one of the best sources of
i...
cut out shapes and
arrangethem in several
ways, differingthe scale.
These images can be
juxtaposed withfine lines
or other...
The lines, shapes,and patternsof existingworks of art and graphics can provide
great inspirationfor fashion designers.Ther...
I
A Differentcolorways
The scarf printswere made in
different combinations of colors,
demonstrating how much a simple
alte...
One simple way to see something in a fresh light is to experiment with its
scale. If a small part of a commonplace object ...
1 4 A Natural
answerwill point your developmentsin the
rightdirection;this is what you should try to
captureas you abstrac...
Designing fabric ideas
V Rapid research
Photographyisagreatway to quicklygather useful
research.Usingablack-and-whitefilmw...
A Creating a theme
Compilinga mood board will
enableyouto combine
imagesfromyour research
materialwith fashion ideas.
All ...
Developing a fabric concept in conjunctionwith a garment design allows for total
I controlof the creative process-giving a...
a~
Starting with embroidery
The previous unit demonstratesthat fashion design
can be driven by fabric development.Inthe sa...
the process
Beginby looking at a
numberof your chosen
artist's works, but stay
focusedby editing down
the starting points....
Embroideryideas can betranslateddirectly
onto fabric and usedwith fashion designs as
appropriate,or they can be developedf...
V Communicating clearly
By showing the decorativedetail separately
fromthe garment itself,these four final
illustrations c...
ILLUSTRATING FASHION
Nowthat you have developedsome great design ideas, it'stime to look more
closely at the techniques of...
Upper Chest
arm
Pelvic
area 0 0 Joints
uThigh
As a fashion designer you should always rememberthat clothes
are madeto bewo...
I F ~simple block shapes. The head can
frayed as an egg; the chest as a
laper basket; the pelvic area as a wide
isticvault...
An exercise in figure drawing
If you are inexperiencedin drawingfigures, usingthis
easy methodcan add to the confidenceof ...
4 Usingthe framework
Us~ngthe "e~ghtand a half heads" proportions as a rough
framework for your ~llustrat~onsw~llsupport e...
Althoughit is essentialfor a fashion designer to strive to breaknew ground and
sometimes disregard conventions,it is never...
Experimentswith media
One of the most important aspects of design drawing is the ability to "loosen up."Often a budding
de...
Many of these experimentalattemptsare
destinedfor the wastepaper basket, but don't
worry. Thereare so manyways of putting ...
Drawingfrom life
It cannot be stressedtoo strongly that if you are I
designing clothes, however exoticyour sources,you
mus...
Capturingthe poses
Thesefigureswere illustrated
duringa life-drawingclass.The
limitedtime availableto
complete each pose h...
0ne of the most stimulatingaspects of working with a life model is havingto use
every second of the session to best advant...
Lessis more
Eachpage hasbeenfilledwith an
interestingcompositionthat not
onlygives a graphic representation
of the individ...
Exploring collage
As a designer it is essentialthat you explore allthe
drawingand illustrationtools availableto you. One
o...
4 b Quick thinking
You will haveonly a few mlnutesto
cut or rlpthe material, and then glue
~tdown One tlme-savrng and
soph...
Exploringdifferent ways to illustrate garments can be liberatingfor a designer.
Although putting pen or paintto paper is t...
4 Creating an illusion
Cuttingsfrom differentsourcescan
be collaged togetherto createthe
overall effect of a humanfigure
w...
Drawing from your wardrobe
It is never easy to put that first mark on a blank sheet
of paper.A valuable exercise,therefore...
Hangup the garments or
laythem out on the floor.
Take photographsand
doodlesomefigures on
sketchpaperto come up
with ideas...
Illustratingfound garments,ratherthan original ideas, is a very usefulway for a
designer to develop observational skills. ...
A Reading between
the lines
These images make bold useof
"negativespace," leavingsome
white areas untouchedso that
the inv...
Not just pencil
the process
Fromthe vast range of
inspirationtoward which
you were directed earlier
in this book, select a...
A Mixingyour media
The colors andthemes of these roughs
were adjusted for the final designs (see
pages 72-73), but the tec...
t
I xperimenting with applying and mixing different media can achieve stunning
I
Eresults Unusual combinationsof technique...
4 V A Unifyingfeatures
The group of drawings hasbeen givencohesionthroughthe use
of well-delineatedfigures, eachwith an au...
Laying out your page
A designer is inthe business of visual communication,whether the informationis presentedpurely
~ictor...
working with onto a larger sheet and then
drawing over the edges. This will allow you to
avoidthe trap of cramping your st...
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
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Fashion design drawing book
Fashion design drawing book
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Fashion design drawing book

  1. 1. d e s i g n Principles, practice, and techniques: r the r s e In artist lulian Seaman
  2. 2. FashionI d e s i g n d r a w i n g c o u r s e
  3. 3. I ash'one l. "--+= drawing G o ~ r s ~ Principles, practice, and techniques: the ultimate guide for the aspiring fashion artist Caroline Tatham Julian Seaman
  4. 4. Introduction Howto usethis book Assessing your work FINDING INSPIRATION ILLUSTRATING FASHION lnspirationfile: Whereto start Unit 1:Visiting a museum The human body in proportion 50 Unit 2: Investigatingarchitecture Inspirationfile: Inspirationfile: Experimentswith med~a56 A fresh look at the fam~liar Unit 3: Mood boards Unit 4: Thetraditions of India Unit 5: Fineart and graphics lnspirationfile: Small details,big ideas 38 j lnspirationfile: Laying out your page 74 Unit 6: Designingfabric ideas 40 Unit 13: Illustratingbold print 76 Unit7: Startingwith embroidery 44 I
  5. 5. IDLANNING AND DESIGNING lnspirationfile: Creating a cohesrve collectron Unit 14: Learnto loveyour roughs Unit 15: Planning a range E lnspirationfile: Designingto a brief ' Unit 16: Customer focus Unit 17: Occasions,seasons, budgets lnspirationfile: Color and fabric Unit 18: Color palettes Unit 19: Structuring fabric a ICOMMUNICATING YOUR VISION lnspirationfile: Clarityand communication Unit 20: Working drawings Unit 21: Real garmentsfor your portfolic lnspirationfile: Presentingyour work Unit 22: Practicalitiesof presentation Unit 23: Choosing a presentation style Unit 24: Presentingwith flair Fashion resources Glossary Index Credits All inquiries should be addressed to: Barron's EducationalSeries, Inc. 250 Wireless Boulevard Hauppauge, NewYork 11788 http:l/www.barronseduc.com Copyright 0 2003 Quarto Inc. All rights reserved.No part of this book may reproduced inany form, by photostat, microf xerography, or any other means, or incorpora into any informationretrievalsystem,electronic or mechanical,without the written permiss~onof the copyright owner. I Indexer: Pamela Ellis . . I Art Director: MoiraClinch Publisher:P,iers Spence Manufacturedby Pica Digital PIE Ltd., Singapore Printedin China by Midas Printing InternationalLtd. 9 8 7 6
  6. 6. - ~ - --- -- . _ -- Fashion is. by itsvery nature.an ever-changini.& dscar ~ i l d eremarkedthat "Fashion is a form of uglinessso intolerablethat we haveto alter it every six months," but it is this continualevolutioni,$e ---.-constant reinventionof old trends and the creak~-nofjew ones,cat lendsthe fashionindustry its excitement anallg amor. FashionDesignDrawingCourse is aimed3 aspiringfashion-%Signers an-elllru~~t=and anyonew~than interest Inthe fascinatingworld of style. The book is modeled aroundthe fashion courses offered by colleges and universities,with twenty-four units each containinga projectto leadyou step by step throughthe processof illustratingterrific designs. You don't needto know all about the big fashion namesto take this course, nor do you need-tobe a genius with a paintbrushor sewing machine.The aim of this book is to unravelthe mystiquesurrounding fashion,and to show how designs can be created through a systematic processof researchand development,and the use of a rangeof illustration techniques.All you needto begin is enthusiasmand a willingness to b No experience required You don't needto be a sewingexpertto creategreat fashion designs.You can explorethe behavior of a made-up garment simply by draping fabric around a dressmaker'sstand,and then incorporateideas about pleatingand gatheringinto your illustrations. I Inthe first chapter, "Finding inspiration,"you will V A stream of ideas learnthat creatinga design is not a mysticalaffair but Useyour sketchbook to simplyabout researching,developing,and reinventing exploreyour first ideas about an inspiringtheme. Ifyou look at your surroundings 1a design. Don't betoo critical of your roughs-just letthe through the eyes of a designer,you will seethat ideasflow and you will be inspirationis everywhere-museums, art galleries,the surprisedat thevitalityof the i seashore,the city streets, evenyour familiar home and work you produce. garden can provideyou with raw material.This chapter will show you howto identify and researcha sourceof inspiration,and howto usethis inspirationto guide your <=I-3I designs,through the use of mood boardsfor example.Itwill also give I 4 Borrowing inspiration You can borrow motifsfrom paintingsto create print patterns-these printsare inspired by the work of Dufy.
  7. 7. V Having confidence Learning howto fill the page boldly is an importantaspect of becoming a fashion designer.Whenyou show confidenceinyour designs youwill bewell on the way to convincingtutors, clients, and employersto havefaith inthemtoo. some suggestionsabout howto put your own special I spin on an idea. perhapsby enlargingscale to explore he unseendetails of an ordinary object, or by bringing the patternsand shapesof a paintingor a building intoa new context, or by usingyour sourceto inspire a fabric design that will be the focus of the garment. Once you have developed some great design ideas you needto be ableto representthem on the page. The second chapter, "Illustrating fashion,"will give you the confidenceto expand your drawingtechniqueto includemethods such as collage and mixed media. A mistake studentsoften makeis to believethey must jevelop a personaldrawingstyle early on, and then stick to it.This book encourages plenty of experimentation-if you keep pushingthe boundaries, your ideaswill always be fresh. Experimentsdon't alwayswork, of course, but you must havethe courage to fail-this is part of the learning process. One importantpointto keep in mind while working through this course isthat the final aim of any fashion design is to produce a real garmentthat can be worn on a real human body.An article of clothing drawn on a figure that iswildly out of proportionwill -lack authority becauseno one ' will be able to imagineactually wearing it.The second chapter therefore explains an easy paper-foldingmethodthat an inexperienced designer can use as a guide for creatingfashion figures. Duringthis part of the courseyou will learn to observe carefully and to honeyour representational skills,as you practicedrawing people and Capturingthe mood b A free representationof afigure can capturea posejust as well as avety 1detailed one. You don't need Iof garmentdesigns reflecttheir Arctic 1 source in aspects such asthe Inuit-stylefigures andthe snowflakeknit pattern. Developing I designs from one source produces distinctivework. -1
  8. 8. garmentsfrom life.You will also learn howto be bold I will teach you howto work to a brief,to take into in your designs,filling each pagewith drawings that account considerationssuch as budget and seasonal show conviction. requirements,and to build a collectionaimed at V Goingwild The third chapter, "Planning and designing,"takes a target customer whose tastes you mightwell not Designersneedto be vour desianwork intothe wider context of the fashion shareyourself. practicalinfocusing their- industry.Being a successfuldesigner is not about producing flamboyantone-off pieces but about developingyour inspirationinto a cohesiverangeof I The final chapter, "Communicatingyour vision," work on a target customer, looks at how all these wonderful ideas can be best but sometimes it's good to letyourself go wild-this shown off to colleagues,tutors, employers,and clients. HusseinChala,,an skirt designs that share a strong look while offeringas much choiceto the customer as possible.This chapter When it comes to presentingyour concepts, remember that clarity is key-there is no point in was designed around a coffeetable. V b Communicating your ideas Presentyour designs in an appropriate style:these jewel-like illustrations capture perfectlythe sophisticationof the garments. Ifyou are studying at college,you could even take your presentationa step further by photographing your designs at the end-of-
  9. 9. b Maximumimpact You shouldtry to present your designswith maximum creative impact.This dress was inspiredby film and theater postersfrom the 1940s,and the concept is reflectednot only inthe dress itself but also in aspects such as the dancing pose of the figure and the spotlight effect createdby spray paint used inthe background. V Competitive business Recentlygraduated fashion studentshaveto vigorously promotetheir designs at shows I inthe hopethat one of these eventswill catapultthem to catwalkstardom. creatingsuperb designs if no one can understandthe illustrations.This chapter explains howto support your creative illustrationswith flat working drawings and howto build a professional-lookingpresentation board, It also shows how every aspect of the presentation-from the style of drawingto the poses of the figures-can work togetherto communicate your vision with maximumimpact. Workingthrough FashionDesignDrawingCourse will giveyou the tools you needto create and illustrate designs, as well as the confidenceto set off on your career as a fashion designer,Your most important assets are an open mrndand a pairof fresh eyes; and i remember,as you venture intothis highly competitive yet rewardingbusiness,that fashion design should aboveall befun.
  10. 10. How to use this book Fallowing the format of a college course, this book i! divided intotwenty-four units,each one lookingat Example Pages 14-19 in "Finding inspiration" contain an inspirationfile, a unit, and a an aspect of the illustrationof fashion design.The units showcase,and providea good illustrationof the structureof the book. are grouped intofour chapters, so you progress logicallyfrom finding inspirationto using illustration techniquesto planninga collectionto presentingyour ideas.Throughout the book, "inspirationfiles" provide background informationon topics approached in the units.Each unit sets a projectto complete, definingthe objectiveand describing exactly howyou go about achieving it.Answering the "self-critique"questionswill helpyou assess what you havedone, and you can also compareyour work to the designs in the "showcase"that completes each unit and presents successfulinterpretationsof the project. The inspiration file givesan overview of the topic of finding inspiration. 1Where to start The project inthe first unit isto visit a museum,introducing the readerto methodsof developinga source. 1- I Visitinga museum I Illustrationsshow examplesof imagesthat could inspirefashion design; the captions suggest how. "The process" provides a step-by-stepguide to completing the project. The showcase displayssuccessful interpretations of the brief. Eachunit contains"the project," a brief statement of the task, "the objective," a summaryof its aims, and a "self-critique"section of questionsto usewhen assessingthe results. Pagesfrom designers' sketchbooks show how ideas are developed. Finalillustrationsby other . designerssuggestways in which you could have approached the project. IS BOOK C
  11. 11. Assessing your work Whetheryou are a student enrolled in a courseor simply working through this book on your own at home, it is essentialto keep reviewingyour working practice.You will not progress unlessyou look at your work critically,assessingwhether you have achieved what you set out to do. When you start to be artistically creative it is often difficultto judge whether what you havedone is any good.Oddly,what tends to happen isthat studentsare far too self-critical and fail to spot when they are on to a winning idea. Itis alwaysworth pursuingsomething that you knowworks for you. However,you also need to be able to ruthlesslyfilter out the ideas that are not working.At first,you may lean heavilyon the opinion of people such as tutors, but there will come a time when you know enough about yourself and your designsto select for yourself what works and what doesn't. Inthis bookyou are askedto carry out a self-critique on each project. Don't be too hard on yourself, but think honestly about whether your work has succeeded in the ways indicated by the questions. Here are some tips to helpyou with your self-assessment: Allow yourself to learn. Don't worry if atfirst your work seemsvery influenced by the styles of others. It is through imitationthat you will discoverfor yourself howto makethe best use of the techniques. a Don't worry if an experimentfails. A good designer is always curious, always pushing the boundaries.It is only through trial and error that truly original ideaswill emerge. Congratulateyourself for havingthe nerveto go beyondthe obvious and ask yourself what you have learnedfrom others. Some people will loveyour work, others will hate it-all you can do istry to betrue to your own special take on the world. the project. Muchof the design might give up without process hasto do with any appreciationof Don't betoo fixed in self-disciplineso judge their efforts. Even a your definition of your work honestly. throwawaycomment "success," as this will You should work freely from a friend such as, 1' close off avenues andtreasureyour "Icouldn't have drawn opened up by a happy rough ideas (they are that," will spur you on accident. So long as often more exciting to new successes. you knowwhat the rules than an overworked are, it can befun to concept), but you Don't be discouraged breakthem sometimes. needto know which if other designersor ones to reject. members of your class seem to be producing e Showyour work to . betterwork than you- family andfriends, just concentrateon and accepttheir developingyour own compliments.The most uniquestyle. Pay attentionto your instinct about what you have produced, and don't try to judge it through the eyes of experienceddesigners
  12. 12. FINDING INSPIRATION People often wonder how fashion designers manageto come up with so many marvelous new ideas.The truth is that these ideas are rarely completely new: designers create by reinventingthe world around them. This chapter will show you how to develop designs from almost any inspirationalsource, whether you are exploring the world of fine art or the buildings of your town, Indianculture or the familiar objects in your home and garden.
  13. 13. 4 This dress by Yves Saint Laurent was inspiredbythe work of Mondrian: a goodexampleof adesigner drawing ideasfromthe worldof art.
  14. 14. Where to start One of the most daunting aspects of creativity is being faced with a blank page, but luckily ideas don't haveto be spirited out of thin air.A mistakeoften made by newfashion students is to design a series of individual garments that have no discerniblesource of inspirationand no cohesive "look."However,once you have establishedatheme, a multitudeof related ideaswill come tumbling onto your page. Inspirationfor design themes can befound everywhere,whether your source is a seashell on a beachor a splendid skyscraper,the fun of the fair or the Carnivalat Rio. If you research well, your topic will automaticallyinfluence your garment ideas; for example, the theme of a circus or fairground is likelyto produce a colorful,flamboyant look. With an inquiring mind almostanything cantrigger a creative spark.Thetrick is to beableto selectthe best routeto follow. As a commercialdesigneryou will haveyour customer in mindfrom the outset, and self-indulgentflights of fancy may becausethey are all aware of the broad trends. (However,designing from a completely off-the-wallangle has also produced some of fashion's greatestmoments.) Although nothing dates morequickly than fashion, lookingto the pastfor inspiration often produces great results.A whole era can becomean inspiration,andthe popularity of different erastends to wax and wane in cycles. Oneyear stylesfrom the 1950smight be in fashion; the next it's a '70s look that's popular. Designsthat were the height of fashion becomethe object of derision, only to reemergea generationlateras "must have" articles; wide-flared,low-risetrousers are a perfectexample. 4 Lookingup The ar~glcdeegancc haveto take a backseat.As a student, however, the furthest extremes can, and should, be explored. Anything can bewatereddown; it is much harderto spice up something dull. I A designershould alwayshaveafinger on ! the pulse of the time: musictrends, street of structuressuch as the Chrysler Building can be capturedin a I fashiondesign. Why notleta multistory buildinginspireatiered skirt,or add dangling beaded ribbonsto mimicthe pattern of itswindows? culture,fllms, fine art movements. It IS no coincidence that each fash~onseason has a discernible look; differentdesignersoften produce similar color rangesand silhouettes (the outline shapes of completeensembles) 4 b Global icons Glve adeslgn a 1950s feel by incorporatingthe dlstlnct~veshapeof a Cadlilac'stall flns (left) The EasterIslandstatues (rlght)are also lconlc referencesto these enlgrnatlcflgures Ina fashlon rllustrat~oncould have a strlkingeffect
  15. 15. Structuredsportswear has inspired many iconic shapes- think football shirts and Dynasty shoulder pads. Cycling Lycra produced a whole newfashion concept (skintight garments in bright colors), as did sailing weal the synthetic waterproof clothing by Tommy Hilfiger. Chrysler Building in NewYork make it a superb example of an artistic endeavor that could easily inspire garment design. Hollywood moviescan also start fashiontrends; The Great Gatsby and the MadMaxseries popularized, respectively, 1920sflapper dresses and the "road warrior" look that combines punk and grunge. Your opportunities for exploring themes are unlimited.You can research ideas by visiting museums or wanderingthrough a city to draw and take photographsyourself, or you can absorb the paintings, sculptures,films, photography,and books createdby other people.The Internetis a great source of informationthat can be accessedfrom your home or college. The knack of working with inspiration is to avoid trying to absorb too much at once. Being selectivewith your research and disciplined in developingjust a few well-chosenthemes will helpyou produce a focused rangeof designs that hold together as a collection. b Sporty shapes I Patternsand styles basedon ethnic ideas A Cherry-pick ideas are recycledagain and again by designers. )riceyou havethoroughly researchedyour source,you Oneseasonthey might work with the weaves I can choose the aspectsthat attractyou mostto include in of LatinAmerican Indians;nextyear they might ' your designs.YOUmay decide to incorporatethe complex feature the prints of certainAfricantribes. color scheme, zigzag patterns,and layeredlookof clothesworn by Peruv~anQuechuawomen; alternatively, Fashionoften draws on other forms of art it may bethe trailing coat of a circus clown or a highly for inspiration.The art deco magnificence, ornate Carnival costume, reminiscentof tropical birds glistening reflections,and lofty symmetryof the andflowers,that inspiresyou The shape- alteringpadded shouldersof the 1980sDynasty look made referenceto the structured wear used for sports such as ice hockey andfootball.
  16. 16. Visiting a museum Museums can sometimesseem dull or dumbed downto cater to with scale,enlarginga detail and reducingthe size of the piece as a schoolchildren.Don't be put off; a single collectionof antiquities whole. Don't restrictyourselfto looking at historicalclothesjust could keep a designer in ideasfor a lifetime.Borrowing and adapting becauseYou are designing garments, Inspirationcan come from ideasfrom the past IS notjust acceptable infashion design, but ceramics,Sculpture,jewelry, calligraphy, and even just from the an essentialway of obtaining raw materials.When you first visit a ambienceof the gallery. museum,it is best to spend at least half a day getting a general You do not need to take along allyour crayons and paintswhen overview of the exhibits.Take the time to find objects that inspireyou. It you visit a museum. Make plentyof notes in is only by looking morecloselyat a piecethat its detailsand subtleties your sketchbook so that you can become clear, and only when you draw it can you be surethat you are developyour ideas when you are back truly observingit.Your sketchbookwill then provideyou with hundreds at home or inthe studio. of starting points for planninga collection.Think both big and small; look at the overall shape of the object and also at the tiny detail. Play the project Visit a museumand browse until you find an areathat inspiresyou. Make notesand observationalsketches coveringseveral interestingsubjects.Then select atheme to inspire a small collection of garmentsthat obviously reflects its source. Completefour finished design drawingsat home or in your studio. the objective Select a source that inspiresyou. @ Makejudgments and choices before putting pencil to paper. Learnto observean object carefully. Adapt designsfrom the pastto creatework that is b An ancientsource uniquelyyours. The monumentalstatues Inthe : collect~onof Egypt~anant~qultles 1 at the Br~t~shMuseum~nLondon offer the enterarlslnafash~on, -student ideas about features SI lch an headrlranses and---. . -- . .----.----- -. .- jewelry, as well as more general stylizationtips.Haveyou looked closely at its detail? Haveyou noted its overall look? Were your drawings usefulto work from? Doyour finaldrawings-reflectthe source? , , 16 FINDINGlh 4 Fashionsof the past You can referto historical picturesfor intriguingimages of garmentsand accessoriesworn in past times.The color palettes and shapesfeaturedinthis representationof Ancient Egypt can be usedto ignite ideasfor contemporarygarmentdesigns.
  17. 17. Ithe process Researchyour local museum or visit a nationalcollection. Spend at least half a day browsing before selectingwhat you want to concentrateon. Fill several pages of your sketchbook with color notes, doodles, and quick sketchesof objects and details relatingto an area that interestsyou. Then I choose a suitablesource (a single object or small numberof objects that you find inspirational) and make at leastten I quick drawings on site of all its different aspects. Concentrateon the overallshapefor some drawings and on minute detailsfor others. 4 Bold reworking Theseworking drawings show howsketchesand notes made on site can be developed. Here,references to gold and jewels, hieroglyphics,and stylized eyes are mixedboldly,giving a modernfeel to the work. I Back at home or in the studio, startworking on lour color palette (see page 104) and explore the possibilities of shape, exaggeratingsome of the lines, blocks, and planes in your drawings, and ,educingothers. Consider howthe aspects of the source that jou have noted in your sketchbook-lines, colors, outline, mass, decoration,texture-- might translateinto fashion designs. Draw )ut some rough ideas for garments, and then add color. Finally, completefour finished design drawings. A T Fabric ideas Papyrus (above) has an interesting texture, and the charms inthe form of fish, shells, and necklace (below) striking print motifs. - ood boards, p. 26 B Color palettes, p. 104 ,&signing fabri- ideas, p. 40 ? - = Ir- *--- ---Ts-A--ws .-- VISITING A MUSEUM
  18. 18. Exploringa sourcethrough sketches and work~ngdrawings enables fashion designersto identify what reallyexcitesthem about the topic- whether ~tIS a strik~ngcolor combinat~on,the elegant shape of a vase, or a detail of a fastening in an old paintrng The illustrations prctured hereexplore and enlarge on the theme of Ancient Egypt,reflectingthe source's historicalbackground and at the same t~meforming a series of fresh and dynamic original creations The draw~ngsall echothe salrent features of the source and as a result have natural cohesionas a collection The consistency of the lim~tedcolor palettefurthers the impressionthat the designs were planned as a collectionfrom the outset A Fullof life Thoughthe drawings are finalized,they stillfeel unconstrainedand free, full of lifeand movement. Despitethe traditionalsource of their inspiration,the illustrationsare executedin a very light and modern way.
  19. 19. Old and new The effect of these drawings is avibrant mix of ancient and modern.The work is -freshbecausethe inspiration of Ancient Egypthas been brought intoa modern context, not only through a contemporarystyle of ~llustrat~onbut also by incorporatingdeta~lssuch as the very h~gh-heeledshoes 4 Consistentcolor The color paletteof gold, black, pink, and blue used in the illustrationsis consistent bothwith the source and withinthe group of designs as awhole. This increases the impressionthat the pieceswere planned as a collectionfrom the start.
  20. 20. Investigating architecture It may seem a little surprisingto use buildings as inspirationfor clothes. Bulldingdesigr is obviously meant for a long visual life,whereasfashion in clothes changeswith each season.However,bothforms arethree-dimensionaland structured,andwhether it is in the overalltheme of a building or just a detail, usefulideas arethereto befound. Agood designer needsto be a constant observer and lateralthinker. If you set outto investigate architecture, you will discovera wealth of interestingtextures, subtle colorways,and strongdesign features, which reflecttherr source but also emergeas design concepts intheir own right. Whether you choose to study a historicalbuilding likea church, a famous modern landmark,or evenyour own home, ideaswill emerge if you observeyour source closely. The reflectiveglass of a skyscraper might suggestthe useof a shimmeringmodern fabric; the peelingpaint of an old beachhut could stimulateyou to create a look incorporatingripped layers.Alternatively, letthe arcaded columns adorningthe LeaningTower of P~saevoke intricatesleeve details or bodice lacework.The perspectivelines of a building often provokeideasabout outline-think howthe GuggenheimMuseumcould suggest a billowingblouseor the art deco stylizationof the Chrysler Buildingmight be incorporatedinto a tiered silhouette. the project I b Bold statements The LeanlngTower of P~sa, Think in generalabout the sort of architecturethat could the Svdnev O ~ e r aHouse, II . - spark some design ideas. Select a building and make 1 the La Bocawaterfrontof extensive drawings in your sketchbook. Highlightthe elements (suchas overallshape, design details, and surroundings)that get you thinking. Take photographs. Then make photocopies of your researchandwork into them using paint, crayon, and ink. Distillthese ideasto illustratefour design ideas. the objective a Practiceobserving meticulouslyeverything aroundyou. a Makejudgments about the elements you want to use in your designs andthose you chooseto reject. a Useone form of creative work to create another. ) BuenosAires, and a glass skyscraperare allstunnlng examples of architecture that could lnsplrefash~ondeslgn
  21. 21. 4 First fashion ideas Useyour flrst rough drawlngsto explore the shape of the bulldlngas a whole The fashlon parallels, such as a long flared dress or sklrt silhouette, will become apparent 4 V Deconstruction bulldlngIn depth Exploring the ,.----"--.A*- __._ - _.-$ jolntlng detalls, for example, may different parts of your garmentswill f~ttogether Try to match the colors and textures of your photographic researchso that your fabrlc ideas the process reflect the source, too By makingthese choices Start by lookingthrough you will soon learnto architectural magazines. discernwhat is of useto YOU, go your photographsand suspensionbridge out with a sketchbook sketches, whichyou might hav6become and camerato select a canthenwork intowith cords supporting a building and record its paint, crayon, and ink, silk bodice inyour shapeand'details. Look alteringthe image by reworkingof the at stairwells, elevator manipulatingcertain concept-provided that shafts,windows, doors, elementsto create thejourney from source decoration, colors, and somethingpersonal to conclusion is mapped textures, aswell as at the to you. Finally, combine out inyour research. building's surroundings, elementsintofour too. Take photographsto originalfashiondesigns. capturethe whole picture It doesn't matterif the and makesketches to resultis a million miles highlightthe elements awayfromyour starting you want to remember. point-the cables of a ;* Haveyou transformedone type of three- .- r . dimens~onaldesign into another?
  22. 22. .. 22 FINDING INSPIRATION
  23. 23. INVESTIGATINGARCHITECTURE 23 _I
  24. 24. A fresh look at the familiar When discussing how fashion designers and illustratorswork, people oftenwonder where all the ideas come from. How can a designer produce such a volume of original work each season, apparently out of thin air?The answer, of course, is that it does not just appear as if by magic but comes from the systematic development of ideasoften triggered bythe everydayworld that surrounds us As a designeryou will learnhowto look anew andto investigatethese concepts in an original at commonplaceobjects and themes, and see way. An exciting personal approachto a smallest detail inthem possibilitiesfor inspiration and conceptwill add a uniqueflavor to a design. creativity. Oncethis is understood,the mystery With time, you mayfind yourself revisiting photographyor drawing is explodedand you can see howthe world certain ideasand images.This is perfectly smallobjectsl~keshellswill make you not~cetiny deta~ls,suchas splrals andswirls, aroundyou offers an endlesssourceof acceptableso long as you are ableto find an thatvou can useto aood effect ~nvour des~ans.- - imaginativepotential. original interpretationof your theme This huge rangeof choice may appear for each rangeof designs, and it is somewhat daunting atfirst, but you will soon part of the naturaldevelopmentof rdevelopthe ability to be selectivewith your your own recognizabledesign style. starting points, based on their potentialvalue As well as being of interestto to you as a source of inspiration.The key is to you, it is important that your sources use imagesthat truly interestand inspire you, incorporatevariousfactors that you 4 A The naturalworld Embroideryor laceworkideas can be derivedfrom something as mundaneas peelingrust or the skeletonof a leaf,and the undulatinglinesof freshly worked hillscouldbetranslated into stripes on a billowingblouse.
  25. 25. A The treasures at home What interesting artifactsdo you have stashedaway at home? Lookclosely at an heirloomor a souvenirinorder to appreciateit anew. Antique text~les,with their intricatepatterns and richtones, are agreat source of inspirationand can beeasily investigated through books, museums,and the Internet. will be able to use later in your designs. The ollowing aspects should be considered: colors and how they are combined; texture; proportion; shape; volume; details; and decoration. Your starting point should satisfy your creative interest on as many of these levels as possible. You can then use your A Take a chance on me Fashionruns in cycles; popbands such as ABBA and the clothesassociatedwith them are constantlygoing in andout of fashion.What "outdated"styles can be reinventedto createcontemporaryideas? materialto create mood boards (see page 26), which will provide a focus for the further development of selected aspects of your research and help you to be disciplined in designing garments based on a few well- chosen and targeted themes. A Popular culture Streetart makesawonderfulcontrastto the natural world. Bright colors can inspirefantastic print ideaswith a contemporaryurbanslant. b Packaged culture Packagingcan bevery evocative of the culture fromwhich it originates, providing acompact set of colors,images, andgraphicsthat can conveythe essence of an entire country.
  26. 26. Mood boards Creating a mood board is great fun and will help you be selectivewith the researchyou have gathered.This is the first stage of organizing your thoughts and collected images,enablingyou to channelyour creative excitementtoward a cohesive and targeted design outcome. Mood boards are made by arranging images and color ideas on a large board so that you can see at a glance howyour designs might evolve.They vary in their complexity but, as the name suggests, mood boards should always capture the mood or flavor of your design project,as well as reflectingyour target customer. In grouping your researchedimages you will haveto make decisionsabout editing and prioritizingyour selection,as well as confirmingyour season and color palette.Colors should reflect your chosen season- soft pastelswill suggest a summer story,for example- but whatever the season, the color palette should be applied consistentlythroughoutthe project. the project Select a theme and a season for your work, and consider who your target customer might be. Gather together all your research material. Usinga 20 x 30-in. illustration board as a base, arrangeand gluetogetherthe strongest images, and combine them with a color paletteor fabric swatches to make a collage.Also include imagesfrom currentfashion magazinesthat suit your chosentheme. Build a mood board that reflectsthe essence of your design project. the objective Prioritizeimagesfrom your collated research. Reflectyour target customer and chosenseason. Bringtogether creative inspiration and current fashion trends. Finalizea color palette. Create a mood board that summarizes your chosen design theme. 4 Color samples Paint-swatchcardscanbeused to helpyou selectaharmonious groupof colorsfor your palette. Avoid includingmorethan eight shades ineachpalette or your designs may becomeconfused and lackcohesion. 4 Magazine cuttings You shouldhoardarangeof fashionmagazines.Pickout V Fabricswatches Ifyou already haveideasaboutthefabrics that youwill usefor your final designs,include swatchesonyour moodboard.Rememberto keepthe presentationclean,simple,and neat. MEmm RUE - I createaan easy referencetool to use 1 sketching your rough ideas? Have you reflectedyour season and target customer? Haveyou finalized your color palette? e Haveyou usedthe most important ima e Haveyou summarizedyour theme? FINDINGINSPIRATION
  27. 27. 4 Test the colors Examineyour chosen imagestigether to identify the key shades and best color combinationsto evoke your theme. V Think laterally Researchwidely, linking design concepts. Here,the color and cawing of an ornate pictureframe is visuallymarriedto intricately I embroideredfabric and athe process Researcha theme that inspiresyou, gathering itemssuch as postcards, magazineimages, and photographs.Selecting from this researchwill helpyou focus on what is important in the project. Combinethis inspirational researchwith imagesand trend predictionsfrom consumerand trade magazines,fashion web sitessuch as www.style.com, andtop designers' web sites. Also gather imagesto reflectthe season and your target customer (see pages94 and 98). Experiencewill teach you what size of board suits you best, but try starting with a 20 x 30-in. boardthat allows room for lots of images as well as swatches of yarns and fabrics, and any wording. Handwritingon a mood board usually looks unprofessional,so use luxurious sari. 4 Refine your choice Layout allyour gathered researchmaterial so that you can compare the imagesand f - I selectwhich to useonyour mood board. 7 letteringor output copy from a computer. This is a good time to try putting together a color paletteto include )nyour board, using paintswatches, color chips from the standard color reference books produced by Pantone,or cuttings from magazines (for more informationon working with color palettes, see page 104). Avoid including images that are not appropriate for your selectedcolors, becausethey will detract from the overall effect. I Ensurethat all the imagesare cut out simply 1 and stuck down neatly. It is the imagesthat should grab the attentionand not , the manner in which you have mountedthem. Simplest is always best. "ZLSO 3ating a cohesivecollection, p Customer focus, p. 94 Occasions, seasons, budgets, p. Color palettes,p. 104 MOOD BOARDS
  28. 28. successfulmood board, likethose pictured here, A h a s a uniquepersonality.~texpressesthe essence of the design ideasand sums up the theme as well as reflectingpracticalconcernssuch as the season and the target customer.As the board is built up, combining inspirationalitemswith picturesfrom magazines and informationabout upcoming styles, creativethemes are marriedwith current fashion trends. Inthis way, mood boards provideafocus for a creativeyet commercialdesign solution. The very act of deciding which imagesto include will help a designer narrowdown and develop his or her ideas.As key ideas become prioritized,a clear thought process evolvesand the job of producing .: designsthen becomes much simpler.The finished -' mood board shouldtell its own distinct story-being disciplined about creatingonly one board per project keepscreative efforts focused. A Classicalinspiration The classicaltheme of these boards has been inspired by the textures and forms of sculpture.A muted color palette,derived from the colors of marble. helpsto evoke a timelessand restrainedmood. 4 Seaside nostalgia- This board combines the unlikely themesof the seaside andvintage dress (particularlydress associated with travel).The final collectionwas called 'A '20sTrip to the Seaside."
  29. 29. 4 Summer colors . A h~gh-summerdecorat~vetheme has i been createdInth~smood board _ through an eclectic mix of colorful images.This selectioncould be I narrowed down further stillto focus on artists,florals, or decorativetilework. P Cohesive color theming Imagesfrom fashion magazinescan sit happilywith researchmaterial. Here,folds of fabrics in shadesof greencreatea common identity. A A feminineapproach Thistonal paletteof colors evokes a stronglyfeminine theme. A Understatedsophistication Brownand neutraltones establisha sophisticated mood.
  30. 30. . . . - - - : . . The traditions of India Inthis age of global branding, it can be refreshingto turn to non-Westerncultures in search of inspiration.lndia is a great example of a culture that preservesa strong identity in the modernworld becauseit is still very much connected to itstraditional roots.The wonderfully vibrant colors and intricate shapes of lndia are a marvelous 5 sourceof design ideas,whether drawn from the brilliant shades of the spices and printedfabrics, or ornate gold jewelry, or cloth woven with tiny mirrors,or the patternsI of hennahandtattoos. These colors and shapes have been part of lndian culture for ! . centuries and continueto be preserved by lndian communitiesaroundthe world, so I: i. you should have no problem gatheringyour research. !. By drawing on a sourcethat is strongly traditionalyou ensurethat your materials never date-because thev are not subiect to the whims of fashion.As a design student, you should explore as many cultures as possible; youwill uncover a treasure trove of designs that with only minor adjustmentsof scale or color can produce completelyfresh ideas. This project is a great opportunityto express yourself-so be as flamboyantas you like! Later in the courseyou will be considering issues such as customer profileand budget, so now is the time to explore some wilder flights of design fancy. the project Researchlndian culturefrom as manysources as possible. Gather lndian items,find fabric swatches, take photographs, and makedrawings and collages. Fill twenty pagesof your sketchbook with all sorts of gathered researchas well as your own work. Then start working into these found items, exploringthe colors and shapes you might want to use in your designs. Restrict yourselfto four finalized design drawings. A Moghulstyle The fabulous architecturefound the objective Researchlndian culture to draw on the design ideas of a non-Westernculture. in lndia is an excellent source of creative ideas.The dome of the Taj Mahalmight suggest the full curveof a bodice, whilethe intricateinlaythat covers its marblewallswould create a stunninqeffecttraced in silver- Put an original spin on these ideas. thread on an eveninggown. Achieve an interesting mix of cultural influences in your work. 74 Legendsof the gods I In lndiayou are never far from the Howwell havevou researchedlndian culture? I Hindugods and goddesses, Haveyou matched whose storiesare depicted your research? everywhere-on postersand 1 cards and in countlessfilms and B$ DOyour finished dra ' songs You may be lnsplredby the on the source or are they just derivative? 1 gaudy colors, the kohl-darkened I eyes. or the anclent dress of these typically lnd~anImages I r E . ~ ~ r - ~ ~ C F P F P - t P P - - ~ ~ ~ ~SZP-
  31. 31. the process Research lndian culture by visiting museums, libraries, shops, markets, and temples. Talk to people, buy postcards, take photographs, and makewritten as well as sketched notes. Look for mirrored bags, spice samples, religious icons, and makeup designs. Listento lndian music and watch lndian films. Immerse yourself totally inthe research and fill . your sketchbook with cuttings, samples, swatches, and any style paint, crayon, and ink. Try to match colors by mixing paints to achieve the perfect tone. This is harder than you might imagine, so experiment with color combinations. Try different effects, using chalk, transparent paint washes, or crayons applied lightly over dried paint, to achieve the color and texture of your source material. (When matching colors you may Delicategoldjewelry or the intricatepatternsof hennahand- paintingcan betranslatedinto I textiledesign, perhaps using printing,embroidery,or beading. also find it helpful to refer A Street life to the numbered Pantone , Heapsof fresh producefor sale Inastreet market may lnsprreyou color chips. See page to try to matchthe glowrngtones of eggplant,or perhapsto 104for more details.) rncorporatethe shape of a corrander leaf rntoyour deslgns directions you may wish I Finally, complete four to follow. / fashion drawings inspired V Fillyour scrapbook Once you havesome , by your research. Try to Visiting a museu Organrzeyour researchby makrngyour sketchbookIntoa ideas, start working Into ' give them an overall look, Mood boards, p. scrapbook andfrllrng rtwrth as muchcolorful,stlmulatlng your research as before, perhaps through a materralas you can Gather photographs,textual first highlighting and uniform color scheme or lnformatron,fabrrc samples, Imagesfrom magazrnes,and then manipulating the silhouette theme. any other desrgnreferencesthat rnspireyou, suchas inspiring elements with examples of lndranscrrpts As you arrangeyour research. youwrll begrnto assemblea moodconceptandformulate a color palette
  32. 32. Designs inspired by traditional Indiandress might be looseand flowing, or involve the clever use of wrapping and layeringas seen in turbans and saris.The color scheme maywell be boldly vibrant, reflectingthe richtones of the source material. When exploringan ethnic source, it is important to gather as many culturalreferences as possibleso that the sketchbook research and mood inspirationgels intowork that retainsthe distinctivefeel of the subject matterwithout being derivative.Traditional, non-Westerncultures offerthe designer awonderful sourceof fabric, silhouette,and embellishment ideas. However,a successfuldesignwill always put a new spin on these traditionalideas, perhapsmeldingthem in an original way or incorporating contemporaryinfluencesto create an original concept out of an ancient design.The - collection pictured here strongly reflects its culturalstarting pointwhile remaining essentially multiculturalin feel. 32 FINDINGINSPIRATION A b Embellishment The useof found items such as leaves,flowers, and beads collaged onto the imagesgives an evocative textured feel to these illustrations, A b Fusionfashion This strikingcollectiontakesthe textures and colors of Indiainto a newcontext,transformingthe originaltheme intoanotherconcept altogether.The rich, patterned fabrics and swirlingskirts clearly reflect the Indiansource,and the Western-style low-cut bodice contributesto the modern feel of the design.
  33. 33. A A free-spirited collection The illustrateddesignswere finally made up into finished garments (with some changesto the color palette) and photographed. Care was taken inthe styling of the shoot to give the collection a flowing,free-spiritedfeel: a fashion photograph does not haveto betoo representational,but it should conveythe spirit of the designer's vision.
  34. 34. Fine art and graphics An importantareafor the fashion student to explore is print design, and one of the best sources of inspirationfor this is the world of fine art.A print designer should be ableto imitatethe structure and style of a painting, and keeptrue to its color palette. Twentieth-century modernistpainting provides especially rich material, as the fresh brushwork and bright colors lendthemselves very well to print designs. painters favored by textile designersinclude Dufy (whowas himselfalso a print designer), Mondrian, Kandinsky,Mir6, Matisse, and Picasso. An alternativesource is public domain graphic ,; material.This is easily accessibleas, for example, .' books or as clip-art images,available free throughthe Internet.Great results can be achieved by adapting and coloringthese illustrations. There are no rules about which motifscan be best repeated-in fashion print anj~thinggoes! However,if designing a printfor a specific garment,you needto considerthe cut of the fabric. Printsfollowthe fabric's grain,so cutting fabric on the bias (diagonallyto the grain) will reorientthe print.Also, a "one-way"print, where motifs are aligned in one direction, has less cutting flexibilitythan an "all-ways"print. the project Choose either fine art or graphic materialas your source. Forthe first approach, try to imitatethe style of a painting that you like and design five textile print patterns.Forthe second, reworkyour source materialby photocopying, enlarging, and adding marksto createa squaredesign for a headscarf. Try at least three colorways (i.e. makethree versionsof the design in different combinations of colors). the objective Observe in detail the source material, noting colors, brushstrokes,andtextures. Experimentwith scale and coordination. * If you choosethe scarf option, discover how a change of colorway can alter the dynamic of a design. the process Ifyou decide to design the print patterns, researchsome postcards of paintingsthat you think may besuitableto convert into a repeatable print idea. Chooseone picture, and observeits various sections and details.Then design at leastfive prints. Try to work in the style of the artist, taking care to usethe same density of color and similar handling of paint or crayon. Itcan be interestingto experiment with differentscales of shape and alsoto make 4 Creatingart from art The strong shapes and colors in the work of painterssuch as Mondrianlend themselves very readilyto print design. Here,key aspects of the original painting were abstractedto achievea design that refers recognizably to its sourceyet is itselfa unique and beautifulcreation. Investigating architecture,p. 20 I two or more designs coordinate (becausethe designs comefrom the samesource, there is a good chancethat they will coordinate automatically).Try designing both "one- way" and "all-ways" prints. You will be pleasantlysurprised at low many great print ~deascan come from just one painting. Forthe scarf project, select your graphics and make creativeuse of a photocopier.You can blow imagesright up so that the edges begin to fragment, giving an interestingtexture. Then iyou makethe painting or graphic your own by using it in an unexpectedway? Didyou experimentwith scale and coordination? - Are your colorways balanced?
  35. 35. cut out shapes and arrangethem in several ways, differingthe scale. These images can be juxtaposed withfine lines or other markings.Also experimentwith color combinations.When you are satisfied, commit yourself to a design. Stick downthe black-and-white images, and photocopy them severaltimes to work on your chosen colorways.You can then work into the designs with paint, crayon, and ink. It is often best not to usetoo manycolors; by restrictingyourself you simplify the processof balancing colors.You will see that makingdifferent colorwaysof the same design can achievevery diverse results. 4 Buildinga design These illustrations demonstratea progression from graphic materialto rough printdesign, The motifswere selectedand sketcheswere madeto test the design and the color scheme.The motifswere 1 then arranged inthe chosen design,which was photocopied to allowfor the use of differentcolorways.
  36. 36. The lines, shapes,and patternsof existingworks of art and graphics can provide great inspirationfor fashion designers.There isn't a painting in the world that couldn't be made to yield ten print designs,and the potentialfor manipulatinggraphic material is endless.The key to success in the first part of the project-using fine art to create print design-is to observe the works in great detail and imitate closelythe style and techniquesof the painter.Intheir bold geometric lines,the print patterns shown here have a clearly recognizablesource in paintings by Dufy and Mondrian, while being at the same time original designs. The different colorways of the scarf designs demonstratehow dramatically a new color palette changesthe look of a piece. It is often best not to usetoo many colors; restrictingthe color palette simplifiesthe processof balancingcolors and makes it easier to achieve a strong statement. 4 t Repeating the motifs Here,thework of Dufyand Mondrianhas been usedto createa collectionof print designs.Just by taking one small p e t of a paintingand replicatingit aroundthe page, a familiar artworkcan be reinterpretedintoa
  37. 37. I A Differentcolorways The scarf printswere made in different combinations of colors, demonstrating how much a simple alteration in coloring can change the I lookof a design. A An integrateddesign The finalscarf print has been slightlyalteredin minordetailsbut still reflects clearly itsjourney from individualgraphic motifsto integrateddesign.The individualcomponents have beenblown up or reduced in scale, using a photocopier,to produce an interesting divergencein line strength.
  38. 38. One simple way to see something in a fresh light is to experiment with its scale. If a small part of a commonplace object is blown up to a much larger scale, it will appear new and instead of being boring and familiar might becomethe source of creative ideas. It is this sort of in-depth consideration of a source that puts an individual stamp on your work. IA Take a closer look The most insignificant p items canprovoke ideas-perhaps an - interestingseam detail could bebasedon theway thesecogsfit together. By describing the details of an imageor object in a much largerscale-through drawing, photography,embroidery, or using a photocopier-you will havealready startedthe creative process.When experimentingwith scale inthis way, it is usefulto try to abstract the elementsthat most interestyou, instead of aiming simply to create a realistic representationof your topic. For example, a close-upof insectwings may inspireyou to createsome original color combinations or scale-likepatterns.Letyour series of drawings or photographsevolve to becomeincreasingly abstract.This process of selection and developmentis important-you are on your way to creating a uniquedesign solution inspired by your research. Ask yourselfwhy you are attractedto the imagesyou havechosen:what is it about pebbles or snowflakesthat interestsyou?The A b Unexpected beauty Some man-madeobjects are extremelybeautifulwhen seen upclose.This circuit boardmightinspireideasfor beadingor textured knitwear. 4 Inspired by science 1 1 Scientificbooks and magazinesare agood source of ideas.Inclose-upimages, colorsare distortedand unexpecteddetailsmay be revealed.Imaginehowthis iridescentwing could be translatedintosheerfabric.
  39. 39. 1 4 A Natural answerwill point your developmentsin the rightdirection;this is what you should try to captureas you abstract out the important elementsof your research. Inthis way, somethingas ordinary as paint peelingfrom a wall will becomea wonderful mineof ideasfor layersof textureand color-and you will start I to seethat wallthrough the eyes of a designer. wonder Natureis an endless sourceof shapes and patterns.The intricate folds of a red cabbage might inspirepleatsof chiffon,frills,or ruffles. 4 Inspiration underfoot Smooth black pebbles could be investigated individually,interms of their subtletexture and flecks of contrasting colors, or seen as a L arour, of similarly A Layers of possibility Repetitiveman-made 'IIn the grain patternscan inspireprint Wood grain providesanotherexampleof nature's designs; looka littlecloser ability to generatebeautifuland uniquepatterns. and layersof rust or Here,the weather has also played its part by discolorationmay evoke causing interestingcracks,which might be evoked ideas aboutfabric layering. in a design through printing,pleating, or gathering.
  40. 40. Designing fabric ideas V Rapid research Photographyisagreatway to quicklygather useful research.Usingablack-and-whitefilmwill help focusyour mindon texture andlinear pattern, . whereas color photographycan provideyouwith a good startingpointfor your color palette. The close examlnatlon of the surface detallof your source of lnsplrationcan stimulate excltlng ~deas about textures and colors,whlch will influenceyour cho~ceof fabrlcs Insteadof relylngon fabr~csthat you can buy,you mlght dec~dethat you want to deslgnyour owntextiles, using methods such as embroidery, dyelng, knitting, or printing These or~glnaltext~lescan then be ~ncorporatedIntotruly uniquegarment deslgns As a general rule,when you let your ornate textlle Ideastake the lead,your garment des~gns should become slmpler to let the beautyof the fabrlc be seen and appreciated the project Choosea theme that allows the examination of detail and would be suitableto inspire interestingtextile ideas. Exploreyour conceptthrough drawings or photography. Usea mood board to helpyou select a color paletteand finalizeyour fabric ideas. Choosethe strongesttextile the process concepts and let them inspire some simple fashion Choosea promising designsthat display the fabric ideas in their best light. theme to research; an old graveyard, for example, offers many interesting the objective texturaldetails such as Selectan appropriate starting pointfor carvedstonework, rusty textile development. railings,and layered photographs, scanning -, view your subject as an will helpyou focus on Expandyour ideas about creatingdifferentfabrics. leaves. Photographyis a imagesinto a computer shapesand textures. Assess your strongestfabric conceptsto inspireyour good way to gather and using software Consider howyour rough fashion designs. researchquickly. You can researchthemeswould Photoshopto manipulate betranslated onto fabric. SELF-CRITIQUE overallscene or in close- scale and color. You can embellishfabrics Was your chosensource of inspirationsufficient1 up, and the very act of Grouptogether your through methodssuch detailed to inspiretextile ideas? looking through the color photographs and as cutting, bleaching, Haveyou expandedfrom the original starting point to viewfinderwill giveyou a createcolor palettesby painting, dyeing, printing, createuniquetextile designs? fresh perspectiveon the selecting the important beading,or applique. You Have YOU usedthe strongest t .---.. ...,- ~ r source. Then make shadesand identifying could even design an ih garment designs? further sketcheseither on ideafor an entirely new Isthere a good balancebetweenthe fashion and site or later inthe studio, combinations (see page textile, generatedthrough textile elements of your designs? using the photographs 104). Alternatively, knitting, for example. Use as reference.You can limiting yourself to black- a mood board as a focus, =-------=-- also digitally edit the and-whitephotography gathering any trims,
  41. 41. A Creating a theme Compilinga mood board will enableyouto combine imagesfromyour research materialwith fashion ideas. All the selectedmaterial shouldwork togetherto createa commontheme or "mood." beads, ribbons, or print effects that you may wish to use. Finally, sketch some fashion designs that show off your textile ideas to best advantage. Remember that an intricate fabric is often best shown in a simple garment shape. A Simplicity in design Simplify imagessuch as representations of overlappingleavesdown to repetitive patternsthat can be used ina decorative way. These printswere inspiredby art nouveau examples of leaf designs. 4 A Trying out ideas Startto sketchyour rough garment ~deaslncorporatlng fabrlc ~deasthat reflectthe shapesand patternsof your researchmaterial Try placlng the fabrlc concepts on a flgure In different scales and proportions Mood:board~,~p.'26' embroidery, p.44 Structuringfabric,
  42. 42. Developing a fabric concept in conjunctionwith a garment design allows for total I controlof the creative process-giving a designer the opportunityto produce a ! truly original collectionthat reflectsthe researchmaterial in a uniqueway. To give , I designsa strong overall look,the inspirationof the sourceshould be shown in differentways. For example, it is not just the surfacetreatment of the fabrics that u ; strongly reflectsthe theme inthe garments illustratedhere-even the poses of the figures are reminiscent of the graveyard source, Here,the simplefashion shapes are a suitable vehicle for displayingthe fabric ideas.When designersinvest a great deal of effort into creatinga beautifulfabric, they tend to keepoutlines as simple as possible.An elaboratesilhouette combined with a complextextile can leadto a confused overalleffect.Conversely,the illustrationof the textile should not be so over-the-topthat it detractsfrom the silhouette.For clarity, garment designs can always be presentedaccompanied by fabric swatches or separatetextlle illustrations A Devore design W l to burnthe design intothis store-purchasedsilkvelvet. 7
  43. 43. a~ Starting with embroidery The previous unit demonstratesthat fashion design can be driven by fabric development.Inthe same way, embroiderycan be used as the starting pointfor a garment idea.You can draw on paintingsfor patterns and shapes to develop intoembroiderydesigns.The artist Gustav Klimt,for example, used intricateandI ~ ornate patterns,and hiswork would be an ideal startingpointfor this exercise.You may haveyour own preference,but be sureto choose a source that containssufficient decorativeinformationto inspireyou i throughoutyour investigations.Lookfor shapes and patterns that can be simplifiedand adapted to your own design ends. As you incorporateyour embroideryideas into garment designs,take your lead from the pages of 1 your fashion magazines,The size. amount.and placementof embroideryused by designerstends to I I vary as fashion changesthroughthe seasons. the project Select a work of art that you find inspiring. Explorethe patterns,colors, and shapes of the chosen piece, using painting,drawing, photography,gatheredresearch, scrapbook ideas, and fashion magazinecuttings. As you work, gradually isolatesimple patternsand shapes that are easily interpretedinto embroidery ideas, and use these to inspire some rough fashion designs. 4 Patternand rhythm Chooseworks that show astrong sense of patternandrhythm, like this painting by Gustav Klimt.The swirlingshapesare idealto translate intoapowerfulembroidereddesign. 4 A Widening your investigations Originalphotographycanbe combinedwith researchfrom , magazinesto suppot?your observationsof an artist'swork. ' Useasketchbookto abstract out simplepatternsfrom your photographs.Inthis case,the I wrought-ironrailings providea strongdecorativetheme. -. the objective Select a suitable starting point for embroiderydevelopment. Combinetextile and garment design by using intricate ornamentationin a fashion context. I Selectyour ideas inspire i ' Was vour chosen source of insairation suitablv detailedfor the develoamento .".. your fashion designs. - -fn;3;*e2*;Ts& .*.*."L - - = - embroidery as well as fashion ideas? $1aL4aLUljlii;~~&q&gisf~%~ Did you let your decorativeconcept takethe lead in the garment des~gn, intricateornamentationwith simple design? HWC?you taken- the strongest id$,a~hr~ughto rough sketch sta -- -*- I
  44. 44. the process Beginby looking at a numberof your chosen artist's works, but stay focusedby editing down the starting points. As always, thejourney of selectionis vitalto the designprocess. You mightwish to combine gathered researchwith photographsof your own that capturea similar seriesof shapes and patterns.This kind of primaryresearch adds to the originality of your design solutions-but keepit simple. Drawor paintyour own interpretationsof the work, evolvingthese into simplifiedand abstracted patterns and shapes. Still workingthrough your ideason paper, use collageand machine embroideryto begin evolving decorative ideas. Echothe shapes and patternsthat you have observed. These piecesare drawings in themselves-done with a sewing machinerather than a pen! Begin by using the colors of your source material, but feel free to move away into your own palette.Changingcolors can be a productiveway to give a newtwist to a familiar pattern. ' Nowwork your "mbroidery ideas into some rough garment designs. Rememberthat a simple garment shape will show off embroidery to best effect. Pockets, collars, necklines,hems, and cuffs can all be good placesto site decoration, or you might want to be bolder and place a design within the front Ir back bodice or on a leeve. Decorationcan Je usedonce or repeated a number of times over the garment, in a random 1 or engineeredpattern. ' V this stageyou should ~lsoreconsideryour f choice of colors and 1 makethe palette appropriateto your target 1 customer (see page 94). Selectyour strongest jeas to pull together as hefinal fashion designs. 4 V Isolatingshapes Drawingor paintingyour own interpretationsof an artist'sworkwill encourage youto examine your source materialclosely. Useyour sketchbookto establishsimplifiedrepetitive patterns,derived fromyour startingpoint. C' P ~ W I OVisiting .iseum, Fineart and graphics, p. A Drawingwith a sewing machine A sewlng mach~necan becomea toolfor Idraw~ngHere colored paper has been usedto experiment w~thcomb~nat~onsof colorsand shapes - --
  45. 45. Embroideryideas can betranslateddirectly onto fabric and usedwith fashion designs as appropriate,or they can be developedfurther as print ideas or texturesfor knittedstitches. It is possibleto combine a number of thesetechniques,embroidering intoa print idea or printing over a knit,for example. It might bethat a collectioncontainssome garments that are printedwhereas others are knittedor embroidered-but they should all reflect,even if only distantly,the essential elements of the initial research. The four final garment designs illustratedhere have evolved a longway from the initial starting point, and referencesto Klimt have become subtle.The finished collection has beenshaped by the designer's own sense of style and reflects the sourcewithout being overwhelmed by it. 4 Beversatile 4 A rnemed outline A set of simple patternscan The curvesand swirls of the be used in manydifferent source material are reflected ways. For example, inthe silhouettesof the embroideryideas can be garmentsas well as intheir echoed in knittedstructures embroidereddecoration. or print designs.
  46. 46. V Communicating clearly By showing the decorativedetail separately fromthe garment itself,these four final illustrations can make a strong statement about both. Some of the embroideryideas have beendevelopedfurther into knitted textures.These designs have moved away from the originalsource to become strong concepts intheir own right. 4 'IUsing a template Life-sizepapertemplates of these garmentswere used to finalize the placementof decoration.The embroidery designswere drawnstraight ontothe template. STARTING
  47. 47. ILLUSTRATING FASHION Nowthat you have developedsome great design ideas, it'stime to look more closely at the techniques of fashion illustration.This chapter discusses creating figures, whether through an easy paper-foldingmethod or by drawingfrom life, as well as exploring the wide range of mediathat you can use in illustratingdesigns and looking at howto lay out your page effectively.Throughoutthis part of the course, you will learnto observe carefully and to representwhat you see in a bold and individualway.
  48. 48. Upper Chest arm Pelvic area 0 0 Joints uThigh As a fashion designer you should always rememberthat clothes are madeto beworn by real people.It is important,therefore,to gain some understandingof the structure and proportionsof the human body. The exercise in figure drawing described in There are obvious differencesinthe Unit8 will introduce you to a simple and easy male and female forms, such as narrower system that you can useto draw figures that waists and wider hips for females and are roughly in proportion. The exercise has squarer chests and faces for men. However, nothingto do with creativity but will helpyou these variationsshould be incorporatedonce grasp the possibilities and restrictions of the ' the basics have been sketched. Maleand framework on which your creationswill hang. female bodies can both be broken down into A Vitruvian Man LeonardodaVinci is renownedfor his realistic representationsof the human body.He drewthis illustration of a preciselyproportioned figureto accompany his notes on Vitruvius.This architect wrote in Romantimes that the human body is the ideal architecturalmodel because it fits, with arms and legs extended,intothe perfect forms of both the square and half heads . The heightof a realistic human figurefrom crownto toe is aroundseven-and-a-halftimes the heightof the head. For fashion purposes,this can be stretched (belowthe waist only) to eight-and-a-halfhead sizes.
  49. 49. I F ~simple block shapes. The head can frayed as an egg; the chest as a laper basket; the pelvic area as a wide isticvaulting horse; the limbs astapering --.,thefeet and hands as cones; and the b a sballs. Onceyou havedrawnthese Pbsinthe relativesizes shown (opposite), ~traighffowardfront view, you can move t fiaroundlike parts of awooden drawing qmyto createthe poseyou want. A b Exploring movement A wooden artist's dummy can helpyou analyzemovement. There is a convention infashion illustration When you come to draw from life, a grasp of that afigure should be elongatedto give it these principles will helpyou enormously in moreelegance. However,that elongation understandingthe mechanicsof the figure in should involveonly the legs. A real-lifebody front of you. It is always good to rememberthat will measure around seven-and-a-half-head these "rules" are just conventions,but by sizes; in fashionthis increasesto eight-and-a- gaining a basic understandingof the structure half heads, with the extralength added below and proportions of the human body you will be the waist. All the other proportions of the basic better placedto breakthe rules later. block shapesshould be basedon reality. A b Free illustration A drawing based on an awareness of correct body proportionscan still be free in execution andwill stillallow you to experiment with the presentationof the garments.
  50. 50. An exercise in figure drawing If you are inexperiencedin drawingfigures, usingthis easy methodcan add to the confidenceof your illustrations by ensuringthat your figuresare roughlyin proportionand all drawnto the same scale.The simple shapes and proportionsof the method ensurethat the figuresare easy to draw and look correct. Furthermore, by grasping howthese basic shapes fit togetherto form a humanfigure,your drawingswill become better anchoredon the page and the poses more convincing. Forthe sake of this exercise,the body,brokeninto its component Parts,remainsunclothed. After You haveCompletedthe task,you should keep the drawings as a reference,YOU can always come backto this book, but nothing stays inthe memory better than something learnedby actually doing ityourself. the project Using a simple paper-folding method,divide your pageto makea Proportional blueprintof the humanfigure. Then draw inthe basic block shapesthat representdifferent Partsof the body to make an easy-referencetool for use when You create fashion drawings inthe future. the process The humanbody is remarkablyconsistent in the way it divides up into sections. Makea mark the objective just below the top of a pageof paper (11 x Gain a framework to strengthenthe more creative 14 in.). Then draw a aspects of your work. straight plumb line down Practicedrawing an elongatedfigure to use in the page, leavingabout fashion illustration. an inch atthe bottom, and markthe end of the line. old your page at the halfway point between the top and bottom marks. Foldthe page again, finding the halfway point on the plumb line as before,and then fashion designs inthe future? 1 repeat once more. Flatten out the sheet, and you can nowfill in your ION . 0 4 The folded- paper method Onceyouhavefolded your page,markingthe w creases as described below,youcanbegin to sketchinthe standardbody shapes to achieveacorrectly proportionedfigure. proportional blueprint of the humanfigure. Fromthe top markto the nextfold draw your egg-shapedhead. Divide the line betweenthis fold and the next, and mark acrossthe plumb line. This markforms the base of the neck and the shoulders.The nextfold indicatesthe middle pointpf the rib cage. One fold down is the navel, followed by the crotch on fold four. Ignorefold five. Onfold six mark your ball-shapedkneecap, and ignore fold seven. At the levelof the bottom mark, fill inthe anklewith anotherball shape. The gap left at the bottom of the page is for the cone- shapedfoot, which will protrude by about half the distanceof the spaces betweenthe folds. You now have an eight-and-a-half-heads fashion figure that you can useas a basisfor I your designs. Ifyou wish to elongatethe figure further (some designers work to a nine- or even ten-heads measurement) rememberthat extra length should be added only belowthe knee. Usingthe block shapes, you canthen draw inthe remaining body parts to fill out the figure. Draw
  51. 51. 4 Usingthe framework Us~ngthe "e~ghtand a half heads" proportions as a rough framework for your ~llustrat~onsw~llsupport even the most "- styl~zedrepresentation of a f~gure the chestfrom the neck basethrough fold two andthree-quartersof the way down to fold three. Drawthe pelvic box up from fold four, extending three-quartersof the way to fold three. When you add the limbs, remember thatthe upper arm is shorter thanthe lower. The elbow,with arms hanging, is just above navel level; the wrist is just belowthe crotch. Drawingfrom I life, p. 58 I A Manipulatingthe basicforms This sequenceof drawrngsshows how scr~bbles The bas~cformsremalnIn proportion, but have made uslngthe folded-paper method can be been manipulated, the lhmbs rotatedto createa worked up ~ntosketchesfor a f~nal~llustrat~on sense of life and movement AN EXERCISE I
  52. 52. Althoughit is essentialfor a fashion designer to strive to breaknew ground and sometimes disregard conventions,it is neverthelessalso usefulto be grounded in a few basic design principles.It is importantfor designers always to keep in mind the fact that,whateverflights of fancy they may be exploring,their garmentswill eventuallyhaveto fit on a humanbody. Infashion illustrationit is usualto stretch the legs a little,but all other body parts shouldconformto their real proportions.This simplefolded-paper system achieves a patternfor a fashionably elongated but correctly proportionedfigure that can then be used as a foundationfor illustrations such as those pictured here. It is always possibleto breakcompletely with convention,but a student should start I with a framework to support the free - ideasthat mightfollow. It is only - once the basic principleshave been Babsorbed that a designer can enjoy true artistic freedom. 4 A Hidden structure These figures haveall been created usingthe folded- paper method, butthe nuts and bolts of the construction are hidden under afree-and- easy representationof the garments.A stylized depiction of garmentsis morelikelyto be successful ifthe viewer can accept the underlyingfigure as realistic.
  53. 53. Experimentswith media One of the most important aspects of design drawing is the ability to "loosen up."Often a budding designer will freeze up over an important drawing, whether it'sfor presentation, publication, or just to show to someone else. Spontaneity is lost and any freedom that existed in the private sketchbook suddenly becomes rigid and dull. We can all be a bit uptight about our work; One of the best exercises for practicing let's face it, fashion is known as a somewhat boldness is to allow yourself a very short time uptight industry. However, a bold, flamboyant to complete each illustration. Limityourself illustration is more likelyto sell your concept to quick sketches, and try out as many than an overworkedand nervousone, so you approachesas you can. Perhapswork on a needto havethe courage of your convictions. larger sheet of paperthan usual.Try different crayonsand paints; if by natureyou prefer a thin, hard pencil,force yourself to use bright colors applied with a wet, broad brush. Even if you returnto your usual methodsafter the exercise, the experienceof exploring different mediawill giveyour illustrations an extrazest. A Varying the effect -heseillustrationshaveall been drawnto the proportions described in Unit 8. Noticethe variety of effects achievedby using differentmedia, such as oil pastel,felt-tip pen, gouache, and pen. Experimentingwith different techniques is essential to improvingyour abilityto illustrateyour designs. i ILLUSTRATING F/
  54. 54. Many of these experimentalattemptsare destinedfor the wastepaper basket, but don't worry. Thereare so manyways of putting your ideason paper: pen and ink, watercolor, oil pastel, conte, felt-tip pen, charcoal, poster paint, and soft pencil. These mediacan even beaccompaniedby colored paper and tissue, foundtextures, or cuttings from newspapers and magazinescollaged onto the drawing. Onefun exercise is to quickly sketch a friend, or even your own reflectionin the mirror, resistingyour naturalinstinct to look at the page. Try drawing in a continuous line,without taking your hand off the paper. The results might be rather bizarre, but this is a good way to practiceobserving your subject, and expressing what you see, without worrying about howthe whole picture is developing. You can also experiment with making doodlesand scribbles. Thesetoo will achieve afreedom in mark-makingthat will be lacking if you aretoo concernedwith the final outcome of the picture. Thesescribbles and sketches should be private. Itis herethat you can dare to fail. Infact, you will not haveachieved anything if all these experimentswork, becauseyou will not havetested yourself beyondthe boundariesof your ability. It is only by going that bit further that you can makean excitLng breakthrough. If you are really brave,you will keepthe failed drawingsas a reminder of your creative journey (just remember not to include them in your presentationportfolio!). Gouacheand watercolorpaints Softpastels 1 Graphite-.. w- Charcoal r Watercolor paints Paint palette
  55. 55. Drawingfrom life It cannot be stressedtoo strongly that if you are I designing clothes, however exoticyour sources,you mustalways rememberthat at the end of the day you are designingfor a human body.Practicinglife drawing is therefore a very valuable exercisethat will helpyou observe clearly and assess quicklywhat you see. Using a model meansyou do not haveto invent anything out of thin air.The informationis in front of you-all you needto do is interpret it in your own individualstyle. You may havethe opportunityto draw from life in an art-schoolenvironment, but you can also improviseif you are working at home by askinga friend to pose. There is no needfor your model to befashionably dressed. Normaldaywearwith a few additional accessoriessuch as hats,scarves,boots, or sunglassesis quite sufficient.It is more importantfor the class tutor, or you if you are working at home,to persuadethe model to exaggeratethe poses,and to changethem often.Accentuationadds dramato the drawings,and responding quicklyto the changing poseswill bring spontaneityto your work. the project other students in Spenda day practicing life drawing either in classwith a the roomfires up your enthusiasm professionalmodel, or at home having persuadeda friend and creativity-as to posefor you. If you choosethe privateroute, there ar well as givingyou bound to be some giggles at the outset.That is not a valuable practicein problem-the exercise should befun. Try to achieve figure drawing. fifteen drawings by the end of the session, spending no morethan two to five minuteson each. the obiectiveI Makeover reality in your own style. Improveyour ability to observequickly and well. Achievefreshnessand boldness in illustration by getting the poses down on paper as quickly as possible. B,"pseesIntfhestZng? "^ ' ' ' Capturethe spirit of the garmentswhile representing observationaltechniques? them graphically. ION the process Firstspend a few minutes drawing the pose and the garmentoutlines in what you considerto beyour own style. Be bold. Quickly capturing the pose,you haveto assess the essentialsand get them down on paper very fast. Avoid makingfeeble: sketchy pencil marksthat result in tentative "hairy- lined" outlines. Next, try not to look at your paper, and make a continuous line drawing, without removingthe pencil from the paper. Keepthe poses changing every few minutes. Now you can use some paints, choosing just three or
  56. 56. Capturingthe poses Thesefigureswere illustrated duringa life-drawingclass.The limitedtime availableto complete each pose has , resultedinimagesthat capture the essence of the garments andmake a strong statement. ifyou do not havetime to worry about getting outlinesexactly right,you are morelikelyto achieveimagesthat arefluid andfull of lifeand spontaneity. four colors. Apply the color with a broad brush, jotting down the poses with quick brushstrokes. Nowyou can start mixingyour media. Perhapsbegin by representingthe clothes in paint but use crayon or oil pastelto delineate the facial features. Rememberto try to make each drawingfill the whole page and exaggeratethe poses to bring drama to the illustrations.Sometimes it can be productiveto ask the modelto adopt unusualposes, either seated, standing, or draped over a prop (whichyou maywish either to include or leave out in order to make use of the white space left on the page). However, be surethat the pose does % not interferewith the communicationof your ideas. An exerciseinfigure I drawing, p. 52 Learnto lovevou
  57. 57. 0ne of the most stimulatingaspects of working with a life model is havingto use every second of the session to best advantage.The challengeof responding quicklyto fast-changing poses brought an urgency and spark to these drawings.A bold commitment can makeany drawingstate its case: these figures were drawnto fill the whole page,with the model'sextremeposes exaggeratedto bring energyto the picture.Unexpectedcolors enlivenwhat might have beena dull subject; a cursory glanceat a magazine provesthat, in fashion images,skin is not always flesh-colored, hair not always natural.The confident use of different media, such as gouache and oil pastel,can also lendvibrancyto a posed subject. It is importantnot to be afraid to make mistakes.Done quickly, some drawings will inevitably not be successful,but the ones that are will retaina freshnessthat is destroyed by overworking an idea. 4 b Exploitingcolor / and medium , These illustrationsuse both 7 color and mediumto good effect.The purple hair and greenishskin harmonizewell , , with the tones usedfor the clothes.The limitedcolor ' palette hasensuredan unclutteredrepresentationof 1the garments. Usingonly pencil and paint applied boldlywith a wet brush,the essenceof each pose has been swiftly identifiedand captured on paper. ION
  58. 58. Lessis more Eachpage hasbeenfilledwith an interestingcompositionthat not onlygives a graphic representation of the individualgarmentsbut also suggeststhe spirit of the ensemble. TOO muchattention to detailcan underminecommunicationof the overall designtheme.
  59. 59. Exploring collage As a designer it is essentialthat you explore allthe drawingand illustrationtools availableto you. One of the most liberatingtechniques is collage.There are so many ways to use this medium-you can use bold cutouts of colored paper,tonal newsprint,or colors and texturestorn from magazines. An unusualway of working with collage is to take the technique intothe lifeclass. Either by freehand ripping or moredetailedcutting you can represent an illustrationwithout drawingat all.Just as with the life- drawing sessions,working quicklyadds spontaneity to the result.You are forced to make instant decisions to get the idea down on paper beforethe pose changes.This can be testingwhen you haveto find boththe source material and then cut and apply it. Don't go for the obvious choices;you can create an interesting illustrationby using unexpectedblocks or strips of found images (as shown opposite). Collage frees you from the needto use drawing skillswhile at the same time increasingyour visual vocabulary. Using other means of realizingthe model's poseswill open up your drawingto new approaches. Collage-makingmay seem like the type of thing you did in grade school, but that is not surprising,because you were not encumberedin those early days by preconceivedideas.As a designer youwill needto banishthe baggage of ordinary expectation. - 4 Creative collage ,u can cut up magazines, wallpaper or fabric the project Access a pile of old magazineson any subject. Makesure they contain lots of photographsto usefor your own creativepurposes. Either enlist a friend to spend a day as your model, or attend a life class. Make up to five representationsof your live model, using materialtaken from the magazines. Naturallythese will take a little longer than drawn poses,but set yourself a challengingtime limit for each representation. the objective Explorea newway of getting your ideas down on paper by using cuttings as your medium, ratherthan more conventionaltools such as pencil and paint. Freeyourselffrom preconceivedideas of how an image can be usedso that your work will be original and have spontaneity. SELF-CRITIQUE Haveyou filledthe pagewell: Didyou use materialfrom magazines in an inventiveand unexpectedmanner? Doesthe result reflectfresh speed of execution? Didyou resist using a pencil as possible, though you may not wish to include props such as chairs. Us scissors or a craft knife, or just rip the paperto ge your cuttings readyto apply; then pastethem to the page.Try not to spend too long on any individual illustration; instead keepyour work fresh by setting a time limit for completing each piece.Accentuatethe figure on the pageto createa dramaticeffect. Don't betempted to enhancethe pictures with your own freehand drawing and painting. k Duringthis unit you ' should befocused on learningto usethe magazineimagesto best effect. samples, greetingcards, posters, packagrng, L and a hostof the process haveto select, cut, rip, EE ALSO other items. Bring a good-sizedstack ,- and paste paper onto Drawingfrom are, p. 5t of magazinesto the the page! Notjust pencil, p.70 4i Q session. Ask your model Think laterallyas you to fall into an interesting work with your material, page, P. 74 pose-and the more combining unlikely colors uncomfortablethe pose, and textures.Always try the lesstime you will to fill as much of the page
  60. 60. 4 b Quick thinking You will haveonly a few mlnutesto cut or rlpthe material, and then glue ~tdown One tlme-savrng and sophlstlcatedoptlon IS to make use of "negat~vespace" (leavlng blank what m~ghtusually be drawn)
  61. 61. Exploringdifferent ways to illustrate garments can be liberatingfor a designer. Although putting pen or paintto paper is the obvious approach,the use of collage can produce particularlyintriguing,contemporaryresults. Collage is infact often used infinal design illustrations,but workingwith it inthe spontaneousenvironment of a lifeclass is an especiallyinterestingand challengingtechnique.The needto select, cut, and pastevery quickly in responseto fast-changing poses added freshness and a sense of immediacyto these illustrations.They fill the page and makea statement: the biggerthe image on the pagethe stronger the effect will be. A bold tearing approachworked well in conjunctionwith morecarefully cut outlines.(Ifthe result looks a little rough at the edges,the presentationcan always be improvedlater by feeding itthrough a color photocopier.) working with collage,the designer is continually challengedto think one step ahead.The results, however,are wonderfully unpredictable. 1 "64 ILLUSTRATINGFASHION 4 New approaches This collage enlivensthe subjectwithitsjuxtapositionof unexpectedcolors and patterns. Creating acollage encourages the designerto think more deeplyaboutthe color palette, fabrics, and overallstyleof the garments. 4 Restrictingcolor The restrictedcolorpaletteof these collageillustrations createsafresh, moderneffect. The scrapsof paperwere selectedfrom magazinesfor their interestingtextures and coordinatingtones, andthenton out or cut with a craft knife.
  62. 62. 4 Creating an illusion Cuttingsfrom differentsourcescan be collaged togetherto createthe overall effect of a humanfigure wearinggarments. It is not necessaryto represent everypart of afigure to makeit believable: here, "negative" (white) space, used at the ankles of the girl, for example,lendsvitality to the illustrations,
  63. 63. Drawing from your wardrobe It is never easy to put that first mark on a blank sheet of paper.A valuable exercise,therefore,for the student of fashion design is to practicedrawing a collectionmade up from garmentsthat already exist, giving an overall lookto a selectionof unrelated items. By choosing piecesfrom your own wardrobe,you are makingsure that you start with clothesthat you like and already coordinateto best effect everytime you go out.You know on which occasionsyou would wear them and therefore havesome ideaof the style of illustrationthat might be appropriate-casual, chic, or glamorous.Sometimesyou needto be very literal in your drawings;at other times you can be more flamboyant.Inthis unit,you will explore howto project not simply the shape and color of the clothes but also the overall image. Boldness is oftenthe best approach-be confident and use your own style in your illustrations. the project select four combinations of garments from your wardrobe that could be loosely described as a collection and combinethem in differentways. Experimentwith various styles of drawing. Finda commontheme to makethe selection look like a coordinated collection. Complete four illustrations of the outfits. V b Planninga range This selectionof tailoredjackets, trousers,and a skirtseemed likelyto workwell together as a collection. Photographthe piecesyou select,cut out the photographs, andthen make some pencilsketchespairing itemstogether. the objective Take a more detailed look at clotheswith which you thought you were familiar. Focusyour mind on differentstyling possibilities and color combinations. Think of the bestways of representingthe fabrics and overall imageof the clothes you are portraying.
  64. 64. Hangup the garments or laythem out on the floor. Take photographsand doodlesomefigures on sketchpaperto come up with ideasfor poses. Try out paintsand crayonsto create a color palette that, with some artistic license, represents the actual color of the garments. Next, try to givethe collectionan overall look. Thiscan beachieved byapplyingcommon themesto the series of illustrations. For example, you could draw the Y b Capturingthe colors Havingtested a few color swatches,use crayonsand paintsto practice making representationsof the fabrics used inyour selectionof garments. figuresin similar poses, or representthem all in a minimaliststyle, or make usethroughout of areas of white "negativespace" that omit an outline. Youwant your work to lookfresh so don't betoo uptightaboutthe finished drawings-be bold. Work quicklyandjust keep going if the first attempts are unsuccessful. F Remember the details - These markswere made to test different ways of representingthe hair of the --posed figures. Didyou coordinateth r '4 DidYOU findthe best mediumto representthem? Haveyou usedsimple but effectiveposes? Doesyour collection havean overall look?
  65. 65. Illustratingfound garments,ratherthan original ideas, is a very usefulway for a designer to develop observational skills. By lookingclosely at clothesthat seemed familiar,it is possibleto spot previously unnoticedaspects of constructionor embellishment.Whether it is the cut of a neckline or the detail of a fastening,this new observation can be of use in a designer'swork. It is importantto select carefullythe garments to be illustrated,consideringwhich elementswill form the main strengths of the planned collection.This task introduces the processof planninga range (seepage 88).As can be seen from the examples here,the garmentsmay befairly ordinary individualpieces but,when put together in a stylizedway, they form a collectionwith a powerfuloverall image.Oncethe poses have beenworked out and the colorways mixed,the designer needsto decide on the most strikingway to get the imagesdown on paper.This is where it is important to choose a strong style and cohesivetheme that will hold the garmentstogether as a collection. ION V Consistentstylization These sketchedfigures explore stylized aspects, such as horizontallyextendedhair and an outstretchedarm,that will be applied to the whole series of illustrations. b Minimalist theme These minimalist representations focus attentionon the silhouetteand color palette. This consistent approach. along with the other uniformly applied stylizationdetails, ensures that a group of unrelated garmentsis given the feel of a planned collection.
  66. 66. A Reading between the lines These images make bold useof "negativespace," leavingsome white areas untouchedso that the invisiblelinescan be read. The picturesare clear without beingobvious and are more interestingas a reqult. 'IMaking a wave Extendedhair is an unusual theme common to allthe figures. A A sense of unity Repeatingposes, such as plac~ng the figureswith hand on hip or left arm extended,givesthe series of drawingsa sense of unity. DRAWING FROM . .-
  67. 67. Not just pencil the process Fromthe vast range of inspirationtoward which you were directed earlier in this book, select a theme on which to base your collection. Try out your chosen colors together to makesure they are a good combination. Next, quickly test some ideas by first drawingwith oil pastels, then washing over the markswith watery but full-colored paint. The oil pastelwill resistthe paint and create interesting contrasts. Then lay out four sheetsof paper (20x 30 in.) in front of you. Using pencil, and covering as much of the page as possible, confidently drawthe outlines of your designs. Now methodically apply the oil pastels, color by color to all the drawings simultaneously. Keep your nerve! Finally, usethe paint, applying one color at atime to all the illustrations. When one usesthe term "drawing,"the most obvious tool that springsto mind is a pencil,with all itsvarious grades from hard to an almost creamy softness.However,as you haveseen in Unit 10,you can "draw" evenwith paper torn from a magazine. When you useyour imagination,there is no limit to the materialsyou can employ to achieve the lookyou want. Slow-dryingpaints,such as oils, are not really suitable for use in fashion illustration,but there @"- is a wide rangeof other mediato choose from, including colored felt pens,water- based paints,crayons,or a mixtureof several of these. In recentyears,the mouse on a personalcomputer has to some designers become equal in importanceto the penciland brush.Some materials may suit your way of working betterthan others,but untilyou havetried a large selection,you will never know. Experimentingwith newways of working is very stimulatingand also enjoyable.It is worth repeatingthat it is never a crimeto try and fail. It is understandableto want to have pride in your work, but youwill produce only mediocreideas if you always play it safe. the objective Experimentwith using mixed mediato open up new approachesto a design. Explorethe ideathat a collection of drawingswill makea better presentationif atheme is strongly and consistently illustrated. Createa cohesivelook by applying colors t, simultaneouslyto all illustrations insteadof completing one picture at atime. . the project Usingsome of the more easily availablematerials,such as gouachepaint and oil pastels (water-basedacrylics and crayonsdo not work for this project),select a restricted rangeof colors: perhapsthree pastelsand three paints.Designa collection of four costumeswith a theme and distinct color look. Ensurethe final drawings makea bold statement about your concept. Didyou choose colors that work well together? "" ( ere your final illustrations bold? dthey havea cohesivelook portray~ngtne essence your designs? Was full use made of your different materials?
  68. 68. A Mixingyour media The colors andthemes of these roughs were adjusted for the final designs (see pages 72-73), but the technique used was the same. Here,yellow oil pastel was applied to allfour drawings, followed by white, and then pink.Then I roughs,p. 84 I I Planninga range. p. 88 Ipaintwas added, one color at a time. JST PENCIL 71
  69. 69. t I xperimenting with applying and mixing different media can achieve stunning I Eresults Unusual combinationsof techniques lend a freshness and originality to I fashion illustrationsthat really makesthem stand out from the crowd.As seen inthe designs pictured here,a strikingeffect can be achieved by using oil pastelas a starting point and then adding awatercolor wash over the pastels,exploitingthe cravons' propertiesof resistance.By choosing the color palettebeforethe design is II. . committedto paper,and then applyingthe colors step-by-steponto the whole series of designs at once, a designer can ensure that the common concept comes through stronglyover a whole series of illustrations.Working inthis way, all the pictureswill 1I- - come to completion at the same time and a powerfuloverall lookwill emerge. 4 A b Vibrant colors Inthesefinal illustrations,the initial color ideashavebeen rejectedfor a moresubtle mix of understatedtones.The resistantqualities of the oil pastels have beenusedto createa paint-freeaura around eachfigure, highlightingthe wash of the water paint and makingeven muted,subtle colors lookvibrant.
  70. 70. 4 V A Unifyingfeatures The group of drawings hasbeen givencohesionthroughthe use of well-delineatedfigures, eachwith an aura, aswell as through the consistencyof the colorwayandthe uniformmedium-level applicationof the media. A Fantasytheme The four illustrationspicturedaboveform a strong collection unifiedby the theme of the fairy tale. Eachpage is filledwith design ideasthat expressthe costumefeel of the collection.
  71. 71. Laying out your page A designer is inthe business of visual communication,whether the informationis presentedpurely ~ictoriallvor with the addition of words. The pages of this book have been designed to impart the informationof text and illustrationwith maximumclarity and visual impact.That iswhat you should ar to in any work that is to sellyour ideas successfully to the client. Whenstudents start out illustratingdesigns, they tendto be a littletentative about attacking the dauntingblank page infront of them.The resultcan often bea small, faint drawinginthe corner of the page or, only marginally better, inthe center surroundedbyvast areas of white paper. It is importantthat your drawingsreflectthe spirit of the subject. If,for example, you are illustratingsomethinginherently bold, such as " a Hawaiianbeachshirt collection,the drawings must beequallybold. It is alwaysworth making rough sketchesto planyour page and ensure that the informationyou aretrying to portrayis foremost. For example, drawingan elongated figurewith long legswhen the point of interest is a shirtwastesvaluablepage spaceto tell your real story-the wild print of the shirt. It isworthwhilerememberingthat you don't want your pageto be cluttered. Mostof the areashould befilled but notwithtoo much information; the phrase"less is more" is very often appropriatehere. It is the main m that you aretrying to put across; remer minimalistexamplesin Unit 11, Drawin your wardrobe. It cansometimes helpto prepareth with a color wash or areas of colored F give atexturefrom whichto work up yc image.Another techniqueto ensurey( page isto think outside its edges.You this by layingthe sheet of paperyou a 4 Don't cramp your style Fillyour pageboldly by laying it over a larger sheet and drawingover the edges, or by startingwith avery largepage andcroppingit laterso as to achievethe best composition.
  72. 72. working with onto a larger sheet and then drawing over the edges. This will allow you to avoidthe trap of cramping your style as you approachthe edge of the page.The same effect can be achieved by starting on a sheet of paper largerthan you intendto display, completingyour illustration,andthen cropping it bravelyto producethe best composition. When planninga page it is usually bestto start at the top and roughly plot where you want the head (or evenjust half the head) to be, then work down the figure. You must also be constantlyaware of the side margins.The magicword to strive for in page layout is , "balance." That doesn't meanuniform 4 Balanced stance P I : -. 1 Thlsfeet-apartpose frlls the page Ina sat~sfylng way, the extendedleft hand echolngthe posltlon L. of the r~ghtfoot s y ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e t r y ,just an innatefeel that the picture is well composed and at the sametime tells the mainstory of the garment. Infashion illustration you will mainly be working in "portrait" format, in which the sheet is positioned with its longer edges at the sides and shorter edges at the top and bottom (as opposed to "landscape" format, in which the longer edges are at the top and bottom). However,this is not a hardand fast rule. As you see, this book is in a squareformat, which produces a landscapespread across two pages. rial run 1. ... -good ideato experiment with different page layoutsbefore committing yourself to the final design. '(I Doublevision Using morethan one figure inthe same illustrationcan strengthen the impact of the garment-but be careful not to loseyour focus

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