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ash'one l. "--+= drawing G o ~ r s ~
Principles, practice, and techniques:
the ultimate guide for the aspiring fashion artist
Caroline Tatham Julian Seaman
Howto usethis book
Assessing your work
FINDING INSPIRATION ILLUSTRATING FASHION
lnspirationfile: Whereto start
Unit 1:Visiting a museum The human body in proportion 50
Unit 2: Investigatingarchitecture
Inspirationfile: Inspirationfile: Experimentswith med~a56
A fresh look at the fam~liar
Unit 3: Mood boards
Unit 4: Thetraditions of India
Unit 5: Fineart and graphics
lnspirationfile: Small details,big ideas 38 j lnspirationfile: Laying out your page 74
Unit 6: Designingfabric ideas 40 Unit 13: Illustratingbold print 76
Unit7: Startingwith embroidery 44
Creating a cohesrve collectron
Unit 14: Learnto loveyour roughs
Unit 15: Planning a range
E lnspirationfile: Designingto a brief
' Unit 16: Customer focus
Unit 17: Occasions,seasons, budgets
lnspirationfile: Color and fabric
Unit 18: Color palettes
Unit 19: Structuring fabric
Unit 20: Working drawings
Unit 21: Real garmentsfor your portfolic
Unit 22: Practicalitiesof presentation
Unit 23: Choosing a presentation style
Unit 24: Presentingwith flair
All inquiries should be addressed to:
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Hauppauge, NewYork 11788
Copyright 0 2003 Quarto Inc.
All rights reserved.No part of this book may
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into any informationretrievalsystem,electronic
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I Indexer: Pamela Ellis
. . I
Art Director: MoiraClinch
Manufacturedby Pica Digital
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Printedin China by
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9 8 7 6
- --- -- . _ --
Fashion is. by itsvery nature.an ever-changini.&
dscar ~ i l d eremarkedthat "Fashion is a form of
uglinessso intolerablethat we haveto alter it every six
months," but it is this continualevolutioni,$e ---.-constant
reinventionof old trends and the creak~-nofjew
ones,cat lendsthe fashionindustry its excitement
FashionDesignDrawingCourse is aimed3
anyonew~than interest Inthe fascinatingworld of style.
The book is modeled aroundthe fashion courses
offered by colleges and universities,with twenty-four
units each containinga projectto leadyou step by
step throughthe processof illustratingterrific designs.
You don't needto know all about the big fashion
namesto take this course, nor do you need-tobe a
genius with a paintbrushor sewing machine.The aim
of this book is to unravelthe mystiquesurrounding
fashion,and to show how designs can be created
through a systematic processof researchand
development,and the use of a rangeof illustration
techniques.All you needto begin is enthusiasmand
a willingness to
b No experience
You don't needto be a
fashion designs.You can
explorethe behavior of a made-up
garment simply by draping fabric
around a dressmaker'sstand,and
then incorporateideas about
I Inthe first chapter, "Finding inspiration,"you will V A stream of ideas
learnthat creatinga design is not a mysticalaffair but Useyour sketchbook to
simplyabout researching,developing,and reinventing exploreyour first ideas about
an inspiringtheme. Ifyou look at your surroundings 1a design. Don't betoo critical
of your roughs-just letthe
through the eyes of a designer,you will seethat ideasflow and you will be
inspirationis everywhere-museums, art galleries,the surprisedat thevitalityof the
i seashore,the city streets, evenyour familiar home and work you produce.
garden can provideyou with raw material.This chapter
will show you howto identify and researcha sourceof
inspiration,and howto usethis
inspirationto guide your <=I-3I
designs,through the use
of mood boardsfor
example.Itwill also give
4 Borrowing inspiration
You can borrow motifsfrom
paintingsto create print
inspired by the work of Dufy.
V Having confidence
Learning howto fill the page
boldly is an importantaspect
of becoming a fashion
youwill bewell on the way to
and employersto havefaith
some suggestionsabout howto put your own special
I spin on an idea. perhapsby enlargingscale to explore
he unseendetails of an ordinary object, or by bringing
the patternsand shapesof a paintingor a building
intoa new context, or by usingyour sourceto inspire
a fabric design that will be the focus of the garment.
Once you have developed some great design ideas
you needto be ableto representthem on the page.
The second chapter, "Illustrating fashion,"will give you
the confidenceto expand your drawingtechniqueto
includemethods such as collage and mixed media.
A mistake studentsoften makeis to believethey must
jevelop a personaldrawingstyle early on, and then
stick to it.This book encourages plenty of
experimentation-if you keep pushingthe boundaries,
your ideaswill always be fresh. Experimentsdon't
alwayswork, of course, but you must havethe courage
to fail-this is part of the learning process.
One importantpointto keep in mind while working
through this course isthat the final aim of any fashion
design is to produce a real garmentthat
can be worn on a real human body.An
article of clothing drawn on a figure
that iswildly out of proportionwill -lack authority becauseno one
will be able to imagineactually
wearing it.The second chapter
therefore explains an easy
inexperienced designer can use
as a guide for creatingfashion
figures. Duringthis part of the
courseyou will learn to observe
carefully and to honeyour
representational skills,as you
practicedrawing people and
Capturingthe mood b
A free representationof afigure can
capturea posejust as well as avety
1detailed one. You don't need
1 source in aspects such
I designs from one source
garmentsfrom life.You will also learn howto be bold
will teach you howto work to a brief,to take into
in your designs,filling each pagewith drawings that account considerationssuch as budget and seasonal
show conviction. requirements,and to build a collectionaimed at V Goingwild
The third chapter, "Planning and designing,"takes a target customer whose tastes you mightwell not Designersneedto be
vour desianwork intothe wider context of the fashion shareyourself. practicalinfocusing their-
industry.Being a successfuldesigner is not about
producing flamboyantone-off pieces but about
developingyour inspirationinto a cohesiverangeof I The final chapter, "Communicatingyour vision," work on a target customer,
looks at how all these wonderful ideas can be best but sometimes it's good to
letyourself go wild-this
shown off to colleagues,tutors, employers,and clients. HusseinChala,,an skirt
designs that share a strong look while offeringas
much choiceto the customer as possible.This chapter
When it comes to presentingyour concepts,
remember that clarity is key-there is no point in
was designed around a
V b Communicating
Presentyour designs in an
garments. Ifyou are studying
at college,you could even
take your presentationa step
further by photographing
your designs at the end-of-
You shouldtry to present
your designswith maximum
creative impact.This dress
was inspiredby film and
theater postersfrom the
1940s,and the concept is
reflectednot only inthe
dress itself but also in
aspects such as the
dancing pose of the figure
and the spotlight effect
createdby spray paint used
promotetheir designs at shows I
inthe hopethat one of these
eventswill catapultthem to
creatingsuperb designs if no one can understandthe
illustrations.This chapter explains howto support your
creative illustrationswith flat working drawings and
howto build a professional-lookingpresentation
board, It also shows how every aspect of the
presentation-from the style of drawingto the poses
of the figures-can work togetherto communicate
your vision with maximumimpact.
will giveyou the tools you needto create and illustrate
designs, as well as the confidenceto set off on your
career as a fashion designer,Your most important
assets are an open mrndand a pairof fresh eyes; and
remember,as you venture intothis highly competitive
yet rewardingbusiness,that fashion design should
How to use this book
Fallowing the format of a college course, this book i!
divided intotwenty-four units,each one lookingat
Pages 14-19 in "Finding inspiration" contain an inspirationfile, a unit, and a
an aspect of the illustrationof fashion design.The units
showcase,and providea good illustrationof the structureof the book.
are grouped intofour chapters, so you progress
logicallyfrom finding inspirationto using illustration
techniquesto planninga collectionto presentingyour
ideas.Throughout the book, "inspirationfiles" provide
background informationon topics approached in the
units.Each unit sets a projectto complete, definingthe
objectiveand describing exactly howyou go about
achieving it.Answering the "self-critique"questionswill
helpyou assess what you havedone, and you can
also compareyour work to the designs in the
"showcase"that completes each unit and presents
successfulinterpretationsof the project.
The inspiration file givesan overview of the topic of finding inspiration.
1Where to start
The project inthe first unit isto visit a museum,introducing
the readerto methodsof developinga source.
I Visitinga museum I
imagesthat could inspirefashion
design; the captions suggest how.
"The process" provides a
completing the project.
The showcase displayssuccessful interpretations of the brief.
project," a brief statement of
the task, "the objective," a
summaryof its aims, and a
sketchbooks show how ideas
Finalillustrationsby other .
which you could have
approached the project.
Assessing your work
Whetheryou are a student enrolled in a courseor
simply working through this book on your own at
home, it is essentialto keep reviewingyour working
practice.You will not progress unlessyou look at your
work critically,assessingwhether you have achieved
what you set out to do.
When you start to be artistically creative it is often
difficultto judge whether what you havedone is any
good.Oddly,what tends to happen isthat studentsare
far too self-critical and fail to spot when they are on to a
winning idea. Itis alwaysworth pursuingsomething
that you knowworks for you. However,you also need
to be able to ruthlesslyfilter out the ideas that are not
working.At first,you may lean heavilyon the opinion of
people such as tutors, but there will come a time when
you know enough about yourself and your designsto
select for yourself what works and what doesn't.
Inthis bookyou are askedto carry out a self-critique
on each project. Don't be too hard on yourself, but
think honestly about whether your work has succeeded
in the ways indicated by the questions. Here are some
tips to helpyou with your self-assessment:
Allow yourself to learn.
Don't worry if atfirst
your work seemsvery
influenced by the styles
of others. It is through
imitationthat you will
howto makethe best
use of the techniques.
a Don't worry if an
experimentfails. A good
designer is always
curious, always pushing
the boundaries.It is
only through trial and
error that truly original
for havingthe nerveto
go beyondthe obvious
and ask yourself what
you have learnedfrom
others. Some people
will loveyour work,
others will hate it-all
you can do istry to
betrue to your
own special take
on the world.
Muchof the design might give up without
process hasto do with any appreciationof
Don't betoo fixed in
self-disciplineso judge their efforts. Even a
your definition of
your work honestly. throwawaycomment
"success," as this will
You should work freely from a friend such as,
1' close off avenues
andtreasureyour "Icouldn't have drawn
opened up by a happy
rough ideas (they are that," will spur you on
accident. So long as
often more exciting to new successes.
you knowwhat the rules
than an overworked
are, it can befun to
concept), but you Don't be discouraged
needto know which if other designersor
ones to reject. members of your class
seem to be producing
e Showyour work to . betterwork than you-
family andfriends, just concentrateon
and accepttheir developingyour own
compliments.The most uniquestyle.
Pay attentionto your
instinct about what you
have produced, and
don't try to judge it
through the eyes of
People often wonder how fashion designers manageto come up with so many
marvelous new ideas.The truth is that these ideas are rarely completely new:
designers create by reinventingthe world around them. This chapter will show you
how to develop designs from almost any inspirationalsource, whether you are
exploring the world of fine art or the buildings of your town, Indianculture or the
familiar objects in your home and garden.
4 This dress by
Yves Saint Laurent
work of Mondrian:
Where to start
One of the most daunting aspects of creativity is being faced with a blank page, but luckily ideas don't
haveto be spirited out of thin air.A mistakeoften made by newfashion students is to design a series of
individual garments that have no discerniblesource of inspirationand no cohesive "look."However,once
you have establishedatheme, a multitudeof related ideaswill come tumbling onto your page.
Inspirationfor design themes can befound
everywhere,whether your source is a seashell
on a beachor a splendid skyscraper,the fun of
the fair or the Carnivalat Rio. If you research
well, your topic will automaticallyinfluence
your garment ideas; for example, the theme of
a circus or fairground is likelyto produce a
colorful,flamboyant look. With an inquiring
mind almostanything cantrigger a creative
spark.Thetrick is to beableto selectthe best
routeto follow. As a commercialdesigneryou
will haveyour customer in mindfrom the
outset, and self-indulgentflights of fancy may
becausethey are all aware of the broad
trends. (However,designing from a completely
off-the-wallangle has also produced some
of fashion's greatestmoments.)
Although nothing dates morequickly than
fashion, lookingto the pastfor inspiration often
produces great results.A whole era can
becomean inspiration,andthe popularity of
different erastends to wax and wane in cycles.
Oneyear stylesfrom the 1950smight be in
fashion; the next it's a '70s look that's popular.
Designsthat were the height of fashion
becomethe object of derision, only to
reemergea generationlateras "must have"
articles; wide-flared,low-risetrousers are
haveto take a backseat.As a student, however,
the furthest extremes can, and should, be
explored. Anything can bewatereddown; it is
much harderto spice up something dull.
I A designershould alwayshaveafinger on !
the pulse of the time: musictrends, street
of structuressuch as
the Chrysler Building
can be capturedin a
skirt,or add dangling
culture,fllms, fine art movements. It IS no
coincidence that each fash~onseason has a
discernible look; differentdesignersoften
produce similar color rangesand silhouettes
(the outline shapes of completeensembles)
4 b Global icons
Glve adeslgn a 1950s
feel by incorporatingthe
Cadlilac'stall flns (left)
(rlght)are also lconlc
have a strlkingeffect
inspired many iconic shapes-
think football shirts and Dynasty
shoulder pads. Cycling Lycra
produced a whole newfashion
concept (skintight garments in
bright colors), as did sailing weal
the synthetic waterproof clothing
by Tommy Hilfiger.
Chrysler Building in NewYork make it a superb
example of an artistic endeavor that could
easily inspire garment design. Hollywood
moviescan also start fashiontrends; The Great
Gatsby and the MadMaxseries popularized,
respectively, 1920sflapper dresses and
the "road warrior" look that combines punk
Your opportunities for exploring themes are
unlimited.You can research ideas by visiting
museums or wanderingthrough a city to draw
and take photographsyourself, or you can
absorb the paintings, sculptures,films,
photography,and books createdby other
people.The Internetis a great source of
informationthat can be accessedfrom your
home or college.
The knack of working with inspiration is to
avoid trying to absorb too much at once. Being
selectivewith your research and disciplined in
developingjust a few well-chosenthemes will
helpyou produce a focused rangeof designs
that hold together as a collection.
Patternsand styles basedon ethnic ideas A Cherry-pick ideas
are recycledagain and again by designers. )riceyou havethoroughly researchedyour source,you
Oneseasonthey might work with the weaves I can choose the aspectsthat attractyou mostto include in
of LatinAmerican Indians;nextyear they might
your designs.YOUmay decide to incorporatethe complex
feature the prints of certainAfricantribes. color scheme, zigzag patterns,and layeredlookof
clothesworn by Peruv~anQuechuawomen; alternatively,
Fashionoften draws on other forms of art
it may bethe trailing coat of a circus clown or a highly
for inspiration.The art deco magnificence, ornate Carnival costume, reminiscentof tropical birds
glistening reflections,and lofty symmetryof the andflowers,that inspiresyou
wear used for
as ice hockey
Visiting a museum
Museums can sometimesseem dull or dumbed downto cater to with scale,enlarginga detail and reducingthe size of the piece as a
schoolchildren.Don't be put off; a single collectionof antiquities whole. Don't restrictyourselfto looking at historicalclothesjust
could keep a designer in ideasfor a lifetime.Borrowing and adapting becauseYou are designing garments, Inspirationcan come from
ideasfrom the past IS notjust acceptable infashion design, but ceramics,Sculpture,jewelry, calligraphy, and even just from the
an essentialway of obtaining raw materials.When you first visit a ambienceof the gallery.
museum,it is best to spend at least half a day getting a general You do not need to take along allyour crayons and paintswhen
overview of the exhibits.Take the time to find objects that inspireyou. It you visit a museum. Make plentyof notes in
is only by looking morecloselyat a piecethat its detailsand subtleties your sketchbook so that you can
become clear, and only when you draw it can you be surethat you are developyour ideas when you are back
truly observingit.Your sketchbookwill then provideyou with hundreds at home or inthe studio.
of starting points for planninga collection.Think both big and small;
look at the overall shape of the object and also at the tiny detail. Play
Visit a museumand browse until you find an areathat
inspiresyou. Make notesand observationalsketches
coveringseveral interestingsubjects.Then select atheme
to inspire a small collection of garmentsthat obviously
reflects its source. Completefour finished design
drawingsat home or in your studio.
Select a source that inspiresyou.
@ Makejudgments and choices before putting
pencil to paper.
Learnto observean object carefully.
Adapt designsfrom the pastto creatework that is
b An ancientsource
The monumentalstatues Inthe
: collect~onof Egypt~anant~qultles
1 at the Br~t~shMuseum~nLondon
offer the enterarlslnafash~on, -student ideas about features
SI lch an headrlranses and---. . -- . .----.----- -. .-
jewelry, as well as more general
stylizationtips.Haveyou looked closely at its detail?
Haveyou noted its overall look?
Were your drawings usefulto work from?
Doyour finaldrawings-reflectthe source?
4 Fashionsof the past
You can referto historical
picturesfor intriguingimages of
in past times.The color palettes
representationof Ancient Egypt
can be usedto ignite ideasfor
museum or visit a
Spend at least half a
day browsing before
selectingwhat you want
to concentrateon. Fill
several pages of your
sketchbook with color
notes, doodles, and quick
sketchesof objects and
details relatingto an area
that interestsyou. Then
I choose a suitablesource
(a single object or small
numberof objects that
you find inspirational)
and make at leastten
I quick drawings on site of
all its different aspects.
drawings and on minute
4 Bold reworking
notes made on site can be
to gold and jewels,
eyes are mixedboldly,giving
a modernfeel to the work.
I Back at home or in the
studio, startworking on
lour color palette (see
page 104) and explore
the possibilities of shape,
exaggeratingsome of the
lines, blocks, and planes
in your drawings, and
aspects of the source that
jou have noted in your
colors, outline, mass,
fashion designs. Draw
)ut some rough ideas
for garments, and then
add color. Finally,
A T Fabric ideas
Papyrus (above) has an interesting
texture, and the
charms inthe form
of fish, shells, and
striking print motifs.
ood boards, p. 26
B Color palettes, p. 104
ideas, p. 40 ? - =
Ir- *--- ---Ts-A--ws
VISITING A MUSEUM
Exploringa sourcethrough sketches
and work~ngdrawings enables
fashion designersto identify what
reallyexcitesthem about the topic-
whether ~tIS a strik~ngcolor
combinat~on,the elegant shape of a
vase, or a detail of a fastening in an
old paintrng The illustrations prctured
hereexplore and enlarge on the
theme of Ancient Egypt,reflectingthe
source's historicalbackground and at
the same t~meforming a series of fresh
and dynamic original creations The
draw~ngsall echothe salrent features of
the source and as a result have natural
cohesionas a collection The consistency
of the lim~tedcolor palettefurthers the
impressionthat the designs were planned
as a collectionfrom the outset
A Fullof life
Thoughthe drawings are
unconstrainedand free, full
of lifeand movement.
of their inspiration,the
illustrationsare executedin a
very light and modern way.
Old and new
The effect of these drawings
is avibrant mix of ancient
and modern.The work is
of Ancient Egypthas been
brought intoa modern
context, not only through a
~llustrat~onbut also by
the very h~gh-heeledshoes
The color paletteof gold,
black, pink, and blue used in
the illustrationsis consistent
bothwith the source and
withinthe group of designs
as awhole. This increases
the impressionthat the
pieceswere planned as a
collectionfrom the start.
It may seem a little surprisingto use buildings as inspirationfor clothes. Bulldingdesigr
is obviously meant for a long visual life,whereasfashion in clothes changeswith each
season.However,bothforms arethree-dimensionaland structured,andwhether it is in
the overalltheme of a building or just a detail, usefulideas arethereto befound. Agood
designer needsto be a constant observer and lateralthinker. If you set outto investigate
architecture, you will discovera wealth of interestingtextures, subtle colorways,and
strongdesign features, which reflecttherr source but also emergeas design concepts
intheir own right.
Whether you choose to study a historicalbuilding likea church, a famous modern
landmark,or evenyour own home, ideaswill emerge if you observeyour source closely.
The reflectiveglass of a skyscraper might suggestthe useof a shimmeringmodern
fabric; the peelingpaint of an old beachhut could stimulateyou to create a look
incorporatingripped layers.Alternatively, letthe arcaded columns adorningthe
LeaningTower of P~saevoke intricatesleeve details or bodice lacework.The
perspectivelines of a building often provokeideasabout outline-think howthe
GuggenheimMuseumcould suggest a billowingblouseor the art deco stylizationof
the Chrysler Buildingmight be incorporatedinto a tiered silhouette.
b Bold statements
The LeanlngTower of P~sa,
Think in generalabout the sort of architecturethat could the Svdnev O ~ e r aHouse,
spark some design ideas. Select a building and make 1 the La Bocawaterfrontof
extensive drawings in your sketchbook. Highlightthe
elements (suchas overallshape, design details, and
surroundings)that get you thinking. Take photographs.
Then make photocopies of your researchandwork into
them using paint, crayon, and ink. Distillthese ideasto
illustratefour design ideas.
a Practiceobserving meticulouslyeverything
a Makejudgments about the elements you want to use
in your designs andthose you chooseto reject.
a Useone form of creative work to create another.
) BuenosAires, and a glass
examples of architecture that
4 First fashion ideas
Useyour flrst rough drawlngsto explore the shape of the
bulldlngas a whole The fashlon parallels, such as a long
flared dress or sklrt silhouette, will become apparent
4 V Deconstruction
bulldlngIn depth Exploring the
__._ - _.-$ jolntlng detalls, for example, may
different parts of your garmentswill
f~ttogether Try to match the colors
and textures of your photographic
researchso that your fabrlc ideas
reflect the source, too
By makingthese choices
Start by lookingthrough you will soon learnto
architectural magazines. discernwhat is of useto
YOU, go your photographsand suspensionbridge
out with a sketchbook sketches, whichyou might hav6become
and camerato select a canthenwork intowith cords supporting a
building and record its paint, crayon, and ink, silk bodice inyour
shapeand'details. Look alteringthe image by reworkingof the
at stairwells, elevator manipulatingcertain concept-provided that
shafts,windows, doors, elementsto create thejourney from source
decoration, colors, and somethingpersonal to conclusion is mapped
textures, aswell as at the to you. Finally, combine out inyour research.
building's surroundings, elementsintofour
too. Take photographsto originalfashiondesigns.
capturethe whole picture It doesn't matterif the
and makesketches to resultis a million miles
highlightthe elements awayfromyour starting
you want to remember. point-the cables of a
;* Haveyou transformedone type of three- .- r .
dimens~onaldesign into another?
22 FINDING INSPIRATION
A fresh look at the familiar
When discussing how fashion designers and illustratorswork, people oftenwonder
where all the ideas come from. How can a designer produce such a volume of original
work each season, apparently out of thin air?The answer, of course, is that it does not
just appear as if by magic but comes from the systematic development of ideasoften
triggered bythe everydayworld that surrounds us
As a designeryou will learnhowto look anew andto investigatethese concepts in an original
at commonplaceobjects and themes, and see way. An exciting personal approachto a smallest detail
inthem possibilitiesfor inspiration and conceptwill add a uniqueflavor to a design.
creativity. Oncethis is understood,the mystery With time, you mayfind yourself revisiting photographyor drawing
is explodedand you can see howthe world certain ideasand images.This is perfectly
you not~cetiny deta~ls,suchas splrals andswirls,
aroundyou offers an endlesssourceof acceptableso long as you are ableto find an thatvou can useto aood effect ~nvour des~ans.- -
imaginativepotential. original interpretationof your theme
This huge rangeof choice may appear for each rangeof designs, and it is
somewhat daunting atfirst, but you will soon part of the naturaldevelopmentof
rdevelopthe ability to be selectivewith your your own recognizabledesign style.
starting points, based on their potentialvalue As well as being of interestto
to you as a source of inspiration.The key is to you, it is important that your sources
use imagesthat truly interestand inspire you, incorporatevariousfactors that you
4 A The naturalworld
can be derivedfrom something
as mundaneas peelingrust
or the skeletonof a leaf,and
the undulatinglinesof freshly
into stripes on a billowingblouse.
A The treasures
artifactsdo you have
at an heirloomor a
and richtones, are
agreat source of
will be able to use later in your designs. The
ollowing aspects should be considered:
colors and how they are combined; texture;
proportion; shape; volume; details; and
decoration. Your starting point should satisfy
your creative interest on as many of these
levels as possible. You can then use your
A Take a chance on me
Fashionruns in cycles; popbands such as ABBA and
the clothesassociatedwith them are constantlygoing
in andout of fashion.What "outdated"styles can be
materialto create mood boards (see page 26),
which will provide a focus for the further
development of selected aspects of your
research and help you to be disciplined in
designing garments based on a few well-
chosen and targeted themes.
A Popular culture
Streetart makesawonderfulcontrastto the natural
world. Bright colors can inspirefantastic print ideaswith
evocative of the culture
fromwhich it originates,
set of colors,images,
essence of an
Creating a mood board is great fun and will help
you be selectivewith the researchyou have
gathered.This is the first stage of organizing your
thoughts and collected images,enablingyou to
channelyour creative excitementtoward a cohesive
and targeted design outcome. Mood boards are made
by arranging images and color ideas on a large board
so that you can see at a glance howyour designs
might evolve.They vary in their complexity but, as the
name suggests, mood boards should always capture
the mood or flavor of your design project,as well as
reflectingyour target customer.
In grouping your researchedimages you will haveto
make decisionsabout editing and prioritizingyour
selection,as well as confirmingyour season and color
palette.Colors should reflect your chosen season-
soft pastelswill suggest a summer story,for example-
but whatever the season, the color palette should be
applied consistentlythroughoutthe project.
Select a theme and a season for your work, and consider
who your target customer might be. Gather together all
your research material. Usinga 20 x 30-in. illustration
board as a base, arrangeand gluetogetherthe strongest
images, and combine them with a color paletteor fabric
swatches to make a collage.Also include imagesfrom
currentfashion magazinesthat suit your chosentheme.
Build a mood board that reflectsthe essence of your
Prioritizeimagesfrom your collated research.
Reflectyour target customer and chosenseason.
Bringtogether creative inspiration and current
Finalizea color palette.
Create a mood board that summarizes your chosen
4 Color samples
to helpyou selectaharmonious
groupof colorsfor your palette.
Avoid includingmorethan eight
shades ineachpalette or your
designs may becomeconfused
4 Magazine cuttings
Ifyou already haveideasaboutthefabrics
that youwill usefor your final designs,include
keepthe presentationclean,simple,and neat.
- I createaan easy referencetool to use
1 sketching your rough ideas?
Have you reflectedyour season and
Haveyou finalized your color palette?
e Haveyou usedthe most important ima
e Haveyou summarizedyour theme?
4 Test the colors
imagestigether to identify
the key shades and best
color combinationsto evoke
V Think laterally
design concepts. Here,the
color and cawing of an
ornate pictureframe is
I embroideredfabric and athe process
Researcha theme that
itemssuch as postcards,
from this researchwill
helpyou focus on what is
important in the project.
web sitessuch as
designers' web sites.
Also gather imagesto
reflectthe season and
your target customer
(see pages94 and 98).
you what size of board
suits you best, but try
starting with a 20 x 30-in.
boardthat allows room
for lots of images as well
as swatches of yarns and
fabrics, and any wording.
Handwritingon a mood
board usually looks
4 Refine your choice
Layout allyour gathered
researchmaterial so that you
can compare the imagesand f
selectwhich to useonyour
mood board. 7
letteringor output copy
from a computer.
This is a good time to
try putting together a
color paletteto include
)nyour board, using
chips from the standard
color reference books
produced by Pantone,or
cuttings from magazines
(for more informationon
working with color
palettes, see page 104).
Avoid including images
that are not appropriate
for your selectedcolors,
becausethey will detract
from the overall effect.
Ensurethat all the
imagesare cut out simply
1 and stuck down neatly. It
is the imagesthat should
grab the attentionand not
, the manner in which you
Simplest is always best.
3ating a cohesivecollection, p
Customer focus, p. 94
Occasions, seasons, budgets, p.
Color palettes,p. 104
successfulmood board, likethose pictured here,
A h a s a uniquepersonality.~texpressesthe essence
of the design ideasand sums up the theme as well
as reflectingpracticalconcernssuch as the season
and the target customer.As the board is built up,
combining inspirationalitemswith picturesfrom
magazines and informationabout upcoming styles,
creativethemes are marriedwith current fashion
trends. Inthis way, mood boards provideafocus for a
creativeyet commercialdesign solution.
The very act of deciding which imagesto include
will help a designer narrowdown and develop his or
her ideas.As key ideas become prioritized,a clear
thought process evolvesand the job of producing .:
designsthen becomes much simpler.The finished -'
mood board shouldtell its own distinct story-being
disciplined about creatingonly one board per project
keepscreative efforts focused.
The classicaltheme of these boards has been inspired by the
textures and forms of sculpture.A muted color palette,derived
from the colors of marble. helpsto evoke a timelessand
4 Seaside nostalgia-
This board combines the unlikely
themesof the seaside andvintage
dress (particularlydress associated
with travel).The final collectionwas
called 'A '20sTrip to the Seaside."
4 Summer colors
. A h~gh-summerdecorat~vetheme has
i been createdInth~smood board
_ through an eclectic mix of colorful
images.This selectioncould be
narrowed down further stillto focus on
artists,florals, or decorativetilework.
P Cohesive color theming
Imagesfrom fashion magazinescan
sit happilywith researchmaterial.
Here,folds of fabrics in shadesof
greencreatea common identity.
A A feminineapproach
Thistonal paletteof colors evokes a
Brownand neutraltones establisha sophisticated mood.
. . . - - - : . .
The traditions of India
Inthis age of global branding, it can be refreshingto turn to non-Westerncultures in
search of inspiration.lndia is a great example of a culture that preservesa strong
identity in the modernworld becauseit is still very much connected to itstraditional
roots.The wonderfully vibrant colors and intricate shapes of lndia are a marvelous
5 sourceof design ideas,whether drawn from the brilliant shades of the spices and
printedfabrics, or ornate gold jewelry, or cloth woven with tiny mirrors,or the patternsI
of hennahandtattoos. These colors and shapes have been part of lndian culture for
! . centuries and continueto be preserved by lndian communitiesaroundthe world, so
i. you should have no problem gatheringyour research.
!. By drawing on a sourcethat is strongly traditionalyou ensurethat your materials
never date-because thev are not subiect to the whims of fashion.As a
design student, you should explore as many cultures as possible;
youwill uncover a treasure trove of designs that with only
minor adjustmentsof scale or color can produce
This project is a great opportunityto express
yourself-so be as flamboyantas you like! Later in the
courseyou will be considering issues such as customer
profileand budget, so now is the time to explore some
wilder flights of design fancy.
Researchlndian culturefrom as manysources as
possible. Gather lndian items,find fabric swatches, take
photographs, and makedrawings and collages. Fill
twenty pagesof your sketchbook with all sorts of
gathered researchas well as your own work. Then start
working into these found items, exploringthe colors and
shapes you might want to use in your designs. Restrict
yourselfto four finalized design drawings.
The fabulous architecturefound
Researchlndian culture to draw on the design ideas
of a non-Westernculture.
in lndia is an excellent source of
creative ideas.The dome of the
Taj Mahalmight suggest the full
curveof a bodice, whilethe
intricateinlaythat covers its
marblewallswould create a
stunninqeffecttraced in silver-
Put an original spin on these ideas. thread on an eveninggown.
Achieve an interesting mix of cultural influences
in your work.
74 Legendsof the gods
I In lndiayou are never far from the Howwell havevou researchedlndian culture?
I Hindugods and goddesses, Haveyou matched
whose storiesare depicted
1 cards and in countlessfilms and B$ DOyour finished dra
' songs You may be lnsplredby the on the source or are they just derivative? 1
gaudy colors, the kohl-darkened
I eyes. or the anclent dress of these
typically lnd~anImages I r E . ~ ~ r - ~ ~ C F P F P - t P P - - ~ ~ ~ ~SZP-
Research lndian culture
by visiting museums,
libraries, shops, markets,
and temples. Talk to
people, buy postcards,
take photographs, and
makewritten as well as
sketched notes. Look for
mirrored bags, spice
samples, religious icons,
and makeup designs.
Listento lndian music
and watch lndian films.
Immerse yourself totally
inthe research and fill .
your sketchbook with
swatches, and any style
paint, crayon, and ink. Try
to match colors by mixing
paints to achieve the
perfect tone. This is
harder than you might
imagine, so experiment
with color combinations.
Try different effects, using
chalk, transparent paint
washes, or crayons
applied lightly over dried
paint, to achieve the color
and texture of your
source material. (When
matching colors you may
Delicategoldjewelry or the
textiledesign, perhaps using
also find it helpful to refer A Street life
to the numbered Pantone , Heapsof fresh producefor sale Inastreet market may lnsprreyou
color chips. See page to try to matchthe glowrngtones of eggplant,or perhapsto
104for more details.)
rncorporatethe shape of a corrander leaf rntoyour deslgns
directions you may wish I Finally, complete four
to follow. / fashion drawings inspired
V Fillyour scrapbook
Once you havesome , by your research. Try to
Visiting a museu Organrzeyour researchby makrngyour sketchbookIntoa
ideas, start working Into ' give them an overall look,
Mood boards, p. scrapbook andfrllrng rtwrth as muchcolorful,stlmulatlng
your research as before, perhaps through a materralas you can Gather photographs,textual
first highlighting and uniform color scheme or lnformatron,fabrrc samples, Imagesfrom magazrnes,and
then manipulating the silhouette theme. any other desrgnreferencesthat rnspireyou, suchas
inspiring elements with examples of lndranscrrpts As you arrangeyour research.
youwrll begrnto assemblea moodconceptandformulate
a color palette
Designs inspired by traditional Indiandress might be looseand flowing, or involve
the clever use of wrapping and layeringas seen in turbans and saris.The color
scheme maywell be boldly vibrant, reflectingthe richtones of the source material.
When exploringan ethnic source, it is important to gather as many culturalreferences
as possibleso that the sketchbook research and mood inspirationgels intowork that
retainsthe distinctivefeel of the subject matterwithout being derivative.Traditional,
non-Westerncultures offerthe designer awonderful sourceof fabric, silhouette,and
embellishment ideas. However,a successfuldesignwill always put a new spin on
these traditionalideas, perhapsmeldingthem in an original way or incorporating
contemporaryinfluencesto create an original concept out of an ancient design.The
- collection pictured here strongly reflects its culturalstarting
pointwhile remaining essentially multiculturalin feel.
A b Embellishment
The useof found items
such as leaves,flowers,
and beads collaged onto
the imagesgives an
evocative textured feel to
A b Fusionfashion
textures and colors of Indiainto a
altogether.The rich, patterned
fabrics and swirlingskirts clearly
reflect the Indiansource,and the
Western-style low-cut bodice
contributesto the modern feel of
A A free-spirited collection
The illustrateddesignswere finally made up into
finished garments (with some changesto the
color palette) and photographed. Care was
taken inthe styling of the shoot to give the
collection a flowing,free-spiritedfeel: a
fashion photograph does not haveto betoo
representational,but it should conveythe spirit
of the designer's vision.
Fine art and graphics
An importantareafor the fashion student to explore
is print design, and one of the best sources of
inspirationfor this is the world of fine art.A print
designer should be ableto imitatethe structure and
style of a painting, and keeptrue to its color palette.
Twentieth-century modernistpainting provides
especially rich material, as the fresh brushwork and
bright colors lendthemselves very well to print
designs. painters favored by textile designersinclude
Dufy (whowas himselfalso a print designer),
Mondrian, Kandinsky,Mir6, Matisse, and Picasso.
An alternativesource is public domain graphic ,;
material.This is easily accessibleas, for example, .'
books or as clip-art images,available free throughthe
Internet.Great results can be achieved by adapting
and coloringthese illustrations.
There are no rules about which motifscan be best
repeated-in fashion print anj~thinggoes! However,if
designing a printfor a specific garment,you needto
considerthe cut of the fabric. Printsfollowthe fabric's
grain,so cutting fabric on the bias (diagonallyto the
grain) will reorientthe print.Also, a "one-way"print,
where motifs are aligned in one direction, has less
cutting flexibilitythan an "all-ways"print.
Choose either fine art or graphic materialas your source.
Forthe first approach, try to imitatethe style of a painting
that you like and design five textile print patterns.Forthe
second, reworkyour source materialby photocopying,
enlarging, and adding marksto createa squaredesign for
a headscarf. Try at least three colorways (i.e. makethree
versionsof the design in different combinations of colors).
Observe in detail the source material, noting colors,
Experimentwith scale and coordination.
* If you choosethe scarf option, discover how a change
of colorway can alter the dynamic of a design.
Ifyou decide to design
the print patterns,
of paintingsthat you think
convert into a repeatable
print idea. Chooseone
picture, and observeits
various sections and
details.Then design at
leastfive prints. Try to
work in the style of
the artist, taking care
to usethe same density
of color and similar
handling of paint or
crayon. Itcan be
with differentscales of
shape and alsoto make
4 Creatingart from art
The strong shapes and colors in
the work of painterssuch as
Mondrianlend themselves very
readilyto print design. Here,key
aspects of the original painting
were abstractedto achievea
design that refers recognizably
to its sourceyet is itselfa unique
architecture,p. 20 I
two or more designs
designs comefrom the
samesource, there is
a good chancethat
they will coordinate
designing both "one-
way" and "all-ways"
prints. You will be
low many great print
~deascan come from just
Forthe scarf project,
select your graphics and
make creativeuse of a
blow imagesright up so
that the edges begin to
fragment, giving an
iyou makethe painting or graphic your own by
using it in an unexpectedway?
Didyou experimentwith scale and coordination? -
Are your colorways balanced?
cut out shapes and
arrangethem in several
ways, differingthe scale.
These images can be
juxtaposed withfine lines
or other markings.Also
are satisfied, commit
yourself to a design. Stick
images, and photocopy
them severaltimes to
work on your chosen
colorways.You can then
work into the designs
with paint, crayon, and
ink. It is often best not to
usetoo manycolors; by
simplify the processof
balancing colors.You will
see that makingdifferent
colorwaysof the same
design can achievevery
4 Buildinga design
from graphic materialto
rough printdesign, The
sketcheswere madeto test
the design and the color
1 then arranged inthe
chosen design,which was
photocopied to allowfor the
use of differentcolorways.
The lines, shapes,and patternsof existingworks of art and graphics can provide
great inspirationfor fashion designers.There isn't a painting in the world that
couldn't be made to yield ten print designs,and the potentialfor manipulatinggraphic
material is endless.The key to success in the first part of the project-using fine art to
create print design-is to observe the works in great detail and imitate closelythe
style and techniquesof the painter.Intheir bold geometric lines,the print patterns
shown here have a clearly recognizablesource in paintings by Dufy and Mondrian,
while being at the same time original designs.
The different colorways of the scarf designs demonstratehow dramatically a new
color palette changesthe look of a piece. It is often best not to usetoo many colors;
restrictingthe color palette simplifiesthe processof balancingcolors and makes it
easier to achieve a strong statement.
4 t Repeating the motifs
Here,thework of Dufyand Mondrianhas been usedto
createa collectionof print designs.Just by taking one
small p e t of a paintingand replicatingit aroundthe
page, a familiar artworkcan be reinterpretedintoa
The scarf printswere made in
different combinations of colors,
demonstrating how much a simple
alteration in coloring can change the
lookof a design.
A An integrateddesign
The finalscarf print has been slightlyalteredin minordetailsbut still
reflects clearly itsjourney from individualgraphic motifsto
integrateddesign.The individualcomponents have beenblown up
or reduced in scale, using a photocopier,to produce an interesting
divergencein line strength.
One simple way to see something in a fresh light is to experiment with its
scale. If a small part of a commonplace object is blown up to a much
larger scale, it will appear new and instead of being boring and familiar
might becomethe source of creative ideas. It is this sort of in-depth
consideration of a source that puts an individual stamp on your work. IA Take a
p items canprovoke
- interestingseam detail
could bebasedon theway
By describing the details of an imageor object
in a much largerscale-through drawing,
photography,embroidery, or using a
photocopier-you will havealready startedthe
creative process.When experimentingwith
scale inthis way, it is usefulto try to abstract
the elementsthat most interestyou, instead
of aiming simply to create a realistic
representationof your topic. For example, a
close-upof insectwings may inspireyou to
createsome original color combinations or
scale-likepatterns.Letyour series of drawings
or photographsevolve to becomeincreasingly
abstract.This process of selection and
developmentis important-you are on your
way to creating a uniquedesign solution
inspired by your research.
Ask yourselfwhy you are attractedto the
imagesyou havechosen:what is it about
pebbles or snowflakesthat interestsyou?The
A b Unexpected beauty
Some man-madeobjects are
seen upclose.This circuit
beadingor textured knitwear.
4 Inspired by science 1 1
magazinesare agood source
iridescentwing could be
1 4 A Natural
answerwill point your developmentsin the
rightdirection;this is what you should try to
captureas you abstract out the important
elementsof your research. Inthis way,
somethingas ordinary as paint peelingfrom a
wall will becomea wonderful mineof ideasfor
layersof textureand color-and you will start
to seethat wallthrough the eyes of a designer.
Natureis an endless
sourceof shapes and
folds of a red cabbage
Smooth black pebbles
could be investigated
their subtletexture and
flecks of contrasting
colors, or seen as a
L arour, of similarly
Repetitiveman-made 'IIn the grain
patternscan inspireprint Wood grain providesanotherexampleof nature's
designs; looka littlecloser ability to generatebeautifuland uniquepatterns.
and layersof rust or Here,the weather has also played its part by
discolorationmay evoke causing interestingcracks,which might be evoked
ideas aboutfabric layering. in a design through printing,pleating, or gathering.
Designing fabric ideas
V Rapid research
Photographyisagreatway to quicklygather useful
focusyour mindon texture andlinear pattern,
whereas color photographycan provideyouwith a
good startingpointfor your color palette.
The close examlnatlon of the surface detallof your
source of lnsplrationcan stimulate excltlng ~deas
about textures and colors,whlch will influenceyour
cho~ceof fabrlcs Insteadof relylngon fabr~csthat you
can buy,you mlght dec~dethat you want to deslgnyour
owntextiles, using methods such as embroidery,
dyelng, knitting, or printing These or~glnaltext~lescan
then be ~ncorporatedIntotruly uniquegarment
deslgns As a general rule,when you let your ornate
textlle Ideastake the lead,your garment des~gns
should become slmpler to let the beautyof the fabrlc
be seen and appreciated
Choosea theme that allows the examination of detail and
would be suitableto inspire interestingtextile ideas.
Exploreyour conceptthrough drawings or photography.
Usea mood board to helpyou select a color paletteand
finalizeyour fabric ideas. Choosethe strongesttextile the process
concepts and let them inspire some simple fashion Choosea promising
designsthat display the fabric ideas in their best light. theme to research; an old
graveyard, for example,
offers many interesting
the objective texturaldetails such as
Selectan appropriate starting pointfor
railings,and layered photographs, scanning
-, view your subject as an
will helpyou focus on
Expandyour ideas about creatingdifferentfabrics.
leaves. Photographyis a imagesinto a computer shapesand textures.
Assess your strongestfabric conceptsto inspireyour
good way to gather and using software Consider howyour
rough fashion designs.
researchquickly. You can researchthemeswould
Photoshopto manipulate betranslated onto fabric.
SELF-CRITIQUE overallscene or in close- scale and color. You can embellishfabrics
Was your chosensource of inspirationsufficient1 up, and the very act of Grouptogether your through methodssuch
detailed to inspiretextile ideas? looking through the color photographs and as cutting, bleaching,
Haveyou expandedfrom the original starting point to viewfinderwill giveyou a createcolor palettesby painting, dyeing, printing,
createuniquetextile designs? fresh perspectiveon the selecting the important beading,or applique. You
Have YOU usedthe strongest t .---.. ...,- ~ r source. Then make shadesand identifying could even design an
ih garment designs? further sketcheseither on ideafor an entirely new
Isthere a good balancebetweenthe fashion and site or later inthe studio, combinations (see page textile, generatedthrough
textile elements of your designs? using the photographs 104). Alternatively, knitting, for example. Use
as reference.You can limiting yourself to black- a mood board as a focus,
=-------=-- also digitally edit the and-whitephotography gathering any trims,
A Creating a theme
Compilinga mood board will
materialwith fashion ideas.
All the selectedmaterial
beads, ribbons, or print
effects that you may wish
Finally, sketch some
fashion designs that
show off your textile
ideas to best advantage.
Remember that an
intricate fabric is often
best shown in a simple
A Simplicity in design
Simplify imagessuch as representations
of overlappingleavesdown to repetitive
patternsthat can be used ina decorative
way. These printswere inspiredby art
nouveau examples of leaf designs.
4 A Trying out ideas
Startto sketchyour rough
fabrlc ~deasthat reflectthe
shapesand patternsof your
researchmaterial Try placlng the
fabrlc concepts on a flgure In
different scales and proportions
Developing a fabric concept in conjunctionwith a garment design allows for total
I controlof the creative process-giving a designer the opportunityto produce a
! truly original collectionthat reflectsthe researchmaterial in a uniqueway. To give
designsa strong overall look,the inspirationof the sourceshould be shown in
differentways. For example, it is not just the surfacetreatment of the fabrics that
u ; strongly reflectsthe theme inthe garments illustratedhere-even the poses of the
figures are reminiscent of the graveyard source,
Here,the simplefashion shapes are a suitable vehicle for displayingthe fabric
ideas.When designersinvest a great deal of effort into creatinga beautifulfabric, they
tend to keepoutlines as simple as possible.An elaboratesilhouette combined with a
complextextile can leadto a confused overalleffect.Conversely,the illustrationof the
textile should not be so over-the-topthat it detractsfrom the silhouette.For clarity,
garment designs can always be presentedaccompanied by fabric swatches or
A Devore design W l
to burnthe design intothis store-purchasedsilkvelvet. 7
Starting with embroidery
The previous unit demonstratesthat fashion design
can be driven by fabric development.Inthe same
way, embroiderycan be used as the starting pointfor a
garment idea.You can draw on paintingsfor patterns
and shapes to develop intoembroiderydesigns.The
artist Gustav Klimt,for example, used intricateandI
~ ornate patterns,and hiswork would be an ideal
startingpointfor this exercise.You may haveyour own
preference,but be sureto choose a source that
containssufficient decorativeinformationto inspireyou
i throughoutyour investigations.Lookfor shapes and
patterns that can be simplifiedand adapted to your
own design ends.
As you incorporateyour embroideryideas into
garment designs,take your lead from the pages of
1 your fashion magazines,The size. amount.and
placementof embroideryused by designerstends to
I vary as fashion changesthroughthe seasons.
Select a work of art that you find inspiring. Explorethe
patterns,colors, and shapes of the chosen piece, using
scrapbook ideas, and fashion magazinecuttings. As you
work, gradually isolatesimple patternsand shapes that
are easily interpretedinto embroidery ideas, and use
these to inspire some rough fashion designs.
4 Patternand rhythm
Chooseworks that show astrong
sense of patternandrhythm, like
this painting by Gustav Klimt.The
swirlingshapesare idealto translate
4 A Widening
, magazinesto suppot?your
observationsof an artist'swork.
' Useasketchbookto abstract
out simplepatternsfrom your
I wrought-ironrailings providea
Select a suitable starting point for
Combinetextile and garment design by using intricate
ornamentationin a fashion context. I
Selectyour ideas inspire i ' Was vour chosen source of insairation suitablv detailedfor the develoamento
your fashion designs. - -fn;3;*e2*;Ts& .*.*."L - - = -
embroidery as well as fashion ideas? $1aL4aLUljlii;~~&q&gisf~%~
Did you let your decorativeconcept takethe lead in the garment des~gn,
intricateornamentationwith simple design?
HWC?you taken- the strongest id$,a~hr~ughto rough sketch sta
-- -*- I
Beginby looking at a
numberof your chosen
artist's works, but stay
focusedby editing down
the starting points. As
always, thejourney of
selectionis vitalto the
mightwish to combine
photographsof your own
that capturea similar
seriesof shapes and
patterns.This kind of
primaryresearch adds to
the originality of your
own interpretationsof the
work, evolvingthese into
patterns and shapes. Still
ideason paper, use
ideas. Echothe shapes
and patternsthat you
have observed. These
piecesare drawings in
themselves-done with a
than a pen!
Begin by using the
colors of your source
material, but feel free to
move away into your own
can be a productiveway
to give a newtwist to a
' Nowwork your
"mbroidery ideas into
some rough garment
a simple garment shape
will show off embroidery
to best effect. Pockets,
and cuffs can all be good
placesto site decoration,
or you might want to
be bolder and place a
design within the front
Ir back bodice or on a
Je usedonce or repeated
a number of times over
the garment, in a random
1 or engineeredpattern.
' V this stageyou should
f choice of colors and
1 makethe palette
appropriateto your target
1 customer (see page 94).
jeas to pull together as
hefinal fashion designs.
4 V Isolatingshapes
Drawingor paintingyour own interpretationsof
an artist'sworkwill encourage youto examine
your source materialclosely. Useyour
patterns,derived fromyour startingpoint.
C' P ~ W I OVisiting .iseum,
Fineart and graphics, p.
A Drawingwith a sewing machine
A sewlng mach~necan becomea toolfor
Idraw~ngHere colored paper has been
usedto experiment w~thcomb~nat~onsof
colorsand shapes - --
Embroideryideas can betranslateddirectly
onto fabric and usedwith fashion designs as
appropriate,or they can be developedfurther as print
ideas or texturesfor knittedstitches. It is possibleto
combine a number of thesetechniques,embroidering
intoa print idea or printing over a knit,for example.
It might bethat a collectioncontainssome garments
that are printedwhereas others are knittedor
embroidered-but they should all reflect,even if only
distantly,the essential elements of the initial research.
The four final garment designs illustratedhere
have evolved a longway from the initial starting point,
and referencesto Klimt have
become subtle.The finished
collection has beenshaped
by the designer's own
sense of style and reflects
the sourcewithout being
overwhelmed by it.
4 Beversatile 4 A rnemed outline
A set of simple patternscan The curvesand swirls of the
be used in manydifferent source material are reflected
ways. For example, inthe silhouettesof the
embroideryideas can be garmentsas well as intheir
echoed in knittedstructures embroidereddecoration.
or print designs.
V Communicating clearly
By showing the decorativedetail separately
fromthe garment itself,these four final
illustrations can make a strong statement
about both. Some of the embroideryideas
have beendevelopedfurther into knitted
textures.These designs have moved away
from the originalsource to become strong
concepts intheir own right.
4 'IUsing a template
of these garmentswere used
to finalize the placementof
Nowthat you have developedsome great design ideas, it'stime to look more
closely at the techniques of fashion illustration.This chapter discusses creating
figures, whether through an easy paper-foldingmethod or by drawingfrom life, as
well as exploring the wide range of mediathat you can use in illustratingdesigns
and looking at howto lay out your page effectively.Throughoutthis part of the
course, you will learnto observe carefully and to representwhat you see in a bold
area 0 0 Joints
As a fashion designer you should always rememberthat clothes
are madeto beworn by real people.It is important,therefore,to
gain some understandingof the structure and proportionsof the
The exercise in figure drawing described in There are obvious differencesinthe
Unit8 will introduce you to a simple and easy male and female forms, such as narrower
system that you can useto draw figures that waists and wider hips for females and
are roughly in proportion. The exercise has squarer chests and faces for men. However,
nothingto do with creativity but will helpyou these variationsshould be incorporatedonce
grasp the possibilities and restrictions of the
the basics have been sketched. Maleand
framework on which your creationswill hang. female bodies can both be broken down into
A Vitruvian Man
renownedfor his realistic
representationsof the human
body.He drewthis illustration
of a preciselyproportioned
figureto accompany his notes
on Vitruvius.This architect
wrote in Romantimes that the
human body is the ideal
it fits, with arms and legs
forms of both the square and
half heads .
The heightof a realistic human
figurefrom crownto toe is
the heightof the head. For
fashion purposes,this can be
stretched (belowthe waist only)
to eight-and-a-halfhead sizes.
I F ~simple block shapes. The head can
frayed as an egg; the chest as a
laper basket; the pelvic area as a wide
isticvaulting horse; the limbs astapering
--.,thefeet and hands as cones; and the
b a sballs. Onceyou havedrawnthese
Pbsinthe relativesizes shown (opposite),
~traighffowardfront view, you can move
fiaroundlike parts of awooden drawing
qmyto createthe poseyou want.
A b Exploring
A wooden artist's
dummy can helpyou
There is a convention infashion illustration When you come to draw from life, a grasp of
that afigure should be elongatedto give it these principles will helpyou enormously in
moreelegance. However,that elongation understandingthe mechanicsof the figure in
should involveonly the legs. A real-lifebody front of you. It is always good to rememberthat
will measure around seven-and-a-half-head these "rules" are just conventions,but by
sizes; in fashionthis increasesto eight-and-a- gaining a basic understandingof the structure
half heads, with the extralength added below and proportions of the human body you will be
the waist. All the other proportions of the basic better placedto breakthe rules later.
block shapesshould be basedon reality.
A b Free illustration
A drawing based on an
awareness of correct body
proportionscan still be free in
execution andwill stillallow
you to experiment with the
presentationof the garments.
An exercise in figure drawing
If you are inexperiencedin drawingfigures, usingthis
easy methodcan add to the confidenceof your
illustrations by ensuringthat your figuresare roughlyin
proportionand all drawnto the same scale.The simple
shapes and proportionsof the method ensurethat the
figuresare easy to draw and look correct. Furthermore,
by grasping howthese basic shapes fit togetherto
form a humanfigure,your drawingswill become better
anchoredon the page and the poses more convincing.
Forthe sake of this exercise,the body,brokeninto its
After You haveCompletedthe task,you should keep
the drawings as a reference,YOU can always come
backto this book, but nothing stays inthe memory
better than something learnedby actually doing
Using a simple paper-folding method,divide your pageto
makea Proportional blueprintof the humanfigure. Then
draw inthe basic block shapesthat representdifferent
Partsof the body to make an easy-referencetool for use
when You create fashion drawings inthe future.
The humanbody is
the way it divides up into
sections. Makea mark
just below the top of a
pageof paper (11 x
Gain a framework to strengthenthe more creative
14 in.). Then draw a
aspects of your work. straight plumb line down
Practicedrawing an elongatedfigure to use in
the page, leavingabout
an inch atthe bottom,
and markthe end of the
line. old your page at the
halfway point between
the top and bottom
marks. Foldthe page
again, finding the halfway
point on the plumb line
as before,and then
fashion designs inthe future?
1 repeat once more. Flatten
out the sheet, and you
can nowfill in your
4 The folded-
w creases as described
proportional blueprint of
Fromthe top markto
the nextfold draw your
the line betweenthis fold
and the next, and mark
acrossthe plumb line.
This markforms the
base of the neck and the
pointpf the rib cage. One
fold down is the navel,
followed by the crotch on
fold four. Ignorefold five.
Onfold six mark your
and ignore fold seven. At
the levelof the bottom
mark, fill inthe anklewith
anotherball shape. The
gap left at the bottom of
the page is for the cone-
shapedfoot, which will
protrude by about half the
distanceof the spaces
You now have an
fashion figure that you
can useas a basisfor
your designs. Ifyou wish
to elongatethe figure
further (some designers
work to a nine- or even
length should be added
only belowthe knee.
Usingthe block shapes,
you canthen draw inthe
remaining body parts to
fill out the figure. Draw
4 Usingthe framework
Us~ngthe "e~ghtand a half heads" proportions as a rough
framework for your ~llustrat~onsw~llsupport even the most
"- styl~zedrepresentation of a f~gure
the chestfrom the neck
basethrough fold two
way down to fold three.
Drawthe pelvic box up
from fold four, extending
three-quartersof the way
to fold three. When you
add the limbs, remember
thatthe upper arm is
shorter thanthe lower.
The elbow,with arms
hanging, is just above
navel level; the wrist is
just belowthe crotch.
life, p. 58
A Manipulatingthe basicforms
This sequenceof drawrngsshows how scr~bbles The bas~cformsremalnIn proportion, but have
made uslngthe folded-paper method can be been manipulated, the lhmbs rotatedto createa
worked up ~ntosketchesfor a f~nal~llustrat~on sense of life and movement
AN EXERCISE I
Althoughit is essentialfor a fashion designer to strive to breaknew ground and
sometimes disregard conventions,it is neverthelessalso usefulto be grounded
in a few basic design principles.It is importantfor designers always to keep in mind
the fact that,whateverflights of fancy they may be exploring,their garmentswill
eventuallyhaveto fit on a humanbody.
Infashion illustrationit is usualto stretch the legs a little,but all other body parts
shouldconformto their real proportions.This simplefolded-paper system achieves a
patternfor a fashionably elongated but correctly
proportionedfigure that can then be used as a
foundationfor illustrations such as those pictured
here. It is always possibleto breakcompletely
with convention,but a student should start
with a framework to support the free
ideasthat mightfollow. It is only
- once the basic principleshave been
Babsorbed that a designer can enjoy
true artistic freedom.
4 A Hidden
These figures haveall been
created usingthe folded-
paper method, butthe nuts
and bolts of the construction
are hidden under afree-and-
the garments.A stylized
depiction of garmentsis
morelikelyto be successful
ifthe viewer can accept the
underlyingfigure as realistic.
One of the most important aspects of design drawing is the ability to "loosen up."Often a budding
designer will freeze up over an important drawing, whether it'sfor presentation, publication, or just to
show to someone else. Spontaneity is lost and any freedom that existed in the private sketchbook
suddenly becomes rigid and dull.
We can all be a bit uptight about our work; One of the best exercises for practicing
let's face it, fashion is known as a somewhat boldness is to allow yourself a very short time
uptight industry. However, a bold, flamboyant to complete each illustration. Limityourself
illustration is more likelyto sell your concept to quick sketches, and try out as many
than an overworkedand nervousone, so you approachesas you can. Perhapswork on a
needto havethe courage of your convictions. larger sheet of paperthan usual.Try different
crayonsand paints; if by natureyou prefer a
thin, hard pencil,force yourself to use bright
colors applied with a wet, broad brush. Even
if you returnto your usual methodsafter the
exercise, the experienceof exploring different
mediawill giveyour illustrations an extrazest.
A Varying the effect
-heseillustrationshaveall been drawnto the
proportions described in Unit 8. Noticethe variety
of effects achievedby using differentmedia, such
as oil pastel,felt-tip pen, gouache, and pen.
Experimentingwith different techniques is essential
to improvingyour abilityto illustrateyour designs.
i ILLUSTRATING F/
Many of these experimentalattemptsare
destinedfor the wastepaper basket, but don't
worry. Thereare so manyways of putting your
ideason paper: pen and ink, watercolor, oil
pastel, conte, felt-tip pen, charcoal, poster
paint, and soft pencil. These mediacan even
beaccompaniedby colored paper and tissue,
foundtextures, or cuttings from newspapers
and magazinescollaged onto the drawing.
Onefun exercise is to quickly sketch a
friend, or even your own reflectionin the mirror,
resistingyour naturalinstinct to look at the
page. Try drawing in a continuous line,without
taking your hand off the paper. The results
might be rather bizarre, but this is a good way
to practiceobserving your subject, and
expressing what you see, without worrying
about howthe whole picture is developing.
You can also experiment with making
doodlesand scribbles. Thesetoo will achieve
afreedom in mark-makingthat will be lacking
if you aretoo concernedwith the final outcome
of the picture.
sketches should be private.
Itis herethat you can dare to
fail. Infact, you will not haveachieved anything
if all these experimentswork, becauseyou
will not havetested yourself beyondthe
boundariesof your ability. It is only by going
that bit further that you can makean excitLng
breakthrough. If you are really brave,you will
keepthe failed drawingsas a reminder of your
creative journey (just remember not to include
them in your presentationportfolio!).
It cannot be stressedtoo strongly that if you are I
designing clothes, however exoticyour sources,you
mustalways rememberthat at the end of the day you
are designingfor a human body.Practicinglife drawing
is therefore a very valuable exercisethat will helpyou
observe clearly and assess quicklywhat you see.
Using a model meansyou do not haveto invent
anything out of thin air.The informationis in front
of you-all you needto do is interpret it in your own
You may havethe opportunityto draw from life in an
art-schoolenvironment, but you can also improviseif
you are working at home by askinga friend to pose.
There is no needfor your model to befashionably
dressed. Normaldaywearwith a few additional
accessoriessuch as hats,scarves,boots, or
sunglassesis quite sufficient.It is more importantfor
the class tutor, or you if you are working at home,to
persuadethe model to exaggeratethe poses,and to
changethem often.Accentuationadds dramato the
drawings,and responding quicklyto the changing
poseswill bring spontaneityto your work.
the project other students in
Spenda day practicing life drawing either in classwith a the roomfires up
professionalmodel, or at home having persuadeda friend
to posefor you. If you choosethe privateroute, there ar well as givingyou
bound to be some giggles at the outset.That is not a valuable practicein
problem-the exercise should befun. Try to achieve figure drawing.
fifteen drawings by the end of the session, spending no
morethan two to five minuteson each.
Makeover reality in your own style.
Improveyour ability to observequickly and well.
Achievefreshnessand boldness in illustration by
getting the poses down on paper as quickly as possible.
B,"pseesIntfhestZng? "^ ' ' '
Capturethe spirit of the garmentswhile representing
Firstspend a few minutes
drawing the pose and the
garmentoutlines in what
you considerto beyour
own style. Be bold.
Quickly capturing the
pose,you haveto assess
the essentialsand get
them down on paper very
fast. Avoid makingfeeble:
sketchy pencil marksthat
result in tentative "hairy-
Next, try not to look at
your paper, and make a
continuous line drawing,
pencil from the paper.
Keepthe poses changing
every few minutes. Now
you can use some paints,
choosing just three or
complete each pose has ,
the essence of the garments
andmake a strong statement.
ifyou do not havetime to worry
about getting outlinesexactly
right,you are morelikelyto
andfull of lifeand spontaneity.
four colors. Apply the
color with a broad brush,
jotting down the poses
with quick brushstrokes.
Nowyou can start
in paint but use crayon or
oil pastelto delineate the
Rememberto try to
make each drawingfill
the whole page and
to bring drama to the
can be productiveto ask
the modelto adopt
seated, standing, or
draped over a prop
either to include or leave
out in order to make use
of the white space left on
the page). However, be
surethat the pose does %
not interferewith the
I drawing, p. 52
0ne of the most stimulatingaspects of working with a life model is havingto use
every second of the session to best advantage.The challengeof responding
quicklyto fast-changing poses brought an urgency and spark to these drawings.A
bold commitment can makeany drawingstate its case: these figures were drawnto
fill the whole page,with the model'sextremeposes exaggeratedto bring energyto
the picture.Unexpectedcolors enlivenwhat might have beena dull subject; a cursory
glanceat a magazine provesthat, in fashion images,skin is not always flesh-colored,
hair not always natural.The confident use of different media, such as gouache and oil
pastel,can also lendvibrancyto a posed subject. It is importantnot to be afraid to
make mistakes.Done quickly, some drawings will inevitably not be successful,but
the ones that are will retaina freshnessthat is destroyed by overworking an idea.
4 b Exploitingcolor
/ and medium ,
These illustrationsuse both
7 color and mediumto good
effect.The purple hair and
greenishskin harmonizewell ,
, with the tones usedfor the
' palette hasensuredan
unclutteredrepresentationof 1the garments. Usingonly
pencil and paint applied
boldlywith a wet brush,the
essenceof each pose has
been swiftly identifiedand
captured on paper.
Eachpage hasbeenfilledwith an
onlygives a graphic representation
of the individualgarmentsbut also
suggeststhe spirit of the ensemble.
TOO muchattention to detailcan
As a designer it is essentialthat you explore allthe
drawingand illustrationtools availableto you. One
of the most liberatingtechniques is collage.There are
so many ways to use this medium-you can use bold
cutouts of colored paper,tonal newsprint,or colors
and texturestorn from magazines.
An unusualway of working with collage is to take
the technique intothe lifeclass. Either by freehand
ripping or moredetailedcutting you can represent an
illustrationwithout drawingat all.Just as with the life-
drawing sessions,working quicklyadds spontaneity
to the result.You are forced to make instant decisions
to get the idea down on paper beforethe pose
changes.This can be testingwhen you haveto find
boththe source material and then cut and apply it.
Don't go for the obvious choices;you can create an
interesting illustrationby using unexpectedblocks or
strips of found images (as shown opposite).
Collage frees you from the needto use drawing
skillswhile at the same time increasingyour visual
vocabulary. Using other means of realizingthe model's
poseswill open up your drawingto new approaches.
Collage-makingmay seem like the type of thing you
did in grade school, but that is not surprising,because
you were not encumberedin those early days by
preconceivedideas.As a designer youwill needto
banishthe baggage of ordinary expectation.
- 4 Creative collage
,u can cut up magazines,
wallpaper or fabric
Access a pile of old magazineson any subject. Makesure
they contain lots of photographsto usefor your own
creativepurposes. Either enlist a friend to spend a day as
your model, or attend a life class. Make up to five
representationsof your live model, using materialtaken
from the magazines. Naturallythese will take a little longer
than drawn poses,but set yourself a challengingtime limit
for each representation.
Explorea newway of getting your ideas down on
paper by using cuttings as your medium, ratherthan more
conventionaltools such as pencil and paint.
Freeyourselffrom preconceivedideas of how an
image can be usedso that your work will be original
and have spontaneity.
Haveyou filledthe pagewell:
Didyou use materialfrom magazines in an
Doesthe result reflectfresh
speed of execution?
Didyou resist using a pencil
as possible, though you
may not wish to include
props such as chairs. Us
scissors or a craft knife,
or just rip the paperto ge
your cuttings readyto
apply; then pastethem
to the page.Try not to
spend too long on any
instead keepyour work
fresh by setting a time
limit for completing each
figure on the pageto
Don't betempted to
with your own freehand
drawing and painting.
k Duringthis unit you
' should befocused
on learningto usethe
L and a hostof the process haveto select, cut, rip, EE ALSO
other items. Bring a good-sizedstack ,- and paste paper onto Drawingfrom are, p. 5t
of magazinesto the the page! Notjust pencil, p.70 4i Q
session. Ask your model Think laterallyas you
to fall into an interesting work with your material, page, P. 74
pose-and the more combining unlikely colors
uncomfortablethe pose, and textures.Always try
the lesstime you will to fill as much of the page
4 b Quick thinking
You will haveonly a few mlnutesto
cut or rlpthe material, and then glue
~tdown One tlme-savrng and
sophlstlcatedoptlon IS to make use
of "negat~vespace" (leavlng blank
what m~ghtusually be drawn)
Exploringdifferent ways to illustrate garments can be liberatingfor a designer.
Although putting pen or paintto paper is the obvious approach,the use of
collage can produce particularlyintriguing,contemporaryresults. Collage
is infact often used infinal design illustrations,but workingwith it inthe
spontaneousenvironment of a lifeclass is an especiallyinterestingand
challengingtechnique.The needto select, cut, and pastevery quickly
in responseto fast-changing poses added freshness and a sense of
immediacyto these illustrations.They fill the page and makea statement:
the biggerthe image on the pagethe stronger the effect will be. A bold
tearing approachworked well in conjunctionwith morecarefully cut
outlines.(Ifthe result looks a little rough at the edges,the presentationcan
always be improvedlater by feeding itthrough a color photocopier.)
working with collage,the designer is continually challengedto think one
step ahead.The results, however,are wonderfully unpredictable.
4 New approaches
This collage enlivensthe
unexpectedcolors and patterns.
Creating acollage encourages
the designerto think more
deeplyaboutthe color palette,
fabrics, and overallstyleof
The scrapsof paperwere
their interestingtextures and
out or cut with a craft knife.
4 Creating an illusion
be collaged togetherto createthe
overall effect of a humanfigure
wearinggarments. It is not
necessaryto represent everypart
of afigure to makeit believable:
here, "negative" (white) space,
used at the ankles of the girl,
for example,lendsvitality to
Drawing from your wardrobe
It is never easy to put that first mark on a blank sheet
of paper.A valuable exercise,therefore,for the
student of fashion design is to practicedrawing a
collectionmade up from garmentsthat already exist,
giving an overall lookto a selectionof unrelated items.
By choosing piecesfrom your own wardrobe,you are
makingsure that you start with clothesthat you like
and already coordinateto best effect everytime you go
out.You know on which occasionsyou would wear
them and therefore havesome ideaof the style of
illustrationthat might be appropriate-casual, chic, or
glamorous.Sometimesyou needto be very literal in
your drawings;at other times you can be more
flamboyant.Inthis unit,you will explore howto project
not simply the shape and color of the clothes but also
the overall image. Boldness is oftenthe best
approach-be confident and use your own style in
select four combinations of garments from your wardrobe
that could be loosely described as a collection and
combinethem in differentways. Experimentwith various
styles of drawing. Finda commontheme to makethe
selection look like a coordinated collection. Complete
four illustrations of the outfits.
V b Planninga range
This selectionof tailoredjackets,
trousers,and a skirtseemed
likelyto workwell together as a
piecesyou select,cut out the
photographs, andthen make
Take a more detailed look at clotheswith which you
thought you were familiar.
Focusyour mind on differentstyling possibilities and
Think of the bestways of representingthe fabrics and
overall imageof the clothes you are portraying.
Hangup the garments or
laythem out on the floor.
sketchpaperto come up
with ideasfor poses. Try
out paintsand crayonsto
create a color palette
that, with some artistic
the actual color of
Next, try to givethe
collectionan overall look.
themesto the series of
illustrations. For example,
you could draw the
Y b Capturingthe colors
Havingtested a few color swatches,use
crayonsand paintsto practice making
representationsof the fabrics used inyour
figuresin similar poses,
or representthem all in a
minimaliststyle, or make
usethroughout of areas
of white "negativespace"
that omit an outline.
Youwant your work to
lookfresh so don't betoo
drawings-be bold. Work
going if the first attempts
the details -
These markswere made
to test different ways of
representingthe hair of the
'4 DidYOU findthe best mediumto representthem?
Haveyou usedsimple but effectiveposes?
Doesyour collection havean overall look?
Illustratingfound garments,ratherthan original ideas, is a very usefulway for a
designer to develop observational skills. By lookingclosely at clothesthat seemed
familiar,it is possibleto spot previously unnoticedaspects of constructionor
embellishment.Whether it is the cut of a neckline or the detail of a fastening,this new
observation can be of use in a designer'swork.
It is importantto select carefullythe garments to be illustrated,consideringwhich
elementswill form the main strengths of the planned collection.This task introduces
the processof planninga range (seepage 88).As can be seen from the examples
here,the garmentsmay befairly ordinary individualpieces but,when put together in
a stylizedway, they form a collectionwith a powerfuloverall image.Oncethe poses
have beenworked out and the colorways mixed,the designer needsto decide on
the most strikingway to get the imagesdown on paper.This is where it is important
to choose a strong style and cohesivetheme that will hold the garmentstogether
as a collection.
These sketchedfigures explore stylized
aspects, such as horizontallyextendedhair
and an outstretchedarm,that will be
applied to the whole series of illustrations.
with the other
ensures that a
group of unrelated
the feel of a
A Reading between
These images make bold useof
white areas untouchedso that
the invisiblelinescan be read.
The picturesare clear without
beingobvious and are more
interestingas a reqult.
'IMaking a wave
Extendedhair is an unusual
theme common to allthe figures.
A A sense of unity
Repeatingposes, such as plac~ng
the figureswith hand on hip or left
arm extended,givesthe series of
drawingsa sense of unity.
Not just pencil
Fromthe vast range of
you were directed earlier
in this book, select a
theme on which to base
your collection. Try out
your chosen colors
together to makesure
they are a good
quickly test some ideas
by first drawingwith oil
pastels, then washing
over the markswith
watery but full-colored
paint. The oil pastelwill
resistthe paint and create
Then lay out four
sheetsof paper (20x 30
in.) in front of you. Using
pencil, and covering as
much of the page as
drawthe outlines of
apply the oil pastels,
color by color to all the
Keep your nerve! Finally,
usethe paint, applying
one color at atime to all
When one usesthe term "drawing,"the most
obvious tool that springsto mind is a pencil,with
all itsvarious grades from hard to an almost creamy
softness.However,as you haveseen in Unit 10,you
can "draw" evenwith paper torn from a magazine.
When you useyour imagination,there is no limit to the
materialsyou can employ to achieve the lookyou
want. Slow-dryingpaints,such as oils, are not really
suitable for use in fashion illustration,but there
is a wide rangeof other mediato choose
from, including colored felt pens,water-
based paints,crayons,or a mixtureof
several of these. In recentyears,the
mouse on a personalcomputer has
to some designers become equal
in importanceto the penciland
brush.Some materials may suit
your way of working betterthan
others,but untilyou havetried a
large selection,you will never know.
Experimentingwith newways of
working is very stimulatingand also
enjoyable.It is worth repeatingthat it
is never a crimeto try and fail. It is
understandableto want to have pride
in your work, but youwill produce
only mediocreideas if you always
play it safe.
Experimentwith using mixed mediato open up new
approachesto a design.
Explorethe ideathat a collection of drawingswill
makea better presentationif atheme is strongly and
Createa cohesivelook by applying colors
t, simultaneouslyto all illustrations insteadof completing
one picture at atime. .
Usingsome of the more easily availablematerials,such
as gouachepaint and oil pastels (water-basedacrylics
and crayonsdo not work for this project),select a
restricted rangeof colors: perhapsthree pastelsand
three paints.Designa collection of four costumeswith a
theme and distinct color look. Ensurethe final drawings
makea bold statement about your concept.
Didyou choose colors that work well together?
ere your final illustrations bold?
dthey havea cohesivelook portray~ngtne essence
Was full use made of your different materials?
A Mixingyour media
The colors andthemes of these roughs
were adjusted for the final designs (see
pages 72-73), but the technique used
was the same. Here,yellow oil pastel
was applied to allfour drawings,
followed by white, and then pink.Then
I roughs,p. 84 I
I Planninga range. p. 88
Ipaintwas added, one color at a time.
JST PENCIL 71
I xperimenting with applying and mixing different media can achieve stunning
Eresults Unusual combinationsof techniques lend a freshness and originality to
I fashion illustrationsthat really makesthem stand out from the crowd.As seen inthe
designs pictured here,a strikingeffect can be achieved by using oil pastelas a
starting point and then adding awatercolor wash over the pastels,exploitingthe
cravons' propertiesof resistance.By choosing the color palettebeforethe design is II. .
committedto paper,and then applyingthe colors step-by-steponto the whole series
of designs at once, a designer can ensure that the common concept comes through
stronglyover a whole series of illustrations.Working inthis way, all the pictureswill 1I- -
come to completion at the same time and a powerfuloverall lookwill emerge.
4 A b Vibrant colors
initial color ideashavebeen
rejectedfor a moresubtle mix
resistantqualities of the oil
pastels have beenusedto
createa paint-freeaura around
wash of the water paint and
4 V A Unifyingfeatures
The group of drawings hasbeen givencohesionthroughthe use
of well-delineatedfigures, eachwith an aura, aswell as through
the consistencyof the colorwayandthe uniformmedium-level
applicationof the media.
The four illustrationspicturedaboveform a
strong collection unifiedby the theme of the fairy
tale. Eachpage is filledwith design ideasthat
expressthe costumefeel of the collection.
Laying out your page
A designer is inthe business of visual communication,whether the informationis presentedpurely
~ictoriallvor with the addition of words. The pages of this book have been designed to impart the
informationof text and illustrationwith maximumclarity and visual impact.That iswhat you should ar
to in any work that is to sellyour ideas successfully to the client.
Whenstudents start out illustratingdesigns,
they tendto be a littletentative about attacking
the dauntingblank page infront of them.The
resultcan often bea small, faint drawinginthe
corner of the page or, only marginally better,
inthe center surroundedbyvast areas of
It is importantthat your drawingsreflectthe
spirit of the subject. If,for example, you are
illustratingsomethinginherently bold, such as "
a Hawaiianbeachshirt collection,the drawings
must beequallybold. It is alwaysworth making
rough sketchesto planyour page and ensure
that the informationyou aretrying to portrayis
foremost. For example, drawingan elongated
figurewith long legswhen the point of interest
is a shirtwastesvaluablepage spaceto tell
your real story-the wild print of the shirt.
It isworthwhilerememberingthat you don't
want your pageto be cluttered. Mostof the
areashould befilled but notwithtoo much
information; the phrase"less is more" is very
often appropriatehere. It is the main m
that you aretrying to put across; remer
minimalistexamplesin Unit 11, Drawin
It cansometimes helpto prepareth
with a color wash or areas of colored F
give atexturefrom whichto work up yc
image.Another techniqueto ensurey(
page isto think outside its edges.You
this by layingthe sheet of paperyou a
4 Don't cramp
Fillyour pageboldly by laying
it over a larger sheet and
drawingover the edges, or by
startingwith avery largepage
andcroppingit laterso as to
achievethe best composition.
working with onto a larger sheet and then
drawing over the edges. This will allow you to
avoidthe trap of cramping your style as you
approachthe edge of the page.The same
effect can be achieved by starting on a sheet
of paper largerthan you intendto display,
completingyour illustration,andthen cropping
it bravelyto producethe best composition.
When planninga page it is usually bestto
start at the top and roughly plot where you
want the head (or evenjust half the head) to
be, then work down the figure. You must also
be constantlyaware of the side margins.The
magicword to strive for in page layout is ,
"balance." That doesn't meanuniform
4 Balanced stance
P I :
-. 1 Thlsfeet-apartpose frlls
the page Ina sat~sfylng
way, the extendedleft
hand echolngthe posltlon
L. of the r~ghtfoot
s y ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e t r y ,just an innatefeel that the picture is
well composed and at the sametime tells the
mainstory of the garment.
Infashion illustration you will mainly be
working in "portrait" format, in which the sheet
is positioned with its longer edges at the sides
and shorter edges at the top and bottom (as
opposed to "landscape" format, in which the
longer edges are at the top and bottom).
However,this is not a hardand fast rule.
As you see, this book is in a squareformat,
which produces a landscapespread across
1. ... -good ideato
experiment with different
committing yourself to
the final design.
Using morethan one
figure inthe same
the impact of the
garment-but be careful
not to loseyour focus
Illustrating bold print
It is just as skillfulto be able to illustratethe work of
other designers as to portrayyour own.This is the job
of the fashion artist as opposed to the designer-
althoughfashion illustratorswill, of course, bring their
own design skillsto the interpretationof
the garments they have beencommissioned
to depict. As a fashion designer, however,it
is also essentialfor you to be able to
communicateyour ideaseffectively on paper.
In order to do this you needto havethe skills
and objectivity of an illustrator at your
fingertips.A good designer is a good illustrator.
Inthis unityou will look at illustratingthe print
designs of found garmentsto practicethe
process of observingclothes closelyand capturing
their story on paper. By doing this, youwill learn howto
usethe pageto best effect to make as strong a
statement as possible about your own design ideas.
Forthis exercise, it is best to illustrate a simple
but striking subject, such as a Hawaiianbeach shirt.
These garmentsare timeless,andthere will be many
examples availablefor you to choose from.
the project I
Researchimages of Hawaiianbeachshirtsand complete
at leastfour boldillustrationsusingany mediumyou think
appropriate.Thistheme couldespeciallysuit oil pastel
and gouache, or perhapsbright inkswith penand brush.
Observecloselythe garmentsto be drawn.
Work out ashorthandway of depictingthe print.
Findasuitable posethat fills the pageand makesa
strong statement aboutthe shirt.
A b The mostI
1 Visit a charity store
or delve into your
j to see how many
vou can unearth.
A Surfer's paradise
Here is a possible selection
of shirts to work with. The
brighter the better for
instores or cutting
havethe color and design
referenceson hand, so
this is nota creative
technical skill in copying
color andform faithfully.
Try to reproducethe
to besteffect in poses
that bothfill the pageand
you are featuring. Draw A b Mix and match
preliminaryoutlines in Exploreways of matching
colors and motifs.If
light pencil; then start
using paints,mix them
working in the colors, to achieve the bright
markingthe head and colors of the clothes.
features of the shirt such Your shorthandfor
as the sleeves and collar. conveying the motifs
could be literal or
.! impressionistic, as
drawings by adding demonstratedin the
details such as hair and a examples here (whichare
background, if desired. tryout illustrations of the shirt
Could you really go to town in illustrating your Iselection of shirts?
Howwell haveyou matchedthe colors?
Doyour motifs look likethe originals?
Isthe scale correct?
Didyou choose a suitable medium?
I Drawingfrom your
wardrobe, p. 66
Notjust pencil, p. 70
Color palettes, p. 104
b Powerful design
Althoughthe rangeof colors
used inthis design isfairly
broad,the strong shapes of
the patternensurethat the
representationis not cluttered.
The overall effect of the image
Boldness is always the best policy in realizing a design drawing. Subtle designs
are moredifficultto render becausethe minor nuances can easily be lost.An
uncompromising "betweenthe eyes" statement producesthe most striking results,
whether it involvesa strong silhouette or vibrant colors, or a combinationof both.The
bright patterns of the Hawaiianbeach shirts illustratedhereprovided a great starting
pointfor demonstratinghowto represent motifsvibrantly and makebest use of the
whole page.The salient aspects of the garmentswere identifiedand captured on
paper. Becausethe printsare the focal point of the designs,therewas no needto get
too involved in detail relatingto the shape of the garments.The completed
illustrations are not reliant on colorways or silhouettesto hold the looktogether but on
the consistent and strong page-fillingrealizationof the shirts.
Becausethe focal point of the
designs isthe print and notthe
garment,the innovative decision
was madeto drawfrom the
back, a point of view often
A Usingafuller figure
was to modelthe shirtson afuller
figure.This isthe body shapethat
will best show off the garment's
most interestingfeature-the print.
The printshavebeen carefully
observedand their colors and
pastel,felt-tip pen, andwater-based
poster paint-which maywell have
beenthe tools used by the original
PLANNING AND DESIGNING
As a designer you cannot affordto be self-indulgent, but should insteadtry to
produce work that is commercially viable. This chapter explains how to develop a
cohesive collection and planyour rangeto offer as much choice as possible.You
will also learn how to target your designstoward a customer profile and specific end
use, and to work within the constraints of the seasonand budget. The chapter also
examines how to apply a color paletteeffectivelythroughout a collection and to
structure fabric to createthe silhouettes you want.
A To besuccessfulin
the commercialworld, /
John Galliano have
Creating a cohesive collection
Fashiondesigners develop awhole range of related ideas to produce groups of garments that work not
only as stand-alone outfits but also as a collection.A consistent approachto importantfactors such as
color,shape, pattern,and proportionhelpsto createthis cohesion.
It is this systematicdevelopmentof ideasthat
enablesthe designerto think laterallyandto
getthe most out of each concept. With practice
and experience, you will learn not to settlefor
the first ideathat comes along but to push
yourselfto generate a series of related
concepts.You may be surprised at the results
as you progress away from your starting point
and down new avenues of creativity. The
collections that you developwill havea natural
cohesion becausethey contain similar and
relatedthemes, andyou will soon find yourself
creating a coordinating rangeof garments
ratherthan separate and unrelatedoutfits.
An importantfactor in this process is to
learnto be comfortablewith thinking out loud
on paper. This meansfeeling relaxedabout
noting down your ideasand sketching out
series of designs. You must learnto loveyour
roughs! A blank page can be intimidating,and
it is easyfor the novice designerto becomeso
concernedwith the appearance of the initial
sketchesthat the actualdesign processtakes
second place. With practiceyou will gain
confidenceand be more relaxedabout
encouragingthe flow of ideas. Rememberthat
you arejust developingyour thoughts, not
trying to create a masterpiece. It does not
matter howwell executedthese roughs are;
they are for your purposes only and do not
needto bejudged by anyone else. All that
matters is that the roughs assistyou in
working through your stream of ideas. Using
the more casual mediumof a scrapbook may
helpyou relax about your rough work, and you
will be able to combine drawn ideaswith
; cuttings from
demonstrateshow designers needto plan
coord~natlngrangesw~tha un~fyngoverall look
I V Drawingon the ideas bank
Store garment-deta~l~ngIdeasInyour sketchbook ant
select themesto apply to a group of garments In
order to ach~evea naturally coheslvecollect~on
so that you canjot down ideasasthey come. 1
With time you will discoverwhich methods
work bestfor you.
4 Distinguishingdetails A Thinking out loud on paper
Decorativedetailscan be usedto unify a range; This page of sketchesis an exampleof
alternatively (as here) d~fferentdetailscan addvariety to planningon paper Don't worry ~fyour ~n~tial
a rangethat shares a common outlinetheme. drawings are quickly executedandvery rough.
Learnto loveyour roughs
It's time to start thinking like a designer!The moreyou A variety of shapes
can relax and not worry about how someone else Initially,you could explore a
might respondto your drawings,the bettertheywill be. number Of garmentshapes
using "flats." Remember
Rememberthat you are not yet producing final that you are aimingto
illustrations or even communicatingyour ideasto produce a collectionof
anyone else.You are simplythinkingout loud on paper. outfitscomprising related
Ifyou feel daunted by the blank page, try beginningby butvaried garment types.
jotting down a list of words as ideas come intoyour
head,You might include descriptions such as
"rounded," "sophisticated," "feminine,"or "soft" to
evokeyour target customer and the kinds of garments
that you might design for her or him.This will make
startingto sketch much less intimidating.Your rough
sketches may be drawn on a figure or as flat garments
with carefullyconsidered proportions.
Chooseyour theme and produce some first rough
garment ideas, considering in particularwhat it is that
inspiresyou about your research. Selectthe strongest
ideasand expand on these, using a layout pad.Trace over
your initialvisual thoughts to produce a series of designs,
changing one element with each new drawing.The result
will be a series of variations on atheme.
the objective i
the process easily traced one on top step-by-stepa series of
Createa set of ideasthat holdstogetheras a collection.
Think carefullyabout of the other, but take care relatedgarments. Now
Use roughsto expand on your starting point.
your starting point, not to work into the paper you are truly thinking like
Avoid the obvious and developyour own uniquestyle.
considering its colors, too heavily,as it can a designer, as you create
a Assess your ideasas you work and developthe
textures, shapes, bleed color through to the a cohesivecollection.
patterns,and symbolism. sketch below.Work by Aim to produce about
Jot down some ideason tearing out one drawing twenty rough outfit ideas.
paper, using words as and laying it beneath As you work, keep in
well as quick sketches. a clean pageto make mindthe inspiring
Taking the stronger ideas the next, adaptingthe features of the starting
Customerfocus, p.3 further, produce some previousdesign. Push point. Assess all the
Workingdrawings, rough designs on a yourselfto produce lots rough drawings by
layout pad.The thinner of ideas, changing one placing them nextto eack
paper of the layout pad elementwith each new other (you can photocop!
-----fi-S-?cTT1- = 3d---e7z1-.Lak-=-fs will allow designsto be - drawing and building up your sketchbook pages
Work with a layout pad,
drawing garmentseither on
the figure or, as shown here,
as flat sketches.Tracing
ideas one on top of the
Rememberto work through
ideasfor back views as well
as thinking about the front of
4 Were you confidentenoughto notedownyour ideasin an
Didyou expandfrom your startingpointto create uniquedesigns
ratherthan simplydrawingthe obvious?
;iHaveyou chosenthe strongestideasfrom y o m u g n s r
I Doyour five chosen roughslook as if they belongtogether ',
in a collection?
LEARN TO LO- - -
The creatlon of roughs IS an Important part of the des~gn
process,especially ~fthe deslgner IS trylngto glvethe
collectlona strong overall look Roughs are usedto get all
the related Ideasabout a source down on paper Only once thls
has beendone IS ~tposslbleto assess all the sketches
objectively and declde whlch work best as a collectlonand
shouldtherefore betaken to the next stage As shown here,the
successfulroughs are those that work as lnd~vidualpleces but also lh
themes in common.
The designs pictured hereare clearly relatedto one another in
boththe details and the sihouette,yet are each interestingand
uniquegarmentsin themselves. Refiningideas beyondthe rough
stage ensuresthat designs progress beyondthe obvious and
preventsthe collectionfrom being derivativeor repetitious.
the feel of a cohesivecollection, unifiedby
an Asian look and design themes such as I
4 The creative basis
As ever, the successfuldevelopment
of ideaswas supported by the
compilation of a strong color palette
and mood board, inthis casefeaturing
This roughwas usedtc
detailwas added later in
the fringing and embellisheddetails.
4 V Finalizingideas
Thesefinal illustrations reflectWesternized fashion
shapeswhile retainingsubtle referencesto the Asian
theme of the roughs.
An ideasuchas drapingsoft fabric
can be appliedin manydifferent
ways to similargarmentshapes.
A Pattern, color,and silhouette
These illustrationshavebeen given a unifiedfeel bythe pattern
andcolor of the fabric and bytheflared silhouettes of the designs.
LEARN TO LOVE YOUR#OUGHS
The words "range" and "collection" are often used
interchangeablyin the fashion industryto denote
the group of garmentscreated each season by a
designer. However, "range" also has morespec~fically
commercialovertones. Rangeplanning involves
consideringyour designs in terms of a complete
wardrobe of coordinatinggarments, incorporatinga
balanceof tops, bottoms, dresses,outerwear, and so
on.When you see garments by your favoritedesigner
displayed in a boutique,you are experiencing range
planning.The newness and trendiness of the garments
are obviously important,but the boutique also needs
to appealto its customerswith a variety of options of
garment type that coordinate and are interchangeable.
Sometimes a client will brief a designer to create a
specific range.This might be a swimwear, bridal, or
eveningwearcollection,for example, and the choice of
itemsto includeinthe rangewill bevery much dictated
bythe brief.Ifyou have been asked to design an
eveningwearrangeyou will probablywant to includea
large number of dresses-as incollections of
eveningwearby Versace.It is perfectlyacceptableto
biasyour rangeto one garmenttype in this way so
long as the decision is based on the client's brief.
First brainstormideas about a daywear range,without
worrying too much about the appearance of your
sketches.Then mapout garmentsthat you think might be
suitablefor inclusion inthe rangeand consider howthey
can beworn together as outfits. Finally, illustratethe best
combinations asfinished drawings of eight outfits.
Select designsthat hangtogether as a collection.
0 Offer a good choice of individual pieceswithin
e Createa rangeof garmentsthat look good in their
own right but can be easily mixed and matchedto
choice of garments
been plannedas a
Conranis showing a range
of eveningwear piecesthat
coordinate as a collection
becauseof their common
You should be gaining
confidence in your rough
sketches as you work
through the projects in
this book. Again, just
rough out the ideas as
they come to you and do
not worry too much about
what the sketches look
like-you do not haveto
show them to anybody
else. There is no strict
plan at this stage, simply
an outpouring of thought
might constitute a
ideas,as you havedone
in previous projects,this
.=eT= a.e z - s* --m-3ac=---e7-- time exploring how they
Every collectionthat a designer creates involvesa degree of range planning-
the aim should beto tempt customers into buying as many items as possible.
The ranges illustratedhereoffer a good choice of garmentsthat clearly
coordinatewhile avoiding unnecessaryduplication.All the itemsare highly
interchangeable,and the outfitsthat have been puttogetherwould look equally good
reformatted into newcombinations.
However,planning a range is morecomplicated than simplythinkingof as many
different sorts of garment as possible.Afall collectionsuch as the one featured
opposite,for example,will require avariety of piecesthat can be layeredover each
other and mayfeature long sleeves for daywear items.The age group of thetarget
customerwill also affect the types of garment that are planned intothe range-the
trendy workwear separates pictured below,for example,would probably be aimed at
ayounger age group.
A b Coordination is key
A "workingwardrobe" startingpoint might inspirethe inclusion
of dungareesorvests withina range. However,itwould still be
necessaryto offer a choice of other piecesto appealto the
target customer andto providea coordinating range.
A One source, many designs
Developinga rangeof designs from one source of
inspirationgives cohesionto a collection.The historical
working mantheme investigatedhere provoked many
ideas aboutfunctionalworkwear separates,which were
incorporated intothe rangeshown below.
4 A A well-planned range
It should be possibleto imaginemixing up all
the garmentsin a range and creatingnewoutfit
combinationswithout any loss of overall effect.
Designingto a brief
As a fashion designer, you will always have a client or target customer in mind.You cannot afford to be
self-indulgent and simply create designs to suit your own tastes. It is, however, perfectly acceptable to
develop a recognizable style.You will notice that all the famous fashion houses have their own particular
style;the clothes have a unique flavor that reflects the philosophy of the designer.
A Trend awareness
Skirtsfor men,suchas this example by DriesVan
Noten,have been inand out of fashion in recentyears
Makesure that your designsare in linewith the latest
There are various limitations associatedwith
working to a design brief and it is best to
confirm them beforeyou begin.Your budget,
for example,will be dictated by the price at
which your garments can be sold. It is common
in the fashion industryto establisha rigid and
logical price structure for all the piecesin a
collection-a vest top will becheaper than a
long-sleevedgarment, for example-and your
designs should reflectthis. A garment that is
very embellishedwill have a high perceived
value, but you must be certainthat the
customer is willing to pay the increasedprice.
You also needto be sure you are designing
appropriate garments for the time of year when
they will appear and that your work is in line
with fashion trend predictionsfor that season.
Another very importantfactor is the nature
of your target customer.You should aim to
construct a profile of the kind of personwho is
likely to wear the designs you will producefor
each project. Fashion designerscall this
imaginary, or indeed sometimes real, person
their "muse." You can createyour own muse
by building up a selection of magazine images
that representyour customer.You will need
to consider gender, age, economic status,
lifestyle,occupation, and anything else that
could influence choice of fashion.What does
your muse do for a living?What does he or she
liketo do on the weekend or in the evening?
Where does he or she live?The answers
to these questionswill help you to build up
V Lifestyle patterns
What isyour customer'ssocial life?This designby
Ghost isaimed at someonewith sophisticatedtastes.
/ V P Broad customer appeal
Duringyour career you might be called upon to design for
awide rangeof potentialcustomers.This may sometimes
requireyou to design garmentsthat do not matchyour
Just as designers maketarget customers
thefocus for their work, so retailersestablish
target markets. Each market may capture a IInumberof lifestyles,and each retailer may
target morethan one market. Itwould bewrong
for a large retailerto expect an 1Syear-oldto
wear the same outfit as an 80-year-old,
althoughboth customers might shop in the
store. A clear understandingof the lifestyleof
boththese customersand the marketsthat
they representwill ensure that the garments
producedfor them are appropriate.
Bear all these considerations in mind to
avoid lapsing into designing only what pleases
you personally.You needto maintaina delicate
balancebetweenyour own style and designs
that appealto your customer.As a designer,
you may sometimes haveto cope with creating
garments that you personallydislike. The
measureof a true professionalis the ability to
work with enthusiasmand passionon designs
that are focused on someoneelse'staste.
As a fashion designeryou needto developthe
ability to work with enthusiasmand passionon
projectsthat might not appealto you personally.It is
not enoughto want to create only the designsthat
you like.The fashion designer differs from the artist in
that there will usually be a customeror client in mind,
who will ultimately be payingfor the garment, It is the
designer's challengeto satisfy the desires of the
customer,and there is littleroomfor self-indulgence.
Pick an advertisement from a currentfashion magazine
that features a personwho looks interesting.The
advertisement will suggest a lifestyleassociatedwith the
persondepicted.You havejust metyour latest customer!
Inthis unit you will design a collection of eight finished
outfits targeted at this person. Challengeyourself by
choosing someonevery differentfrom the peopleyou
havedesigned for in the past.
Learnto researchyour customer's lifestyle.
Targetyour collection appropriately.
Practicethe ability to work outside your
Add a project with a very differentflavor to
I Didyou truly challengeyourselfwith your choice
Haveyou beenableto work beyond mer
designing garments that you like?
Didyou maintainyour enthusiasmwhile workin
on stylesthat come less naturallyto you?
Are you satisfiedthat you have produced an
--3''. ' .- * - * -
A Dare to experiment
When choosing the image
of your potentialcustomer,
challengeyourself to select
someonewho would wear
garmentsthat arevery different
the process does he or she live,work, worn, and how expensive
Lookthrough some of and go on vacation? How they are likely to be. Put
your fashion magazines wealthy is this person? together a color palette,
andfind an imageof an What sort of car does isolating no more than
interesting person.Try to your customer drive, and six to eight colors that
go for someone for whom which newspaperdoes you can see within your
you would not normally he or she read?Where is chosen magazineimage.
consider designing: your customer likely to Finally, draw your
a personfrom a different wear the clothesthat you eight finished outfits,
gender or age group, for are designing? Gradually rememberingthat they
example.Advertisements build up a complete are not intendedto
are good to work with lifestyleprofile of your pleaseyou but to appeal
becausethey usually new customer. to your customer.
suggest a lifestyle Nextyou can startto Endeavorto maintain
associatedwith the planyour range, aiming both enthusiasmand
peoplefeatured. ultimatelyto produce professional pride in your
Start byjotting down eight finished outfits. As work eventhough it might
words that describeyour you do this, consider not beto your own taste.
chosen customer. How your customer's lifestyle,
old is he or she? Where where the clothes will be
$ . A Appropriate ideas
The outlinesand fabrics used inthese designs are consistently
I targeted at a customerwith moreconservativetastes. Keep
I referringto your l~festyleresearch.are your ideastruly appropriate
to your customer's needs?
h Matching design
might inspireyouto illustrate
Ina stylethat d~splays
proportionsas well as bold
I silhouettesand fabrics.
fl A Presentation
! Your resenta at ion should
also reflectthe customer
profile; here, both design
targeted at ayoung,
Designers haveto strike a delicate balancebetween appealingto their own tastes
and pleasingtheir customers.Good design and design that appeals to a
designer personally are not necessarilythe same thing. As the garments illustrated
heredemonstrate,being a successfulfashion designer is not about creatingwildly
flamboyantcostumesthat look great on the page but are impossibleto wear, but
about channelingfashion sense and originality into a customer-targetedoutcome.
It is importantfor a designer to build up a profileof the target customer.This
should influence all aspects of the collection,includingfabric, color, cost, the formal
or casual natureof the garments,and the style of presentation.Clothes are about far
morethan keepingwarm-they are a signalto others of what we feel about ourselves.
Understandingthe client andthe client's aspirations means understandingwhat
messageshe or shewould like to give out.A successfulcollection is perfectly
constructedto reflect these signalsand so to satisfythe customer.
A V The process
The strongestof the first
sketch in moredetail.
These knitwear designs
were appropriateto the
the target customer.
4 Y Suitable fabrics
The lifestyle of the customershould be
reflectedinthe choice of fabrics as well as in
the garment silhouette.It is importantto
considerwhether the fabric needsto be easy
care, suitablefor packing, stretchy,
economical,or very comfortable.
Y The rightfit
The f ~ tof a des~gn1s also I~festyle-
related The garment m~ghtbe
figure-huggingor it may havea
A Targeted presentation
Commercialdesigns are often best represented
by a clear and simple presentationstyle.
Occasions, seasons, budgets
Now that you have begun to understandthe lifestyle
and aspirationsof your customer,the next step is
to refineyour research still further and makeyour
collectioneven morefocused. A commercialdesigner
will often focus on just one element of a client's
lifestyle, perhapsfor an eveningwear,lingerie,or
swimwear range.It is also importantto establish
whether your collectionwill appear in the summer or
winter, since this obviously will influence choice of
fabric and garment style.The size of your client's
budget is another importantfactor.There is no use
creatinga wonderful collectionof garmentsif they are
not affordable,and similarly,a customer with high
aspirationswill not want clothesthat do not give off the
right signals about status andwealth.
Continue building the customer profilethat you began in
the last unit, focusing on certain specializedaspects. Also
considerthe seasonduring which the customerwill be
wearing your clothes, andthe size of the customer's
budget. Sketchyour rough ideas, stopping from time to
time to revisitthis initial research. Then finalizea
collection of eighttargeted garmentillustrations.
Take your researcha step further to explore
specializedaspectsof the customer's lifestyle.
Designgarments that are appropriatefor their end use.
a Consider season and budget.
Channel your inspirational ideas into a commercially
A Specificend uses
Swimwear madefor the pooltends to come in
performancefabrics and sportswear colors.
playfulpatternssuch as florals or animal prints.
4 Customer aspirations
Aweddingoutf~tshould alwaysstealthe show
anthe bride'sspecial day
the process appropriateto a specific wool for winter, or an
Look back at the research end use? Sportswear,for embroidery idea on
you compiled inthe last instance, must be soft chiffon could be
unit about the lifestyleof constructedfrom a fabric translated onto a heavy
your target customer. that performswell under velvet drape.
Usingwords or found extreme conditions and How much your
imagesfrom fashion canwithstand a great clothes will sell for will
magazines,continueto deal of washing. also dictate howthey are
build up the story, this Also consider the made. Isthere a great
time taking the research season. Are the fabrics deal of handwork?Are
further to encompass warm enoughfor winter thefabrics expensive?
specializedaspectssuch or can you make useof Willthe garments haveto
as sporting or vacation
layering?Your ideas can I be dry-cleaned?Would
be putto different your customer bewilling
occasions such as seasonaluses; for to pay morefor all of
partiesor weddings. instance, a shape created these things? During
Shouldthe garmentsbe in boned satinfor a productionthese kinds of
formal or casual?Are the spring collection could factors are constantly
fabrics you are using be re;created inthick revisitedas pilot
and, if necessary, styles
revisedto allow the
Once again, check
wearing these garments
inthe way thatyou
intend? Finally,draw up
A collection almed at a younger age group
mlght incorporate eye-catchlngfabrlcs and
A Usingspecial fabrics
Sportswearmust stretch and mold aroundthe body and should
be easy to wash. The stretchyqualitiesof sportsfabrics also
makethem idealfor use infashionable maternitydesigns.
4 A Nightlife choices
eveningwearto give an impressionof
glamor and sophistication,while
maleformal garmentsare often
moresober. Rememberto keep
referringto your lifestyle research.
bevery expensive becausethese
Ipieces are specialized,incorporating
Haveyou truly gotten insidethe
mind and lifestyleof your
Hasthe collection evolved
towardyour researchand away
from your personaltaste?
Lookingback over your
research,canyou imagine. iur
Are your final d e s i g ~ ~ jt
appropriatefor the occasi
. season,and budget?.
OCCASIONS;, a AS, BUDGETS !
It would bewrong for a student to start off with a predeterminedset of restrictions;
the emphasis of this book is on using researchto spark ideas. However,once
creativity has startedto flow, it can be channeledintoa commercialoutcome.The
lasttwo units have been intendedto helpthe designer with this channelingprocess,
focusing first on creatinga customer profileandthen on taking the researcheven
furtherto consider special end uses,as well as the constraintsof season and budget.
The cost of clothesto the customer is a particularly importantfactor although one that
is often ignored by students. Designerscreate garments to be sold: if their
prices are exorbitantly high,their collectionswill not sell.Anyone can
create beautifuldesigns if money is no object, but it requiresa talented
designer to find the best possible creative solutionwithin a tight budget.
The designs illustratedhereshow a strong sense of the target customer,
and of where and when the client would wear the garments.The collections
havecredibilitybecausethey are well researched:they are stylish and
original yet also consistentwith the needsof the customerand the
season,and could be sold at an affordableprice.
b Thorough research
Producingwork for a specific
These garments would all be suitablefor a
sophisticatedcustomer, but would beworn in
differentways, at a summer wedding, for
example, or as smart workwear.
occasion and customermight
requirethe compilation of a new,
moretargeted mood board.
Des~gnershave to cons~der
" worn What accessories,
such as hats or jewelry,
m~ghtbe requ~red?Are the
A Work and play
Work andweekend rangestargeted at
the same person may bevery different.
may havea specific end
or safety requirements.
Color and fabric
Two of the most importantfactors
choice of color and fabric. The sa
remade in another color or fabric
Color paletteschangefrom seasonto season.
Not only do individual colors move in and out
of favor, with brown becoming "the new black,"
but there are also subtle evolutions in the
shades of colors used. Every designer needs
to be aware of the predicted color trends for
forthcoming seasons.Thefashion industry
shares this knowledgethrough trade shows,
styleweb sites, and magazines-which is how
similar ranges of colors appear in our stores
each season as if by magic.The cynic might
suggestthat this is the fashion industry's clever
way of encouragingsales, as customersdash
out to buy this winter's red dress or pink
sweater. However,the evolution is also a
naturalprocess. Fashionis chargedwith
reflecting how peoplefeel about themselves
and the world aroundthem, andjust as themes
and inspirationscome and go, so too do color
palettes.Fabricchoice also changescyclically
because certaintextiles move in and out of
fashion and also becausethe properties of
performanceor warmth of differentfabrics are
strongly associatedwith particular seasons.
Fabric and silhouette cannot be separated.
The drape and behavior of your chosenfabric
will havea direct effect on the appearance of
your garment. Imagineremakingan existing
style in a differentfabric. What would be
the effect of its bulk, stiffness, transparency,
softness,fluidity, or tendencyto crease?Jeans
madein satinor swimwear made of fur would
becomevery different concepts.
You needto consider your choice of fabric
carefullyat rough-sketchstage. It is not
enoughto design shapes and then look for a
influencingyour designswill be your
.meshape or garment silhouette
will give a totally different effect.
fabric that will give you the right effect.
Sensitivityto your materialsand the
developmentof shape should take place
simultaneouslybecausefabric and silhouette
are denendent unnn each nther.
A b Matchinathe source d
Inthls pa~ntingwere reproducedas samples
of dyedfabrlc, providingthe basisfor two sets
of color selections (rlght),fromwhlch color
paletteswere later established
-4 A Harmonious groupings
Gather samplesof any fabrics,trims, and
yarns that you are considering usingto
establishhowdifferenttextures as well as
colorswill work together.
b.---4 A Usingswatches
fabric swatches will
helpyou to see clearly
the best combinations
and also to judge
proportions. Compare alyour swatchgroups with
trend predictions-are your
color choices in linewith
-4 Fabricand outline
Your choice of fabric will
affectthe construction of
your designs. Soft fabrics,
for example,can easily
be encouraged to
fall in softfolds
Apalette is a limitedselectionof colors that a
designer uses in a collectionto ensurethat all
the color elements sit together in a controlledway.
Restrictingyourself to a set of colors is an important
part of the creative process: a garmentor outfit can be
totally reinventedby merelychanging its colors.
The more colorsyou include in a palettethe more
challengingit is to use.A limited palette ensuresthat
designs havea naturalcontinuity.As a ruleof thumb,
eight colors.As you gain experience,the number of
colorsyou usewill become a matter of personalchoice
in keepingwith your design style.
When creatinga color palette,many studentsand
designersusethe reference books of tear-out color
chips produced by Pantone.These uniformly sized
color blocks are convenientto use and looktidy on
a mood or presentationboard.All the colors have
the fashion industry,which you can quotewhen talking
to clients,dyers,or manufacturers to avoid confusion
about exactlywhich shadesyou mean.
- the project
Isolatethe importantcolorsfrom your researchand create
color chips (or usethe Pantone shades) to selecta
palette.Then usethe paletteas afocus while you are
designinga collection.As you sketchout designs, vary
the combinationand proportion of colors usedwithinthe
garmentsandout-fits. Assess the balanceof colorswithin
the collectionas awhole. Then createeightfinal
drawings, usingthe mostsuccessfulcolor combinations.
Establish aworking color palette. ,
@ Vary the combinationof colors to see howthis affects
Developa collectionwith a successfulcolor balance.
A Visualizingthe designs
If possible, usecolor swatches madefrom
the actualfabrics thatyou are considering
using inthe designs.This will giveyou the
most accurateideaof howthe colorswill
Working from your rough ideas, create
simple outlinesketchesof your collection.
These canthen be photocopied a number
of times so that you can try out various
ur mood board will
olorsfor your theme.
Isolatethese as color
or samples of yarn
wrapped around a card.
aflat area of color, but
groupthe chips into a
it is easier to use no more
than eight colors.
It is very importantto
adhere to your paletteas
you sketch out your
design ideas. Start by
drawing roughs in black-
photocopy these and
color each set differently,
using your palette.
exciting results,so be
daring! Try using colors
in different proportions.
work well in a palette
can be ruined by an
ill-considered use of
ideas, p. 40 -
a black velvet evening
I dresswith a side split can
look fantasticwith an
red lining. However,the
proportion. For example, same dress in red and
Varying the proportion and
combination of colors can
give a strikinglydifferentlook
to the same design. Try out a
number of variations.
] black stripes would not
I be at all as sophisticated.
research in mind and try
to evoke a similar use of
color in your designs.
Finally,draw eight outfits,
1 using the best color
Do you see a l~nkbetweenthe colors in you
researchandthose in your final designs?
Isthe balanceof colors in your collection effective?
' Finally,pick out those designsthat create
the strongesteffect. Becareful to ensure
that they sitwell together as a collectionand
are all still relevantto the originalpalette.
Hasthe palette been usedsuccessfully in
Establishinga color palettefirst and then using it in the generation of roughs and
final drawingsensures a consistentset of designs, as demonstratedhere.
Adjustingthe proportion of colors can put a new spin on an illustration,giving it an
individualfeel while still tying it intothe collectionas a whole throughthe use of a
common palette. Even moredramatic effects can be achieved by applying an entirely
new color palette.These illustrations could be recoloredby scanningthem into a
computer and substituting new colors, by feeding the outlines through a color
photocopier and adjusting the color balance,or by redrawingor photocopying the
designs and repaintingthem. Changingthe color palettewill alter the whole look of a
range:the same floral design might be colored in greens for a high summer jungle
story, in pinksfor a spring feminine theme,or in blue and white for a nauticalfeel.
4 V Judging the effect
The most accurateway to assess color
combinationsis to experiment with samplesof the
actualfabrics that will be used. Colorsmay appear
differently,depending on factors such as the
thicknessof pile, how matteor shiny the fabric is,
and decoration likesequinsor beading.
4 V b Variations on a theme
Thesefinal illustrationsreflectthe originalpalette,
althoughthe proportionsof colors used have been
variedfrom garmentto garment to give each one
b Breakingthe rules
Cohesionis a positivefoundation
for a palette,but adding a
surprisingsplashof color in an
unexpectedshade can lend a sense
of dramato a design.
We have seen how importantchoice of color is to
the outcome of a project. Fabric has a similar
impact and needsto be as carefully considered. Unit 6
(pages40-43) discussed how a fabric embellishment
idea can be the focus for a design; this unitwill look at
howthe structuringof fabric can drive garment
construction,whether through methods such as
pleating,draping, or binding, or through the creationof
entirely newfabric structures usingtechniquessuch as
crochet, knitting,or applique.As you gain experience,
youwill see howfabrics have particularpropertiesand
behave in very different ways, You needto learnto
harnessthe inherent propertiesof fabrics,whether you
are working with clinging jersey, chunky knits,or high-
performancesportswear.As your confidencegrows,
you will want to controlthe effect of fabric from the
earliest stages of the design process.Then, ratherthan
relying on store-purchasedtextilesto fit your theme,
you will be able to manipulatefabric to dictatethe
volume and shape of your garments,as well as their
surface appearanceand texture.
As you put together a mood board and color palette,
experiment with structuring fabric to create a silhouette.
Exploreyour ideas by manipulatingpaper; then consider
howthese ideas can betransferred ontofabric, either
through techniques such as pleating and draping or
through methodsthat create an entirely newfabric
structure. Choosethe strongest roughsto create afinal
collection that incorporatesyour fabric structuring ideas.
Take an active role in fabric manipulation.
Developstructuring ideasthat drive your designs.
Ensureyour fabric developmentis in line
with fashion trends.
r I-. ,.
using drawing and
the key shapesand
4 A Analyze your source
volume, andconstructionto guide
youwhen structuringfabrrcto create
page as a piece of fabric,
startto sketch out
structuring ideas. Don't
worry at this stage about
achievingthe effects; just
let your imagination run
wild. Still working on
methodssuch as gluing,
stapling, hand and
cutouts, and applique.
Rememberthat you are
looking for ideasthat will
support the construction
of the garments.
Nowthink about how
these first thoughts can
betranslated onto fabric.
You could create a
fastening using fabric
ties. Stitching and gluing
could bethe meansof
structuring a finished
garmentor might provide
seaming ideas. Layering,
pleating,and draping are
allways of creating such as crochet,
volume in a garment. You patchwork,or knitting.
mightconsider how Rememberto keep an
cuttingfabric on the bias eye on the work of other
(placingpatternpieces at designers.All these
a45-degree angleto the wonderful effectsshould
fabric selvages and grain) not distract you from the
would affect structure. fashion overview.
Bias-cutfabric hasfar Finally,select your
greater drapethan usual strongest roughsto use
and clings to the body in putting together a
in avery flattering and collection of finished
feminine way when used designs structured
in skirts and dresses. aroundyour experiments
You could even build in fabric manipulation
up a completely new J and distortion.
fabric, using techniques
V Fashionable useof fabric
ItIS Importantto keepaclose eyeonwhat is happeningto fabric
structuring wlthlntheworld of fash~onWhat arethe other
designers doing?What arethe keytrends?Suchconsrderatlons
Y Building a newfabric
You canstructurefabric by
Explorethese ideason paper.
$6Doesyour fabric manipulationreflectyour res%~%@f1
LAre the fabrics appropriateto the fashion silhouettes?
@ Are your concepts d~sciplinedand truly fashionable-
have you avoided being self-indulgent? *:-, - - -b v *-TI
STRUCTURING FABRIC $a
The construct~onof these garmentshas been driven by the structuringof fabric,
V Structureand embellishment
whether through the building up of newtextiles or the manipulationof existing Knittedstitchescan be usedto givethe garment
fabric to createvolume and shape.Thinking about howfabric will behavewhen volume as well as surface decoration.
shaped into a garment naturally leadsto a moredetailedconsiderationof the
garment itself.Designersneedto be aware of the structural natureof differen
and incorporatethem intotheir fashion ideasaccordingly.Bulky knitwear,for
example, can be designed only into certain shapes,and is boundto be heavy and
hot. Clingingjerseys, on the other hand,will mold aroundthe body,and fine velvets
will drape into soft folds. The behavior of fabric can be exploredby molding samples
aroundthe curves of a dressmaker'sstand, or around a real body,using avolunteer.
Ifthe fabric has a complex structure-an ornate crocheted pattern,for example-it is
importantto remember that the silhouette should be kept simple in order to avoid a
4 V Drivingthe design
snowflake stitchesandthe use
of chunkyfabric to createa
bulky, hoodedoutline (shown
shape, and proportion.
A b Volume on
Methodsof fabric manipulation
such as folding, pleating,and
draping can be usedto give
volume and shapeto relatively
COMMUNICATING YOUR VISION
The most wonderful ideas and stylish drawing techniques will count for nothing if
you cannot presentyour designs effectively. This chapter explains how to support
your illustrationswith flat working drawings and represent your ideas as three-
dimensionalgarments. You will also learn how to create professional-looking
presentationboards,to choose the most appropriate illustrationstyle for your work,
and to communicateyour vision clearly, accurately,and with maximum impact.
ownwork at a
Clarity and communication
It is important to remember,when you illustrateyour designs, that you are making abstract concepts from 'f
your imagination realto other people.Your fashion drawings may be very creative and evolve intoworks 41
of art, but it is important that they can still clearly and accurately describe your design intentions.When t
you show your ideas to a client or a pattern cutter,they must be as clear about your designs as you are.
This does not meanthat you haveto sacrifice combination of these terms. As the names As a commercialdesigner, working as part .:
creativity. Dependingon your style of drawing, suggestthey are accurate, clear, and easy-to- of a team, clear communicationwill be
your work might be unambiguousor somewhat understandrepresentationsof your design paramount, and you will often find yourself
open to interpretation.Look critically at your
finished drawings and decide whether or not
they will be absolutely clear to a first-time
observer. If you are in any doubt about clarity, even madeto scale, but this is not necessary
it is bestto support your illustrationswith flat (and measurementsare also not always
working drawings. expected).So long as they accuratelydescribe
You will hearthese types of drawing referred how your garments are constructed,and
to in differentways: flat drawings or "flats," include any necessary design details, working
specificationdrawings or "specs," technical drawingswill successfullysupport your more
drawings, or working drawings-or any
4 Keep it simple
to reinforcethe moodof the collection,
butavoidoverloadingthe boardwith so
You will find that undertakingthese kinds
of drawing is a useful discipline that will
benefityour creative process. Making
working drawings will force you to be crystal
clear about your intentions,to provide
preciseproportions, and to make decisions
about positioning and type of seam, pocket,
fastening,and neckline-clarifying all those
detailsthat are so vital to the design of
V Conveying texture
These garmentsall feature
interestingtextural detailthat might
overloada garment illustrationor
working drawing.One way to
displaytexture is to mountfabric
swatches (likethose illustratedleft)
separatelyfrom the garment
A F Providingthe detail
Flattechnical drawings help to
clarify howthe illustratedgarments
areconstructed.They can also
defineexactly how andwhere
surfacepatternor stitchtexture isto
be placed on a garment. I
Creativefinal illustrations of your collectionwill
often need to be supported with clear and
accurateflat working drawings.This will allowyou to
be artistic inyour illustrations,knowingthat they are
supported by technical drawingsthat providean
unambiguousand precisedescription of your
garments.Your working drawings should record
exactly howyour clothes are to be constructed,and
how all the details,trims, and finishes are to be
applied. Completingthemwill force you to make
decisions aboutthese factors,which might otherwise
have been left open to interpretation.You will be
surprisedat howthe processof makingworking
drawingsforces you to think moredeeply about
Lookthrough your wardrobe at home and pull out a range
of differenttypes of garment. Laythem out neatly on the
floor so that you can observeevery detail. Photographthe
garments so that you startto relateto them asflat
illustrations.Try representingwhat you see as accurate
flat line drawingsthat clearly describethe construction of
the garments and their details.Then practice by making
working drawings of your previousillustrations.
Assess critically the construction of existinggarments.
proportion, makeup, and details of your garments.
8 Apply what you have learnedto the exact description
of previousdesign illustrations.
As a resultof this process, think in more detail about
Laythem out as simply exactlywhat you see. positions,necklines, and
Selecta rangeof your as possible, with The first few drawings sleeveand body shapes,
own garments. You could no creases.Avoid will take the mosttime as well as front and back
even buy afew items overlappingsleeveswith to complete. After that views.You canoutline
from a charitystore and garmentfronts; either you can placeone of your drawingswith a
take them apartto slightlythicker black
investigatetheir or fold them over on underneatheachfresh pento highlightthe
construction.Work with themselves.Take photos page inyour padto use garment silhouette.
as astarting point as you Ifyou arefinding it
variety of difficult pieces. Thesewill be easier to sketchthe next one. This difficult to get going, start
will saveyou time as you bytracing in pencil over
draw the collection, your photographsand working drawingsback
clothesfrom above, ensuringproportionsare
ratherthan at an angle, outlinesin pen. Inthis usingthem as a basis
so laythem out on the emphasizing similarities for further developments,
floor insteadof on atable. layout pad, start to draw you will deepen your
selectionof garments can useas afoundation understandingof your
collection. Rememberto Finally, referto your
describeeveryaspect of previouscreative
the garments, including illustrationsand make
their proportions,seam working drawingsof
details, trims, pocket these. As you take the
4 When figures
are needed '
as necklinesneedto be
representedon the body so
that the exact scale and
proportion can be shown.
b Not always
Some fashion illustrations
might not needto be
Ifthey are clear and
design ideas sufficiently :
3 DOyour working drawingsdescribeyour designsmore tFY
accuratelythan your creative illustrations?
With practice,working drawings can be produced with great speed.As the
illustrations heredemonstrate,they are very useful either mountedon a
presentationboard, giving detailsthat might otherwise havecluttered up the
illustration,or as part of the creative process, representing existing garmentsto
providea basisfor related but original designs.Traced over on a layout pad,working
drawingscan be used inthe same way as figure drawingsto generate rangesof
ideas.The ability to makeworking drawings is a useful skill for a designer to show in a
portfolio,becausecommercialdesignersare more likelyto work with this type of
drawingthan any other. Clarity and accuracyare the goal. Working drawingsshould
communicateeffectivelythe preciseconstruction,proportion,and embellishment of
the design, so much so that they could be handed over to a patterncutter or
machinist in the confidencethat the ideaswill be re-createdexactly.
4 A Supporting creativity
dep~ct~onof the smockedtop
Usingflat working drawings to
creation of a rangeof relatedbut
B-G YOUR VISION
Real garmentsfor your portfolio
This projectwill allowyou to presentyour designs as
three-dimensionalgarments.We are not dealing
herewith the technical aspects of garment
construction-that is an involvedtopic that would fill
another book. However,you can still representa
design as a finished piece by mocking up a garment
that can then be captured with photography.Ifyou
have actually made up any of your designs already,
then you will be able to practicestylingthe garments
so that they can be photographed to best effect.
You will find this projectto be a wonderful learning
experiencethatw~lladd to your creativity.The bestway
to learnabout garment constructionis to practice
taking apart and making up realitems.You will then
becomefamiliarwith the shapes of patternpieces,
and methodsof seaming and finishing. Drapingfabric
on a dressmaker'sstand is another routeto garment
design, involving observationof howthe fabric actually
behaves on the body (which can only be imaginedat
the sketchingstage). Some designerswork best in this
way and start by draping fabric beforethey even pick
up pen and paper.
Selectsome design illustrationsthat you would liketo
represent in garmentform. Wrapfabric arounda
dressmaker's standor modelto createan impressionof
finished garmentsthat you cancapturewith photography.
Ifyou havealready made up garmentsfrom some of your
illustrations,experimentwith differentways of styling
Represent real garments inyour portfolio.
Practicestyling your designson a modelor a stand.
Developdesign ideasby draping fabricsor garments
on a modelor a garment stand.
Startwith a lengthof
fabric drapedover the
standor body and
manipulate it as the
folding, tying, stretching,
binding, or gathering.
Aim to mimicthe way the
fabric would behaveon
the body if it were
garment. Piecescan be
cut away or pinnedin
the garment is evolved,
but this might not be
garmentsthat you have
keep your mindopento
new ideas, becausethe
processof folding and
you to developnew
example, as you are
as suggestedby an
on a sleeve, or a drapeof
fabric overthe hips, in a
way thatyou had not
sortsof ideascan be
other garments, or
might even becomemore
Alternatively,they can be
noteddown for usein a
flair to representthe spirit
of the design illustrations.
Try out as manyoptions
as possibleto display
your work. You could
arrangegarments on a
model, a stand, a hanger,
laidflat on the floor-
clothes haveeven been
photographedon a dog!
options and beas
creative asyou can. Keep
in mindwhat you are
trying to achieve: the
your design concepts.
V Capturethe mood
Why not team upw~thother
I students?These photographs
were the result of a collaborat~on
between a fash~onstudent,a
young model The Imageswere garmentsto style?
used ~nallthree portfol~osl Haveyou useda wide rangeof methodsto mock
up and stylethe garments?
V Styling garments Doyour photographssuccessfullycapturethe
Exper~mentwlth d~fferentways of proportionsand stylingof the garments? 1
styl~ngand accessorlzlngthe Haveyou avoidedamateurish presentation?
clothes onthe stand Cons~der
uslng Itemssuch as jewelry, or
hats and gloves
b On the
If your college hasan
designs on film and
Photographsof three-dimensionalgarments,either real or mocked up,take
fashion illustrationa step further and allowthe representation of finished pieces
in a portfolio.As shown by some of the images here,the photographydoes not have
to be particularly "arty"to show off the designs to great effect. Usingvideo or still
photographyto capture designs as they come down the catwalk at an end-of-year
event will give their presentationthe feel of atop fashion show. Piecesdisplayedon a
stand or draped around a body can sometimes be best photographedthrough close-
ups of garment sections ratherthan through a styled photo shoot approachthat
could look amateurish if the quality of the photographyis not very good (another
option is to collaboratewith a photographer).The use of a digital cameracan be
productive,allowingthe imagesto be further manipulatedwith a computer.The digital
editing processcan result in new design ideas as well as in creative presentation.
up and long shots
Ia mixtureof close- -
adds variety and interest
to the presentation.
A Letting go
over the portrayalof the
garmentsto a certainextent, and
creative free rein.
4 A ? Options for
Catwalk photographs can
be either mounted as a
separateseries of images
or combined with illustrations
to make integrated
? All the angles I
as this one onthe
back of a garment
should be captured
A The glamor of the show
The excitement and glamor of a college
catwalkshow will show off your garments
to stunningeffect. Usingeither still
photography or avideo camera,
REAL GARMENTS FO
Fashion designers are in the business of visual communication,and effectwe presentation of work is
all important.Your brain may be teem~ngwith innovative ideas and you may produce the most original 4
designs, but none of this will matter if you are unableto communicate your vision. Inthe fashion business,
first impressions really do count.When you show your work, you need to ensure that your presentation
looks as professional as possible-organized, well mounted,and clean, as well as accurate, clear,and
Your illustrationscan be mountedon foam
boards or on card (the boards are sturdier but
can be bulky to transport), both of which can
be bought from art supply stores. Boardsare
available in various sizes and your choice will
be influencedby factors such as personal
preference,your audience (if you are
presentingto a large group the board must be
big enoughfor them to see), the trend of the
moment (whichcould equally befor very large
boards or pocket-sizedpresentations),or the
size of your illustrationsor portfolio. With
experienceyou will find the size that suits you
best, but start by using a 20- x 30-in. board,
.' and be preparedto try out differentoptions.
Avoid using a combination of different sizes,
which can makeyour portfolio seem messy.
It is worth emphasizingthat the work you
presentshould beclean. Carryinga portfolio
around, it's easyto get finger markson the
boards and for card edgesto becometattered.
Makesure that your presentationis always
fresh. Even recycled ideas can havea marketif
they look as if they havejust been produced.
Mountwork on board or card,or usea plasticfolder.
Factors such as the size of your illustrationsand
A sturdyportfolio isthe safest and most efficientmeansof transporting portfoliowill influenceyour choice of size and color.
work. Build up a collectionof different sizesto houseallyour illustrations.
I A sturdy portfolio is essential. A selection in
different sizes can be useful; you can store
work in some and keepothersfor showing
presentations.Makesurethat your portfolios
are relativelyeasyto carry, evenwhen laden
with work. For protective storage, plastic
envelopesare invaluable. If used in
presentation,plastic will reducethe picture's
color slightly and give it a glossy sheen.
Sometimesthis can enhance the illustration,
but if your artwork looks better matte,don't
present it this way.
You will also needto choose carefullyyour
style of illustration as well as your approach to
the presentationas a whole, to ensurethat
work is shown off to besteffect. Ifyour designs A Simplicity A b Harmony
are very delicateyou might wantto usean
IYou don't haveto Working drawingsallow a
ephemeral style of drawingto capturethem on fabric moreartistic depiction of-
paper, perhapsaccompanied by flat working
swatches or the garments,while a
working drawings colored background can
drawings.The delicatefeel of your designs onyour board- be effective(thisone sets
would then also influenceaspectssuch asthe
use of color, the choice of fabrics, the style
of photography,the poses of the figures, and
the arrangement of all these componentson
the board. Inthis way, all the elements of a
presentationwill beworking together to
Bewareof trying too hardwith finished
sheets. You can always use a color
photocopierto tidy up an exciting but possibly
scruffy exampleof work from your sketchbook,
which was produced in aflurry of creativity.
Sketchbooksoffer a good glimpse intothe soul
of your work. You may not alwayswantto
revealthis to a client, but sometimesit may
help to convincethem of the creativejourney
that has produced the finished ideas.
best just to let
off the rich, sober
the garments) Be
thatthe color does
4 A Work-in-progress
'Ideas in sketchbooks often have a
livelinessthat can be lost infinalized
work If presentingyour sketchbooks,
makesurethat there are no sharp
objects (suchas staples) to take the
viewer by surprlse
PRESE WORK 125
Embellishingwork with unnecessaryextras can show a lack of confidence in the
main concept, so whether you feel your designs call for an understated
presentation or for a more elaborate themed approach,you must be sure that you
don't includeanythingthat does not contributeto the impact of the designs.You want
someone seeing your illustrations for the first time to be struck by the quality of your
design statement-not by the decorationsurroundingit.A simple presentation has
morechance of being successful,and will not offend anyone'stastes, although
a more creative presentationstyle can create a strong impact (seeUnit 24, pages
134-137). Decorationsuch as edgings must never overwhelmthe illustrations,and
colored backgrounds should be usedonly if they complementthe design palette.
Includeitems such as working drawingsand swatches if they add to the clarity of the
presentation,and remember that your work should appear clean and tidy.
Do not use spray mountto stick your imagesto the board, as this can cause
respiratory damage. Dry-mountingimages is a safer techniquethat involves placing a
sheet of adhesive backing onto an illustration and then heatingin order to adherethe
imageto the board. However,this is a laboriousprocessand it is simpler and quicker
to use an adhesive stick or double-sided mounts.
Select a few of your favorite illustrationsfrom the same
projectto mount on a 20- x 30-in. board or boards. Don't
worry about achievinga very dramaticstyle: this unit is
about practicing well-organized,tidy, and effective
presentation. Include items like fabric swatches if you
wish, so long as the imagesare not obscured.You should
choose and arrangeyour illustrationsto reinforcethe
impressionthat they are part of a cohesivecollection.
the objective '
8 Include itemsthat contribute to the impact
of your designs.
8 Create a professionalpresentation.
8 Presentdesigns in a way that makesthem look
like part of a cohesivecollection.
Select a few designsto
presentfrom the same
project. Before mounting,
you maywant to crop
them to removetattered
edges or makethe
focused. Usea scalpel
and ruler or a guillotine.
Clean up any smudge
markswith a soft eraser.
in a different mediummay
give a more professional
finish, so considertaking
photographs or making
1 even scanthe pictures
into a computer in order
to further manipulatethe
designs, and then print
A Mounting illustrations
A boardcanbebuiltwith simple tools:acraft knifeandruler (for
been made using
smudge if they are not
afixativeaccording to the
instructions on the can.
For health reasons, it is
bestto spray outside.
illustrations as ifthey
were finished works of
art. However good they
are, your drawings are
I Will a viewer understandthe design story?
Isthe board practicalfor you to take to a clien;$,.
8 Could you have presentedyour illustrations
differentlyto greater effect?
not ends in themselves
You can mountyour
work straight onto the
white foam board or stick
down a sheet of thin card
, as backingfirst. One
: (expensive)option is to
I cover the board with
raggededges and then
illustrationson top of
could use a board exactly
the same size as the
illustration,so that no
background shows at all.
Resisttrying to be too
clever with your mounts.
A controlled useof
borders can helpto
give a moredefined
presentationbut if in any
doubt keep it simple or
avoid them altogether.
Colored paper canwork
as a backingfor designs
in a complementary
palette,but be careful
that the use of color
does not detractfrom
the image itself.
You don't want to
overload your board, but
clarity can be added with
itemssuch as fabric
swatches (if your textile is
complicated it is betterto
displaythe detail with a
small sample rather than
trying to capture it in the
garment drawing) and flat
Decide how many
illustrationsyou want to
include on the board and,
down, arrangeall the
items. Don't try to cram
on too much information
and don't overlapthe
you can't see the
designs. If you are
presenting on morethan
one board, you can
repeat color and
composition to givethe
group a cohesivefeel.
Start sticking down the
imagesonly when you
are happy with the
easiest way of attaching
itemsto a board is by
using adhesive stick or
of peel-offmounts is that
they make removing
Imagessimpler if you
decide to remountthem.
or drawingsto avoid
boardscan be given
composition-both of the
figures inthe same
positionand pose,with an
1 working drawings.
The images featured here demonstratethat effective presentationscan be either
boldly simple-featuring only the garment itself and focusing on color and
silhouette rather than on detail-or complex, incorporatingfabric details,for example,
that may be as prominentas the garment itself.Muchdepends on personaltaste as
well as on the natureof the garment: if the interestof a piece lies in the textilethen the
portrayal of this aspectwill be important.There are certain ground rules,however,that
apply to every type of presentation.They should be stronglycomposed (as here),
with the viewer's attention drawn immediatelyto the central concept-whether that is
ajacket, a whole outfit,or a combination of fabric and garment. Presentationsshould
also always be neat and clean, and give the impressionthat they have been
professionally produced. Multiplepresentations representing different pieces
belongingto the same collection should be given cohesionthrough the repetition
of aspects such as the composition, the use of color and decoration,and the
positioningand pose of the figures.
Thls bold des~gn1sbest
presented Ina conf~dent,
there's no needfor
+! , drawings, edg~ngs,or
m.e any other ernbell~shrnent
V Repeating the motifs
These illustrationsgo right upto the edge of the board so that no
background isvisible.The presentationemphasizesthe cohesion
of the collectionthrough the use of a repeatedpose.
4 V Using borders
Borders can be successfullyusedto add
defin~tionto a presentation lllustrat~onscan
beframedwithinthin lines orwide edgings
(as below),but th~ssort of decoration should
only be appl~edif ~tdoes not d~minishthe
' impact of the design concept Borderswould
seemtoo busy around a complicated print
design,for example,which would be better
presentedon a plainwhlte background
Choosing a presentation style
Completing a number of presentationboards, each
showinggarmentsillustratedin a different style,
will helpyou show off the versatility of your work to best
advantage.This unit is intendedto helpyou choose
illustrationstylesthat are appropriatefor your designs
and that will presentthem intheir best light.You should
choose a style of final illustrationthat both conveys
your original inspirationand reinforces the design
ideas,without taking over from the garments
themselves.For example, if you have drawn inspiration
from a naturalsource such as a shell,you mightwant
to replicateits soft colors and delicatelines inyour
illustrations.You would also needto considerthe
nature of the garmentsthemselves-neither a very
bold nor a very painterly style would be suitable for
Try to use a different style of presentationfor every
project. Byvarying the flavor of each board,youwill
ensurethat you build up a diverse body of work to
appealto a range of clients.
Gathertogether inspirational research, mood boards,and
rough sketchesfrom some previous projects.Consider
how appropriatethe styles of drawing are to the original
themes. Then experiment with different methodsof
illustration, inspired by your researchand roughs.
Support the designs with technical drawings, fabric
swatches, and color swatches where appropriate.
Draw designs inthe methodthat showsthem to
Challengeyourself by varying your presentationstyle.
Create presentationboardsthat will giveyour
portfolio impact andvariety.
Layout all the elements
of your chosen projects
in a large space,
including rough ideas,
any mood boards. Place
imagesside by side and
(if your work is in a
the pagesfor this
methods by which you
havedrawn (or intended
to draw), your finished
methodwill be closely
tied to the levelof detail
that you needto show for
are an important feature,
illustrations might involve
subtle color washes to
natureof the fabric.
However,you would need
to show more detail
where garments include
print or embroidery.It is
not necessaryto mapout
every stitch-this can be
done on the flat working
drawings (see Unit 20,
pages 116-1 19)-but
should show the
scale and position of
I A Firstinspirations
Letyour researchguide you
inchoosing the most suitable
method of illustratingyour
garments: it sums upthe
whole mood of a collection.
The fine linesand natural
colors of these shellimages
might suggest a precise,
delicate style, perhaps using
watercolors or penand ink.
communication, p. 11
Lookto your research
for clues about the best
style of illustrationto
depict your designs.
A soft femininetheme
might requirea painterly
find you scanning images
into a computer and
Think creativelyand aim
to build up a varied set
of styles within your
portfolio to illustrateyour
flexibility and adaptability.
design concept clearly Thinkcarefullyabout the moodthat you are
tryingto convey.Dramaticdesignscan be
including items such as traditionalapproach.
samples of fabrics or
yarns, or evensmall
4 A lialanced style
examples of inspirational
be temptedto overload presentationstylewiththe
the board with too much needto accuratelyrepresent
informationor the clarity A Elementsof a presentation thefit of the garments and
of the presentation Inadditionto displayingthe illustrations,the .thetextures of thefabrics.
necessaryto communicatethe designsclearly,
whether that isflat technicaldrawings,fabric
swatches,trims, color palettes,or examples
Doesthe style of illu
Doyou haveprofessionalpresentationsto add to your portfolio?
Designers vary their illustrationstyle from projectto project, building up a
portfoliothat contains a range of presentations,each one telling a different
story both in terms of design and style of presentation.This demonstrates
versatility and ensuresthat each project has its own distinct personality.The
illustrations can be made using pen and ink,paint, collage,felt-tip pen, computer
scanning-anything goes, so long as the illustration style contributesto the overall
theme and communicatesthe designer's vision.
The creation of effective presentationboards is a detailedand time-consuming
process. Plenty of time should be allowed: it is easy to get bogged down in the
rough planningstage and end up rushingthe final presentation,which will spoil the
impact of the ideaswhen they are shown to potentialclients or employers.A good
presentation,likethose illustratedhere, displaysthe garments in a way that is
attractive but also easy to interpret.The golden rule is simplicity. Itemssuch as
I and trims can be included so
long as they add clarity rather
than detractfrom the impact of
the garment itself;they are not
4 A A dramaticstyle
simple, bold, and graphic, playing
with silhouetteand transparency.
An alternative approachwould have
beento include moredecorative
and fabric detail.
When deciding howto presentyour work, think
back to whatever it was that first sparkedyour
excitement about your theme.Your creativity does not
have to be impeded by the needfor clear and simple
presentation.It is true that you should not overpresent
your work so that the style of presentationbecomes
more powerfulthan the content. However,if you
maintain a careful balance,a creative presentationwill
add to the overall impact of your design project.This
final unit is intendedto maximizeyour creativity in
presentation-encouraging you to think not only about
your drawing styles but also about the poses of the
figures,the use of fabrics, colors, lettering,and
decoration,the possibilitiesoffered by different media,
and the overalleffect of the board.Your aim should be
to channel all these aspects intothe creationof
presentationsthat will communicateyour vision to
Gathertogether all the elements of a previousdesign
project.Thesewill includethe original sources of
inspiration,your primaryand secondary research, your
sketchbook work, roughs,working drawings, final
illustrations,and any photography.Consideringthis
material and the natureof your design theme and your
target audience, decide on the most appropriate method
of final presentation.Pickout your key designs and
presentthem in a mannerthat supports and promotes
your fashion ideas.
e Create original boardsthat reflectyour uniquestyle.
Strengthenthe impactof your design ideas by using
Tailor your presentationto your target audience.
Balancethe clear communicationof your ideaswith
exciting and creative methodsof presentation.
Finda largetable or a
cleanfloor spacethat will
allow you to lay out lots of
together so that you are
ableto see your initial
inspiration, roughs, and
final illustrationsside by
side. Stand back andtake
a critical look at your
developments. What was
it that attractedyou to this
topic, and how have you
ideasas you worked on
the project? Isthe theme
still strongly reflectedor
evolvedaway from your
starting point? Start to
identify elements that
could be usedfor
interesting motifs, color
inthe style of 1940sfilm
posters reinforcethe impact
of the glamoroustailoring of
styles of lettering,
garment styling ideas,
and types of paper.
Decideon how you
want to presentyour
ideas. If your work has a
by film stars, your
drawings could be
supported with some
using dramatic lighting or
Do not slavishly copy
existingstyles, no matter
how authenticthey areto
your research, but
in a moderncontext.
Always ask yourself
whether potential clients
will be ableto relateto
working in a commercial
arena might be alienated
presentationof your design ideas?
Doesyour style of presentationsupport and ad
your garment designs?
Haveyou used a stylethat looksfresl
Haveyou consideredyour target audience?
m r " v M . - e-4-X ,FE+,I-rr"Xr*rie,gi ~ W t + C P P
by a very dramaticstyle
a client with whom you
1 are working on a bridal
collection will have a
both the designs andthe
style of presentation.
Remember that you
are trying to achieve a
clarity and creating
a visually exciting
I also choose a style of
your theme, as described
1 in unit 23 (pages
130-133). Make sure that
4 A Creating excitement
Eventhe poseof your flgures can reflectyour source Ihe
"showgirl"stance of thesefigures reinforces the glamoroustheme
* and lendsafeellngof movementandcelebration tothe pictures.
the arrangement on
your board is not over-
crowded (for some useful
practical tips see Unit22,
necessaryyou will have
to selectwhich itemsto
' include, prioritizing
working drawings, and
I fabric swatches.
A "showgirl"themewill inspireadramatic
approachto silhouette,fabric choice,and
styling-and this can begivengreater authority 4
Although it is important not to overembellish a presentation so that it has more
impactthan the garmentdesignsthemselves, a carefully prepared presentation
will support and strengthen the illustrations.These presentationsunderlinethe
glamor of designs based on the worlds of film and theater invarious ways. Dramatic
photographyand the use of a billboard poster style suggest a film-startheme, and
sketches reminiscent of costume design, the use of spray paint and star motifs,and
the portrayal of showgirlfabrics like satin,boned silk,diamanteembroideries,laces,
and feathers all evokethe theater. MarilynMonroe'sfamous billowing-skirtpose is
reproduced in one set of drawings; in another,Judy Garland'sruby slippersadd a
witty touch. If stuckfor ideaswhen presentingdesigns, it is always usefulto think
back to the original source. Garments inspiredby a beautifulgarden,for example,
might well be photographed laid on flowers or hangingamong branches.So long as
the presentation supports the designs,there is always opportunityto be creative.
4 'V Evoking
The fabric used here is
evocative of the Wizard
of Oz inspiration.
authority to the concept.
on the details"
other detallscan make
tdeas-used as an
Eventhe cover of
edging on a board,
perhaps,or to decorate
the cover of a
as they do not detract
from the designs.
' 4 Creativefreedom
If illustrationsbecome rather
painterly,as here,they can
be supported with working
for bothclarityand creativjty.
Courses in fashion design
The following list comprises only a very
small selection of the many colleges
departmentsof fashion design. Whether
you are lookingfor an evening class or
for full-timetuition in an undergraduate
or postgraduatedegree, the huge
variety of options available should mean
that you have no problem infinding the
coursethat's right for you.
Royal Melbourne Instituteof Technology
G.PO. Box 2476V
t.: (++61) 3 9925 2000
InternationalAcademy of Design
1 and Technology
1253McGill College Ave., 10thfl.
t.: (++I) 514 875 9777
Quebec H3H 2T2
t.: (++I) 514 939 2006
t.: (+$45) 33 328 810
128 r. de Rivoli
t.: (++33) 14488 2020
16 blvd Montmartre
t.: (++33) 14483 8150
I Parsons Paris
14 r. Letellier
t.: (+ +33) 1 4577 3966
Via Watt 27
t.: (+ +39) 2 4241 4001
via Pisana77 1-50143
t.: (++39) 55 739 961
Amsterdam Fashion Institute
t.: (++31) 20 570 2500
lnstitucionArtistica de Ense-anza
c. Claudio Coello 48
t.: (++34) 91 577 1728
t.: (+$44) (0)1273 600 900
Central St Martin'sCollegeof
Art and Design
LondonWCI B 4AP
t.: (+$44) (0)207514 7000
Leicester LEI 9BH
t.: (++44) (0)116255 1551
40-46 Surbiton Rd
Surrey KT1 2HX
t.: (++44) (0)20 8547 7053
University of Lincoln
Admissions & Customer Services- - ...
Lincoln LN6 7TS
London College of Fashion
20 John Prince's St.
London W1G OBJ
t.: (++44) (0)20 7514 7344
Universityof the Arts London
t.: (++44) (0)20 7514 6000
Universityof Manchester lnstitute of
Science and Technology
PO Box 88
Manchester M6O 1QD
t.: (++44) (0)161 236 3311
! Nottingham Trent University
Nottingham NGI 4BU
t.: (++44) (0)115941 8418
RavensbourneCollege of Design
t.: (+ +44) (0)20 8289 4900
RoyalCollege of Art
London SW7 2EU
t.: (+ +44) (0)20 7590 4444
The Surrey lnstitute of Art and Design
Surrey GU9 7DS
t.: (++44) (O)1252722 441
American lntercontinental University
3330 PeachtreeRd, N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30326
t.: (++I) 800 955 2120
American lntercontinental University
12655W. Jefferson Blvd
LosAngeles, CA 90066
t,: (++I) 888 522 2255
Brooks College of Fashion
4825 E. PacificCoast Hwy
Long Beach, CA 90804
t.: (++I) 5625976611
170 MarthaVan Rensselaer Hall
Ithaca, NY 14853
t.: (++1')607 254 4636
FashionCareers of California College
1923 Morena Blvd
San Diego, CA 92110
t.: (++I) 6192754700
Fashion lnstitute of Design and
Merchandising (Los Angeles)
919 S. Grand Ave.
LosAngeles, CA 90015-1421
t.: (++I) 213 624 1201
Fashion lnstitute of Design and
Merchandising (San D~ego)
1010 2nd Ave.
San Diego, CA 92101-4903
t.: (++I) 6192352049
Fashion lnstitute of Design and
Merchandising (San Francisco)
55 Stockton St,
San Francisco, CA 94108-5829
t.: (++I) 415 675 5200
1 Fashion lnstitute of Design and
/ Merchandising (Orange County)
I t.: (++1)949851 6200
Fashion lnstitute of Technology
Seventh Ave, at 27 St
NewYork NY 10001
t.: (++I) 212 217 7999
FASHION RESOURCES 1
InternationalAcademy of Design
and Technology (Chicago)
1 North State St.,Suite 400
InternationalAcademy of Design
and Technology (Tampa)
50 W. 40th St.
Parsons School of Design
66 FifthAve., 7th Floor
NewYork, NY 10011
t.: (++I) 2122298590
School of FashionDesign
Boston MA 02116
t.: (++I) 6175369343
Universityof NorthTexas School
of Visual Arts
Office of UndergraduateAdmissions
PO. Box 305100
t.: (+ +1) 940 565 2855
If you are stuckfor inspirationor want to
bringyourself up to date on forthcoming
trends,why not check out the web sites
belongingto the top fashion designers?
Here are just some of the good sites:
~ ~ ~ , l a c o s t e . c o m
color palette A limited selection of 'colors used
by a designer when creating a collection to
ensure a cohesive color scheme.
color theming Giving the items in a collection a
common identity through the repeated use of
colorway The choice of colors used in an
individual piece. Changing the colorway can alter
the look of a garment dramatically.
cropping Trimming an illustrationto alter the
focus of the composition (removingan unwanted
area of empty space, for example) or to remove
"all-ways" print A print with motifs that are not
aligned in any one particular direction: the fabric
will work in the same way whichever way up it is.
art deco A design style, popular between the
two World Wars, that was characterizedby
simplicity,bold outlines, geometrical order, and
the use of new materials such as plastic.
bias cutting Cutting fabric with the pattern
pieces placed at a 45-degree angle to the
selvages and the grain.
brief The client's, employer's, or tutor's
instructionsto a designer,setting the parameters
of a design project.
clip-art images Copyright-freeimages available
through the Internet.
collage An image created by sticking items
(such as paper cuttings or pieces of cloth) to a
surface. From the French coller (to glue).
collection The group of garments produced -.
each season by a designer. Usually these items
have certain features rn common, such as color,
shape, and pattern.
customer profile Informationabout the lifestyle
of the target customer-such as age, economic
status, and occupation-that guides a designer
in creating commerciallyviable collections.
dry-mounting Placing adhesive backing onto
an illustrationand then heating in order to adhere
it to a board.
grain The fabric grain is the direction of the
woven fibers, either lengthwiseor crosswise.
Most dressmaking pieces are cut on the
lengthwisegrain, which has minimal stretch;
when bias cutting, pieces are placed diagonally
to the grain.
layout The composition of the illustrationon the
page. A bold layout,which fills the page and
makes the design statement with confidence, is
often the most successful approach.
mixed media A combination of different media
within the same image. Possible media include
color pencils, oil pastels, crayons, gouache,
watercolor paints, pen and ink, or even a
computer or photocopier.
mood board A board displaying inspirational
research,current fashion images, fabric
swatches, and color palettes. It should
encapsulatethe most importantthemes from the
research and act as a focus during the creation
of the designs.
"negativespace" Part of the illustrationleft
deliberatelyblank so that viewers, who might
have expected these areas to be filled in, will
read the invisible lines through the white space.
"one-way"print A print where the motifs are
aligned in one direction. More expensive to use
for making garments than "all-ways" prints since
extra fabric is requiredto align the print correctly.
Pantone color chips Individuallynumbered
shades, supplied in color reference books. The
numbered shades are recognizedthroughout the
portfolio A case used for storing, transporting,
and displaying illustrations.
presentation board A light foam board
available in various sizes from art supply stores.
Used for presenting work to tutors, employers,
range Used interchangeablywith "collection" to
describe the group of garments produced each
season by a designer "Range" has also more
specifically commercial overtones, indicating a
selection of coordinating garments that offers
maximum choice to the customer within the
parametersof the range.
roughs The quick unconstrained sketches
that a designer uses to "think out loud on
paper," developing a research idea into a
range of designs.
silhouette The outline shape of a
target customer The person who is likely to
wear the designs produced for each project. A
designer should construct a profile of the target
customer in order to ensure that the garments are
target market The range of target customers
that a retailer aims to satisfy.
working drawing The representationof a
garment as it would look laid out flat, rather
than drawn on a figure. Used to convey precise
informationabout the construction, trims, finishes,
and any other details of the pieces. Also known
as "flats," or technical or specification drawings.
Page numbers in italics
refer to captions
abstraction 38, 45
accessories 107, 121
adhesive 126, 127
"all ways" print 34, 35
Ancient Egypt, inspiration
from 16, 18-19, 18, 19
antique textiles, inspiration
from 14, 15,20, 20-21,
21, 22,22, 23
art, inspirationfrom 6, 34,
34-36,35, 36, 44,45
art deco style 15,20
art nouveau patterns 41
back view 78, 85
balance 75, 75
bias, cutting on the 34, 109
borders: use in
bridalwear 88, 98, 135
budget 30,92,98-99, 100
Chalayan, Hussein:skirt 8
Chrysler Building 14, 15,20
clip-art images 34
clutter, avoiding 74
collaboration 121, 122, 122
collage 45, 57, 65
in life drawing 62, 63, 64
collection, creating a 82,
82, 83, 84,84, 86
color: chips 104, 105;see
also Pantone chips
combinations 27, 104,
in life drawing 60
in presentation 128
application of 70,
color palette 17,26, 27,
29, 40, 45, 72, 94, 102,
102, 104, 106, 107
for a collection 86
consistent 18, 19, 68
creating 67, 105
limited 18,23, 36, 60,
of a painting 34
colorways,variant 34, 35,
35, 36, 37
crochet 108, 109
cropping 49, 74, 75
customer: profile 30, 92
target 26, 27, 28, 45, 84,
90, 92-93, 94, 96, 98,
taste 93, 94, 95, 96
daywear project 88-91
design: brief 92-93
fabric 40-42, 43
layout 74-75. 75
print 6, 34, 34-35, 35,
36, 37, 46
devor6 velvet 42
drawings: figure 50-51 ;
52, 52-53, 54,54
life 51, 58, 58-59, 59,
60; collage 62, 63, 64
roughs 82,84-85, 86,
working ("flats") 83, 84,
85, 114-115, 115,
116, 116-117, 118,
118, 119, 133;
in presentation 125,
125, 126,127, 130,
131,132, 135, 137
lufy, Raoul 6, 34, 36, 36
Easter Island statues 14
elongation in fashion
illustration50, 51, 52, 54
cost of 92
embroidery 40, 44-46, 47,
machine 45,45, 47
site of 45
end-of-yearshow 8, 121,
ethnic styles 15, 15, 32
eveningwear 88, 98, 99
bias cut 34, 109
draping 6, 102, 102,
properties of 108
structuring 108-1 09,
swatches 42, 43,
fashion illustration51, 76
figure drawing 50-51
52, 52-53, 54,54
film see movies,
fixing drawings 126
flats 83, 84, 84, 85, 114,
garment: construction 89,
108-109, 110,114, 115,
mocking up 120
Ghost design 92
graphics material 34, 35,
graveyard, inspiration from
40, 42, 43
hggenheim Museum 20
.iawaiian beach shirt 74,
76, 76-77, 78
henna hand tattoos 30,31
iilfiger, Tommy 15
rlindu gods and
illustrationstyle 42, 43,
66, 124-1 25, 130-1 31,
India, inspirationfrom 30,
30-32,31, 32, 33
insect wing 38, 38
see also web sites
Kl~mt,Gustave 44, 44, 46
knittlng 40, 46, 46, 47, 108
knitwear designs 96, 110
La Boca, Buenos Aires 20
j;;. ., .. - ; : ; .
. 4 : , .
41': . ,. ' . ,
.;,:! .. # 4 * . ,! : .
i!,?, : , . ... I . , ,
, < , . ' 3::.,*:,.
layers 39, 39, 98, 130
layout 74-75, 75
LeaningTower of Pisa
Leonardo da Vinci 50
life drawing 51, 58, 58-59,
collage in 62, 63, 64
lifestyle profile 92, 93, 94,
95, 97, 98
magazine cuttings 26, 26, -
27, 28, 57, 82
Matisse, Henri 34
medra: experimenting with
in life drawing 60
mixed 70, 71, 72 -,
88, 89, 90
Mondrian, Piet 34, 34,
mood board 25,26-27,
27, 28, 28, 29, 40, 41,
86, 100, 104,105
motif(s): illustrating77, 78
repeated 34, 35
see also pattern(s)
mounting 126, 127
movement of human body
15, 134, 137, 137
15, 16, 16-17
observationalskills 68, 76
or1 pastels 70, 71, 72, 72
"one-way" print 34, 35
outdated styles, inspiration
overall image 66, 67, 68,
72, 73, 86, 86, 87, 117
page format 75
Pantonechips 27, 104, 105
past, inspirationfrom 14
pattern(s): repeating41, 45
simplified 41, 44, 45, 45
see also motif(s)
photography 31, 40, 40,
44, 45, 66, 67
of architecture 21, 21
digital 40, 122
in fabric structuring 108
fashion 33, 137
of garments 120,
pleating 108, 120
portfolio 118, 122, 124,
124, 131, 132
presentation 124-1 25, 125,
126-127,128, 128, 133
board 104,118, 124,
creative 9, 134, 134
style 8, 130, 130-131,
themed 135, 136
print design 6, 34, 34-35,
35, 36, 36, 37, 46
illustrating76, 77, 78,
proportion(s) 25, 41, 86,
color 105, 106, 107
of human body 50,
50-51, 51, 52, 52, 53,
range planning 66, 68, 83,
88,89, 90, 90, 91
roughs 82,84-85, 86, 88,
sailing wear 15
scale 16,37, 38, 41, 119
of decoration 130
scarf project 34-36, 37
scrapbook 31, 82
seasons 27, 28, 92, 98,
colors 26, 29
hape 25, 40, 98, 102,
see also srlhouette
s~lhouette9, 42, 43, 86, 87,
In presentatron 128, 132
s~mpl~f~cat~onof pattern 41,
44, 45, 45
ketchbook 6, 137
in portfolio 125, 125
sk~rtsfor men 92
ource 17,42, 136, 736
I natural 39
,portswear 98, 99, 108
structured 15, 15
street art, inspiration
styl~zat~on53, 54, 55,
swatches: color 104
fabric 27, 42, 43
paint 26, 27
in presentation 126, 127,
swimwear 88, 98, 98
Sydney Opera House 20
target customer 26, 27, 28,
45, 84, 90, 92-93, 94,
target market 93
texture 17, 25, 40, 108,
tracing 84, 85, 117, 118
trends 27, 28, 92
in fabric structuring 109
Van Noten, Dries: skirt for
Versace collection 88
vintage dress, inspiration
Vitruvian Man (da Vinci) 50
volume 25, 108, 110, 111
wardrobe, drawing from
own 66-67, 116, 117
watercolor 70, 72
web sites, fashion 27, 102
114-115, 116, 116-117,
in presentation 125, 125,
126, 127, 130, 131,
132, 135, 137
see also "flats"
workwear 90, 90, 101
Quarto would like to thank and acknowledge the following for permission to
reproduce their pictures:
(Key: t top; b bottom; I left; r right; c center)
Caroline Tatham: pp.1, 2(1), 3(t), 4(tc,tr,b),5(l,r), 6(t), 7(b), 8(1), 9(tr), 11,
24(bl,tr), 25(cr), 27, 28, 29, 38(br), 39(br), 40, 41, 42, 43, 44(tr,b), 45, 46, 47,
48, 49, 74(1), 75(t), 82(r), 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 91, 93(bc), 94, 95, 96,
97, 99(tl,bc), 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 114,
115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125(tc,tr), 127, 128(1),129,
130, 131, 132, 133. Gamma/KambourisDimitrios: 88(t). Gamma/
Simon-Stevens: 13, 34. GammaNan der Stockt Laurent: 81. Heritage
ImagesIBritish Museum: 17(br). Heritage Images/Corporation of
London Libraries and Guildhall Art Gallery: 16(b). Heritage Images
/National Motor Museum: 14(1).Holly Marler: pp.g(tl), 39(tc,br), 111,
125, 134, 135, 136, 137. Julian Seaman: pp.2(c,r),3(b), 4(tl,c), 5(cr),
6(bl), 7(t), 15(cl),35, 36, 37, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 59, 60, 61, 63, 64,
65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74(r), 75(b), 77, 78, 79, 125(tl), 128(c,r).
Roisin Dunn: pp.l7(lt,c,b),18, 19. Saskia Mullins: pp.6(br), 74(c), 125(b).
Sherina Dalarmal: pp.31(b), 32, 33. Timothy Lee: pp.l4(tr), 21, 22, 23.
Topfoto.co.uk: 8(r), 9(b), 15(tl,tr,cr),25(c,b), 31(t), 44(tl), 82(1), 88(b), 92,
113, www.vintagehawaiianshirt.net: 76(t).
All other photographs and illustrations are the copyright of Quarto
Publishing plc. While every effort has been made to credit contributors,
we would like to apologize in advance if there have been any omissions
ashion Design Drawing Course
is the ultimate guide for aspiring
designers, fashion artists, and
everyone who loves style.
Organized into twentpfour instructional units to reflect the
courses of top design colleges, this book covers every aspect
of fashion illustration, from finding the inspiration for fabulous
designs to the techniques that will allow you to put your ideas
I across with irresistibleeffect.
*Find inspiration by seeing the world in a new way
.r*learn to draw fash~onand communicate your vision
*Plan a collection by targeting your customer and choosing
fabrics and colors to create a cohesive look
*Build an ey6-catching portfolio that will sell your designs
.Compare your work with c o l ~ rillustrations showing examples
from top designers and outpnding students
Caroline Tatham was the lead tutor in fashion at Central Saint Martin's
College of Art and Design in London. She has worked internationally as a
designer, product developer, and brand manager, and sells her knitwear
Julian Seaman is the author of several books on fashion design. He is
a visiting tutor at Central Saint Martin's, and an internationally-known
print designer and painter.