ash'one l. "--+= drawing G o ~ r s ~
Principles, practice, and techniques:
the ultimate guide for the aspiring fashion artist
Caroline Tatham Julian Seaman
Howto usethis book
Assessing your work
FINDING INSPIRATION ILLUSTRATING FASHION
lnspirationfile: Whereto start
Unit 1:Visiting a museum The human body in proportion 50
Unit 2: Investigatingarchitecture
Inspirationfile: Inspirationfile: Experimentswith med~a56
A fresh look at the fam~liar
Unit 3: Mood boards
Unit 4: Thetraditions of India
Unit 5: Fineart and graphics
lnspirationfile: Small details,big ideas 38 j lnspirationfile: Laying out your page 74
Unit 6: Designingfabric ideas 40 Unit 13: Illustratingbold print 76
Unit7: Startingwith embroidery 44
Creating a cohesrve collectron
Unit 14: Learnto loveyour roughs
Unit 15: Planning a range
E lnspirationfile: Designingto a brief
' Unit 16: Customer focus
Unit 17: Occasions,seasons, budgets
lnspirationfile: Color and fabric
Unit 18: Color palettes
Unit 19: Structuring fabric
Unit 20: Working drawings
Unit 21: Real garmentsfor your portfolic
Unit 22: Practicalitiesof presentation
Unit 23: Choosing a presentation style
Unit 24: Presentingwith flair
All inquiries should be addressed to:
Barron's EducationalSeries, Inc.
250 Wireless Boulevard
Hauppauge, NewYork 11788
Copyright 0 2003 Quarto Inc.
All rights reserved.No part of this book may
reproduced inany form, by photostat, microf
xerography, or any other means, or incorpora
into any informationretrievalsystem,electronic
or mechanical,without the written permiss~onof
the copyright owner.
I Indexer: Pamela Ellis
. . I
Art Director: MoiraClinch
Manufacturedby Pica Digital
PIE Ltd., Singapore
Printedin China by
Midas Printing InternationalLtd.
9 8 7 6
- --- -- . _ --
Fashion is. by itsvery nature.an ever-changini.&
dscar ~ i l d eremarkedthat "Fashion is a form of
uglinessso intolerablethat we haveto alter it every six
months," but it is this continualevolutioni,$e ---.-constant
reinventionof old trends and the creak~-nofjew
ones,cat lendsthe fashionindustry its excitement
FashionDesignDrawingCourse is aimed3
anyonew~than interest Inthe fascinatingworld of style.
The book is modeled aroundthe fashion courses
offered by colleges and universities,with twenty-four
units each containinga projectto leadyou step by
step throughthe processof illustratingterrific designs.
You don't needto know all about the big fashion
namesto take this course, nor do you need-tobe a
genius with a paintbrushor sewing machine.The aim
of this book is to unravelthe mystiquesurrounding
fashion,and to show how designs can be created
through a systematic processof researchand
development,and the use of a rangeof illustration
techniques.All you needto begin is enthusiasmand
a willingness to
b No experience
You don't needto be a
fashion designs.You can
explorethe behavior of a made-up
garment simply by draping fabric
around a dressmaker'sstand,and
then incorporateideas about
I Inthe first chapter, "Finding inspiration,"you will V A stream of ideas
learnthat creatinga design is not a mysticalaffair but Useyour sketchbook to
simplyabout researching,developing,and reinventing exploreyour first ideas about
an inspiringtheme. Ifyou look at your surroundings 1a design. Don't betoo critical
of your roughs-just letthe
through the eyes of a designer,you will seethat ideasflow and you will be
inspirationis everywhere-museums, art galleries,the surprisedat thevitalityof the
i seashore,the city streets, evenyour familiar home and work you produce.
garden can provideyou with raw material.This chapter
will show you howto identify and researcha sourceof
inspiration,and howto usethis
inspirationto guide your <=I-3I
designs,through the use
of mood boardsfor
example.Itwill also give
4 Borrowing inspiration
You can borrow motifsfrom
paintingsto create print
inspired by the work of Dufy.
V Having confidence
Learning howto fill the page
boldly is an importantaspect
of becoming a fashion
youwill bewell on the way to
and employersto havefaith
some suggestionsabout howto put your own special
I spin on an idea. perhapsby enlargingscale to explore
he unseendetails of an ordinary object, or by bringing
the patternsand shapesof a paintingor a building
intoa new context, or by usingyour sourceto inspire
a fabric design that will be the focus of the garment.
Once you have developed some great design ideas
you needto be ableto representthem on the page.
The second chapter, "Illustrating fashion,"will give you
the confidenceto expand your drawingtechniqueto
includemethods such as collage and mixed media.
A mistake studentsoften makeis to believethey must
jevelop a personaldrawingstyle early on, and then
stick to it.This book encourages plenty of
experimentation-if you keep pushingthe boundaries,
your ideaswill always be fresh. Experimentsdon't
alwayswork, of course, but you must havethe courage
to fail-this is part of the learning process.
One importantpointto keep in mind while working
through this course isthat the final aim of any fashion
design is to produce a real garmentthat
can be worn on a real human body.An
article of clothing drawn on a figure
that iswildly out of proportionwill -lack authority becauseno one
will be able to imagineactually
wearing it.The second chapter
therefore explains an easy
inexperienced designer can use
as a guide for creatingfashion
figures. Duringthis part of the
courseyou will learn to observe
carefully and to honeyour
representational skills,as you
practicedrawing people and
Capturingthe mood b
A free representationof afigure can
capturea posejust as well as avety
1detailed one. You don't need
1 source in aspects such
I designs from one source
garmentsfrom life.You will also learn howto be bold
will teach you howto work to a brief,to take into
in your designs,filling each pagewith drawings that account considerationssuch as budget and seasonal
show conviction. requirements,and to build a collectionaimed at V Goingwild
The third chapter, "Planning and designing,"takes a target customer whose tastes you mightwell not Designersneedto be
vour desianwork intothe wider context of the fashion shareyourself. practicalinfocusing their-
industry.Being a successfuldesigner is not about
producing flamboyantone-off pieces but about
developingyour inspirationinto a cohesiverangeof I The final chapter, "Communicatingyour vision," work on a target customer,
looks at how all these wonderful ideas can be best but sometimes it's good to
letyourself go wild-this
shown off to colleagues,tutors, employers,and clients. HusseinChala,,an skirt
designs that share a strong look while offeringas
much choiceto the customer as possible.This chapter
When it comes to presentingyour concepts,
remember that clarity is key-there is no point in
was designed around a
V b Communicating
Presentyour designs in an
garments. Ifyou are studying
at college,you could even
take your presentationa step
further by photographing
your designs at the end-of-
You shouldtry to present
your designswith maximum
creative impact.This dress
was inspiredby film and
theater postersfrom the
1940s,and the concept is
reflectednot only inthe
dress itself but also in
aspects such as the
dancing pose of the figure
and the spotlight effect
createdby spray paint used
promotetheir designs at shows I
inthe hopethat one of these
eventswill catapultthem to
creatingsuperb designs if no one can understandthe
illustrations.This chapter explains howto support your
creative illustrationswith flat working drawings and
howto build a professional-lookingpresentation
board, It also shows how every aspect of the
presentation-from the style of drawingto the poses
of the figures-can work togetherto communicate
your vision with maximumimpact.
will giveyou the tools you needto create and illustrate
designs, as well as the confidenceto set off on your
career as a fashion designer,Your most important
assets are an open mrndand a pairof fresh eyes; and
remember,as you venture intothis highly competitive
yet rewardingbusiness,that fashion design should
How to use this book
Fallowing the format of a college course, this book i!
divided intotwenty-four units,each one lookingat
Pages 14-19 in "Finding inspiration" contain an inspirationfile, a unit, and a
an aspect of the illustrationof fashion design.The units
showcase,and providea good illustrationof the structureof the book.
are grouped intofour chapters, so you progress
logicallyfrom finding inspirationto using illustration
techniquesto planninga collectionto presentingyour
ideas.Throughout the book, "inspirationfiles" provide
background informationon topics approached in the
units.Each unit sets a projectto complete, definingthe
objectiveand describing exactly howyou go about
achieving it.Answering the "self-critique"questionswill
helpyou assess what you havedone, and you can
also compareyour work to the designs in the
"showcase"that completes each unit and presents
successfulinterpretationsof the project.
The inspiration file givesan overview of the topic of finding inspiration.
1Where to start
The project inthe first unit isto visit a museum,introducing
the readerto methodsof developinga source.
I Visitinga museum I
imagesthat could inspirefashion
design; the captions suggest how.
"The process" provides a
completing the project.
The showcase displayssuccessful interpretations of the brief.
project," a brief statement of
the task, "the objective," a
summaryof its aims, and a
sketchbooks show how ideas
Finalillustrationsby other .
which you could have
approached the project.
Assessing your work
Whetheryou are a student enrolled in a courseor
simply working through this book on your own at
home, it is essentialto keep reviewingyour working
practice.You will not progress unlessyou look at your
work critically,assessingwhether you have achieved
what you set out to do.
When you start to be artistically creative it is often
difficultto judge whether what you havedone is any
good.Oddly,what tends to happen isthat studentsare
far too self-critical and fail to spot when they are on to a
winning idea. Itis alwaysworth pursuingsomething
that you knowworks for you. However,you also need
to be able to ruthlesslyfilter out the ideas that are not
working.At first,you may lean heavilyon the opinion of
people such as tutors, but there will come a time when
you know enough about yourself and your designsto
select for yourself what works and what doesn't.
Inthis bookyou are askedto carry out a self-critique
on each project. Don't be too hard on yourself, but
think honestly about whether your work has succeeded
in the ways indicated by the questions. Here are some
tips to helpyou with your self-assessment:
Allow yourself to learn.
Don't worry if atfirst
your work seemsvery
influenced by the styles
of others. It is through
imitationthat you will
howto makethe best
use of the techniques.
a Don't worry if an
experimentfails. A good
designer is always
curious, always pushing
the boundaries.It is
only through trial and
error that truly original
for havingthe nerveto
go beyondthe obvious
and ask yourself what
you have learnedfrom
others. Some people
will loveyour work,
others will hate it-all
you can do istry to
betrue to your
own special take
on the world.
Muchof the design might give up without
process hasto do with any appreciationof
Don't betoo fixed in
self-disciplineso judge their efforts. Even a
your definition of
your work honestly. throwawaycomment
"success," as this will
You should work freely from a friend such as,
1' close off avenues
andtreasureyour "Icouldn't have drawn
opened up by a happy
rough ideas (they are that," will spur you on
accident. So long as
often more exciting to new successes.
you knowwhat the rules
than an overworked
are, it can befun to
concept), but you Don't be discouraged
needto know which if other designersor
ones to reject. members of your class
seem to be producing
e Showyour work to . betterwork than you-
family andfriends, just concentrateon
and accepttheir developingyour own
compliments.The most uniquestyle.
Pay attentionto your
instinct about what you
have produced, and
don't try to judge it
through the eyes of
People often wonder how fashion designers manageto come up with so many
marvelous new ideas.The truth is that these ideas are rarely completely new:
designers create by reinventingthe world around them. This chapter will show you
how to develop designs from almost any inspirationalsource, whether you are
exploring the world of fine art or the buildings of your town, Indianculture or the
familiar objects in your home and garden.
4 This dress by
Yves Saint Laurent
work of Mondrian:
Where to start
One of the most daunting aspects of creativity is being faced with a blank page, but luckily ideas don't
haveto be spirited out of thin air.A mistakeoften made by newfashion students is to design a series of
individual garments that have no discerniblesource of inspirationand no cohesive "look."However,once
you have establishedatheme, a multitudeof related ideaswill come tumbling onto your page.
Inspirationfor design themes can befound
everywhere,whether your source is a seashell
on a beachor a splendid skyscraper,the fun of
the fair or the Carnivalat Rio. If you research
well, your topic will automaticallyinfluence
your garment ideas; for example, the theme of
a circus or fairground is likelyto produce a
colorful,flamboyant look. With an inquiring
mind almostanything cantrigger a creative
spark.Thetrick is to beableto selectthe best
routeto follow. As a commercialdesigneryou
will haveyour customer in mindfrom the
outset, and self-indulgentflights of fancy may
becausethey are all aware of the broad
trends. (However,designing from a completely
off-the-wallangle has also produced some
of fashion's greatestmoments.)
Although nothing dates morequickly than
fashion, lookingto the pastfor inspiration often
produces great results.A whole era can
becomean inspiration,andthe popularity of
different erastends to wax and wane in cycles.
Oneyear stylesfrom the 1950smight be in
fashion; the next it's a '70s look that's popular.
Designsthat were the height of fashion
becomethe object of derision, only to
reemergea generationlateras "must have"
articles; wide-flared,low-risetrousers are
haveto take a backseat.As a student, however,
the furthest extremes can, and should, be
explored. Anything can bewatereddown; it is
much harderto spice up something dull.
I A designershould alwayshaveafinger on !
the pulse of the time: musictrends, street
of structuressuch as
the Chrysler Building
can be capturedin a
skirt,or add dangling
culture,fllms, fine art movements. It IS no
coincidence that each fash~onseason has a
discernible look; differentdesignersoften
produce similar color rangesand silhouettes
(the outline shapes of completeensembles)
4 b Global icons
Glve adeslgn a 1950s
feel by incorporatingthe
Cadlilac'stall flns (left)
(rlght)are also lconlc
have a strlkingeffect
inspired many iconic shapes-
think football shirts and Dynasty
shoulder pads. Cycling Lycra
produced a whole newfashion
concept (skintight garments in
bright colors), as did sailing weal
the synthetic waterproof clothing
by Tommy Hilfiger.
Chrysler Building in NewYork make it a superb
example of an artistic endeavor that could
easily inspire garment design. Hollywood
moviescan also start fashiontrends; The Great
Gatsby and the MadMaxseries popularized,
respectively, 1920sflapper dresses and
the "road warrior" look that combines punk
Your opportunities for exploring themes are
unlimited.You can research ideas by visiting
museums or wanderingthrough a city to draw
and take photographsyourself, or you can
absorb the paintings, sculptures,films,
photography,and books createdby other
people.The Internetis a great source of
informationthat can be accessedfrom your
home or college.
The knack of working with inspiration is to
avoid trying to absorb too much at once. Being
selectivewith your research and disciplined in
developingjust a few well-chosenthemes will
helpyou produce a focused rangeof designs
that hold together as a collection.
Patternsand styles basedon ethnic ideas A Cherry-pick ideas
are recycledagain and again by designers. )riceyou havethoroughly researchedyour source,you
Oneseasonthey might work with the weaves I can choose the aspectsthat attractyou mostto include in
of LatinAmerican Indians;nextyear they might
your designs.YOUmay decide to incorporatethe complex
feature the prints of certainAfricantribes. color scheme, zigzag patterns,and layeredlookof
clothesworn by Peruv~anQuechuawomen; alternatively,
Fashionoften draws on other forms of art
it may bethe trailing coat of a circus clown or a highly
for inspiration.The art deco magnificence, ornate Carnival costume, reminiscentof tropical birds
glistening reflections,and lofty symmetryof the andflowers,that inspiresyou
wear used for
as ice hockey
Visiting a museum
Museums can sometimesseem dull or dumbed downto cater to with scale,enlarginga detail and reducingthe size of the piece as a
schoolchildren.Don't be put off; a single collectionof antiquities whole. Don't restrictyourselfto looking at historicalclothesjust
could keep a designer in ideasfor a lifetime.Borrowing and adapting becauseYou are designing garments, Inspirationcan come from
ideasfrom the past IS notjust acceptable infashion design, but ceramics,Sculpture,jewelry, calligraphy, and even just from the
an essentialway of obtaining raw materials.When you first visit a ambienceof the gallery.
museum,it is best to spend at least half a day getting a general You do not need to take along allyour crayons and paintswhen
overview of the exhibits.Take the time to find objects that inspireyou. It you visit a museum. Make plentyof notes in
is only by looking morecloselyat a piecethat its detailsand subtleties your sketchbook so that you can
become clear, and only when you draw it can you be surethat you are developyour ideas when you are back
truly observingit.Your sketchbookwill then provideyou with hundreds at home or inthe studio.
of starting points for planninga collection.Think both big and small;
look at the overall shape of the object and also at the tiny detail. Play
Visit a museumand browse until you find an areathat
inspiresyou. Make notesand observationalsketches
coveringseveral interestingsubjects.Then select atheme
to inspire a small collection of garmentsthat obviously
reflects its source. Completefour finished design
drawingsat home or in your studio.
Select a source that inspiresyou.
@ Makejudgments and choices before putting
pencil to paper.
Learnto observean object carefully.
Adapt designsfrom the pastto creatework that is
b An ancientsource
The monumentalstatues Inthe
: collect~onof Egypt~anant~qultles
1 at the Br~t~shMuseum~nLondon
offer the enterarlslnafash~on, -student ideas about features
SI lch an headrlranses and---. . -- . .----.----- -. .-
jewelry, as well as more general
stylizationtips.Haveyou looked closely at its detail?
Haveyou noted its overall look?
Were your drawings usefulto work from?
Doyour finaldrawings-reflectthe source?
4 Fashionsof the past
You can referto historical
picturesfor intriguingimages of
in past times.The color palettes
representationof Ancient Egypt
can be usedto ignite ideasfor
museum or visit a
Spend at least half a
day browsing before
selectingwhat you want
to concentrateon. Fill
several pages of your
sketchbook with color
notes, doodles, and quick
sketchesof objects and
details relatingto an area
that interestsyou. Then
I choose a suitablesource
(a single object or small
numberof objects that
you find inspirational)
and make at leastten
I quick drawings on site of
all its different aspects.
drawings and on minute
4 Bold reworking
notes made on site can be
to gold and jewels,
eyes are mixedboldly,giving
a modernfeel to the work.
I Back at home or in the
studio, startworking on
lour color palette (see
page 104) and explore
the possibilities of shape,
exaggeratingsome of the
lines, blocks, and planes
in your drawings, and
aspects of the source that
jou have noted in your
colors, outline, mass,
fashion designs. Draw
)ut some rough ideas
for garments, and then
add color. Finally,
A T Fabric ideas
Papyrus (above) has an interesting
texture, and the
charms inthe form
of fish, shells, and
striking print motifs.
ood boards, p. 26
B Color palettes, p. 104
ideas, p. 40 ? - =
Ir- *--- ---Ts-A--ws
VISITING A MUSEUM
Exploringa sourcethrough sketches
and work~ngdrawings enables
fashion designersto identify what
reallyexcitesthem about the topic-
whether ~tIS a strik~ngcolor
combinat~on,the elegant shape of a
vase, or a detail of a fastening in an
old paintrng The illustrations prctured
hereexplore and enlarge on the
theme of Ancient Egypt,reflectingthe
source's historicalbackground and at
the same t~meforming a series of fresh
and dynamic original creations The
draw~ngsall echothe salrent features of
the source and as a result have natural
cohesionas a collection The consistency
of the lim~tedcolor palettefurthers the
impressionthat the designs were planned
as a collectionfrom the outset
A Fullof life
Thoughthe drawings are
unconstrainedand free, full
of lifeand movement.
of their inspiration,the
illustrationsare executedin a
very light and modern way.
Old and new
The effect of these drawings
is avibrant mix of ancient
and modern.The work is
of Ancient Egypthas been
brought intoa modern
context, not only through a
~llustrat~onbut also by
the very h~gh-heeledshoes
The color paletteof gold,
black, pink, and blue used in
the illustrationsis consistent
bothwith the source and
withinthe group of designs
as awhole. This increases
the impressionthat the
pieceswere planned as a
collectionfrom the start.
It may seem a little surprisingto use buildings as inspirationfor clothes. Bulldingdesigr
is obviously meant for a long visual life,whereasfashion in clothes changeswith each
season.However,bothforms arethree-dimensionaland structured,andwhether it is in
the overalltheme of a building or just a detail, usefulideas arethereto befound. Agood
designer needsto be a constant observer and lateralthinker. If you set outto investigate
architecture, you will discovera wealth of interestingtextures, subtle colorways,and
strongdesign features, which reflecttherr source but also emergeas design concepts
intheir own right.
Whether you choose to study a historicalbuilding likea church, a famous modern
landmark,or evenyour own home, ideaswill emerge if you observeyour source closely.
The reflectiveglass of a skyscraper might suggestthe useof a shimmeringmodern
fabric; the peelingpaint of an old beachhut could stimulateyou to create a look
incorporatingripped layers.Alternatively, letthe arcaded columns adorningthe
LeaningTower of P~saevoke intricatesleeve details or bodice lacework.The
perspectivelines of a building often provokeideasabout outline-think howthe
GuggenheimMuseumcould suggest a billowingblouseor the art deco stylizationof
the Chrysler Buildingmight be incorporatedinto a tiered silhouette.
b Bold statements
The LeanlngTower of P~sa,
Think in generalabout the sort of architecturethat could the Svdnev O ~ e r aHouse,
spark some design ideas. Select a building and make 1 the La Bocawaterfrontof
extensive drawings in your sketchbook. Highlightthe
elements (suchas overallshape, design details, and
surroundings)that get you thinking. Take photographs.
Then make photocopies of your researchandwork into
them using paint, crayon, and ink. Distillthese ideasto
illustratefour design ideas.
a Practiceobserving meticulouslyeverything
a Makejudgments about the elements you want to use
in your designs andthose you chooseto reject.
a Useone form of creative work to create another.
) BuenosAires, and a glass
examples of architecture that
4 First fashion ideas
Useyour flrst rough drawlngsto explore the shape of the
bulldlngas a whole The fashlon parallels, such as a long
flared dress or sklrt silhouette, will become apparent
4 V Deconstruction
bulldlngIn depth Exploring the
__._ - _.-$ jolntlng detalls, for example, may
different parts of your garmentswill
f~ttogether Try to match the colors
and textures of your photographic
researchso that your fabrlc ideas
reflect the source, too
By makingthese choices
Start by lookingthrough you will soon learnto
architectural magazines. discernwhat is of useto
YOU, go your photographsand suspensionbridge
out with a sketchbook sketches, whichyou might hav6become
and camerato select a canthenwork intowith cords supporting a
building and record its paint, crayon, and ink, silk bodice inyour
shapeand'details. Look alteringthe image by reworkingof the
at stairwells, elevator manipulatingcertain concept-provided that
shafts,windows, doors, elementsto create thejourney from source
decoration, colors, and somethingpersonal to conclusion is mapped
textures, aswell as at the to you. Finally, combine out inyour research.
building's surroundings, elementsintofour
too. Take photographsto originalfashiondesigns.
capturethe whole picture It doesn't matterif the
and makesketches to resultis a million miles
highlightthe elements awayfromyour starting
you want to remember. point-the cables of a
;* Haveyou transformedone type of three- .- r .
dimens~onaldesign into another?
A fresh look at the familiar
When discussing how fashion designers and illustratorswork, people oftenwonder
where all the ideas come from. How can a designer produce such a volume of original
work each season, apparently out of thin air?The answer, of course, is that it does not
just appear as if by magic but comes from the systematic development of ideasoften
triggered bythe everydayworld that surrounds us
As a designeryou will learnhowto look anew andto investigatethese concepts in an original
at commonplaceobjects and themes, and see way. An exciting personal approachto a smallest detail
inthem possibilitiesfor inspiration and conceptwill add a uniqueflavor to a design.
creativity. Oncethis is understood,the mystery With time, you mayfind yourself revisiting photographyor drawing
is explodedand you can see howthe world certain ideasand images.This is perfectly
you not~cetiny deta~ls,suchas splrals andswirls,
aroundyou offers an endlesssourceof acceptableso long as you are ableto find an thatvou can useto aood effect ~nvour des~ans.- -
imaginativepotential. original interpretationof your theme
This huge rangeof choice may appear for each rangeof designs, and it is
somewhat daunting atfirst, but you will soon part of the naturaldevelopmentof
rdevelopthe ability to be selectivewith your your own recognizabledesign style.
starting points, based on their potentialvalue As well as being of interestto
to you as a source of inspiration.The key is to you, it is important that your sources
use imagesthat truly interestand inspire you, incorporatevariousfactors that you
4 A The naturalworld
can be derivedfrom something
as mundaneas peelingrust
or the skeletonof a leaf,and
the undulatinglinesof freshly
into stripes on a billowingblouse.
A The treasures
artifactsdo you have
at an heirloomor a
and richtones, are
agreat source of
will be able to use later in your designs. The
ollowing aspects should be considered:
colors and how they are combined; texture;
proportion; shape; volume; details; and
decoration. Your starting point should satisfy
your creative interest on as many of these
levels as possible. You can then use your
A Take a chance on me
Fashionruns in cycles; popbands such as ABBA and
the clothesassociatedwith them are constantlygoing
in andout of fashion.What "outdated"styles can be
materialto create mood boards (see page 26),
which will provide a focus for the further
development of selected aspects of your
research and help you to be disciplined in
designing garments based on a few well-
chosen and targeted themes.
A Popular culture
Streetart makesawonderfulcontrastto the natural
world. Bright colors can inspirefantastic print ideaswith
evocative of the culture
fromwhich it originates,
set of colors,images,
essence of an
Creating a mood board is great fun and will help
you be selectivewith the researchyou have
gathered.This is the first stage of organizing your
thoughts and collected images,enablingyou to
channelyour creative excitementtoward a cohesive
and targeted design outcome. Mood boards are made
by arranging images and color ideas on a large board
so that you can see at a glance howyour designs
might evolve.They vary in their complexity but, as the
name suggests, mood boards should always capture
the mood or flavor of your design project,as well as
reflectingyour target customer.
In grouping your researchedimages you will haveto
make decisionsabout editing and prioritizingyour
selection,as well as confirmingyour season and color
palette.Colors should reflect your chosen season-
soft pastelswill suggest a summer story,for example-
but whatever the season, the color palette should be
applied consistentlythroughoutthe project.
Select a theme and a season for your work, and consider
who your target customer might be. Gather together all
your research material. Usinga 20 x 30-in. illustration
board as a base, arrangeand gluetogetherthe strongest
images, and combine them with a color paletteor fabric
swatches to make a collage.Also include imagesfrom
currentfashion magazinesthat suit your chosentheme.
Build a mood board that reflectsthe essence of your
Prioritizeimagesfrom your collated research.
Reflectyour target customer and chosenseason.
Bringtogether creative inspiration and current
Finalizea color palette.
Create a mood board that summarizes your chosen
4 Color samples
to helpyou selectaharmonious
groupof colorsfor your palette.
Avoid includingmorethan eight
shades ineachpalette or your
designs may becomeconfused
4 Magazine cuttings
Ifyou already haveideasaboutthefabrics
that youwill usefor your final designs,include
keepthe presentationclean,simple,and neat.
- I createaan easy referencetool to use
1 sketching your rough ideas?
Have you reflectedyour season and
Haveyou finalized your color palette?
e Haveyou usedthe most important ima
e Haveyou summarizedyour theme?
4 Test the colors
imagestigether to identify
the key shades and best
color combinationsto evoke
V Think laterally
design concepts. Here,the
color and cawing of an
ornate pictureframe is
I embroideredfabric and athe process
Researcha theme that
itemssuch as postcards,
from this researchwill
helpyou focus on what is
important in the project.
web sitessuch as
designers' web sites.
Also gather imagesto
reflectthe season and
your target customer
(see pages94 and 98).
you what size of board
suits you best, but try
starting with a 20 x 30-in.
boardthat allows room
for lots of images as well
as swatches of yarns and
fabrics, and any wording.
Handwritingon a mood
board usually looks
4 Refine your choice
Layout allyour gathered
researchmaterial so that you
can compare the imagesand f
selectwhich to useonyour
mood board. 7
letteringor output copy
from a computer.
This is a good time to
try putting together a
color paletteto include
)nyour board, using
chips from the standard
color reference books
produced by Pantone,or
cuttings from magazines
(for more informationon
working with color
palettes, see page 104).
Avoid including images
that are not appropriate
for your selectedcolors,
becausethey will detract
from the overall effect.
Ensurethat all the
imagesare cut out simply
1 and stuck down neatly. It
is the imagesthat should
grab the attentionand not
, the manner in which you
Simplest is always best.
3ating a cohesivecollection, p
Customer focus, p. 94
Occasions, seasons, budgets, p.
Color palettes,p. 104
successfulmood board, likethose pictured here,
A h a s a uniquepersonality.~texpressesthe essence
of the design ideasand sums up the theme as well
as reflectingpracticalconcernssuch as the season
and the target customer.As the board is built up,
combining inspirationalitemswith picturesfrom
magazines and informationabout upcoming styles,
creativethemes are marriedwith current fashion
trends. Inthis way, mood boards provideafocus for a
creativeyet commercialdesign solution.
The very act of deciding which imagesto include
will help a designer narrowdown and develop his or
her ideas.As key ideas become prioritized,a clear
thought process evolvesand the job of producing .:
designsthen becomes much simpler.The finished -'
mood board shouldtell its own distinct story-being
disciplined about creatingonly one board per project
keepscreative efforts focused.
The classicaltheme of these boards has been inspired by the
textures and forms of sculpture.A muted color palette,derived
from the colors of marble. helpsto evoke a timelessand
4 Seaside nostalgia-
This board combines the unlikely
themesof the seaside andvintage
dress (particularlydress associated
with travel).The final collectionwas
called 'A '20sTrip to the Seaside."
4 Summer colors
. A h~gh-summerdecorat~vetheme has
i been createdInth~smood board
_ through an eclectic mix of colorful
images.This selectioncould be
narrowed down further stillto focus on
artists,florals, or decorativetilework.
P Cohesive color theming
Imagesfrom fashion magazinescan
sit happilywith researchmaterial.
Here,folds of fabrics in shadesof
greencreatea common identity.
A A feminineapproach
Thistonal paletteof colors evokes a
Brownand neutraltones establisha sophisticated mood.
. . . - - - : . .
The traditions of India
Inthis age of global branding, it can be refreshingto turn to non-Westerncultures in
search of inspiration.lndia is a great example of a culture that preservesa strong
identity in the modernworld becauseit is still very much connected to itstraditional
roots.The wonderfully vibrant colors and intricate shapes of lndia are a marvelous
5 sourceof design ideas,whether drawn from the brilliant shades of the spices and
printedfabrics, or ornate gold jewelry, or cloth woven with tiny mirrors,or the patternsI
of hennahandtattoos. These colors and shapes have been part of lndian culture for
! . centuries and continueto be preserved by lndian communitiesaroundthe world, so
i. you should have no problem gatheringyour research.
!. By drawing on a sourcethat is strongly traditionalyou ensurethat your materials
never date-because thev are not subiect to the whims of fashion.As a
design student, you should explore as many cultures as possible;
youwill uncover a treasure trove of designs that with only
minor adjustmentsof scale or color can produce
This project is a great opportunityto express
yourself-so be as flamboyantas you like! Later in the
courseyou will be considering issues such as customer
profileand budget, so now is the time to explore some
wilder flights of design fancy.
Researchlndian culturefrom as manysources as
possible. Gather lndian items,find fabric swatches, take
photographs, and makedrawings and collages. Fill
twenty pagesof your sketchbook with all sorts of
gathered researchas well as your own work. Then start
working into these found items, exploringthe colors and
shapes you might want to use in your designs. Restrict
yourselfto four finalized design drawings.
The fabulous architecturefound
Researchlndian culture to draw on the design ideas
of a non-Westernculture.
in lndia is an excellent source of
creative ideas.The dome of the
Taj Mahalmight suggest the full
curveof a bodice, whilethe
intricateinlaythat covers its
marblewallswould create a
stunninqeffecttraced in silver-
Put an original spin on these ideas. thread on an eveninggown.
Achieve an interesting mix of cultural influences
in your work.
74 Legendsof the gods
I In lndiayou are never far from the Howwell havevou researchedlndian culture?
I Hindugods and goddesses, Haveyou matched
whose storiesare depicted
1 cards and in countlessfilms and B$ DOyour finished dra
' songs You may be lnsplredby the on the source or are they just derivative? 1
gaudy colors, the kohl-darkened
I eyes. or the anclent dress of these
typically lnd~anImages I r E . ~ ~ r - ~ ~ C F P F P - t P P - - ~ ~ ~ ~SZP-
Research lndian culture
by visiting museums,
libraries, shops, markets,
and temples. Talk to
people, buy postcards,
take photographs, and
makewritten as well as
sketched notes. Look for
mirrored bags, spice
samples, religious icons,
and makeup designs.
Listento lndian music
and watch lndian films.
Immerse yourself totally
inthe research and fill .
your sketchbook with
swatches, and any style
paint, crayon, and ink. Try
to match colors by mixing
paints to achieve the
perfect tone. This is
harder than you might
imagine, so experiment
with color combinations.
Try different effects, using
chalk, transparent paint
washes, or crayons
applied lightly over dried
paint, to achieve the color
and texture of your
source material. (When
matching colors you may
Delicategoldjewelry or the
textiledesign, perhaps using
also find it helpful to refer A Street life
to the numbered Pantone , Heapsof fresh producefor sale Inastreet market may lnsprreyou
color chips. See page to try to matchthe glowrngtones of eggplant,or perhapsto
104for more details.)
rncorporatethe shape of a corrander leaf rntoyour deslgns
directions you may wish I Finally, complete four
to follow. / fashion drawings inspired
V Fillyour scrapbook
Once you havesome , by your research. Try to
Visiting a museu Organrzeyour researchby makrngyour sketchbookIntoa
ideas, start working Into ' give them an overall look,
Mood boards, p. scrapbook andfrllrng rtwrth as muchcolorful,stlmulatlng
your research as before, perhaps through a materralas you can Gather photographs,textual
first highlighting and uniform color scheme or lnformatron,fabrrc samples, Imagesfrom magazrnes,and
then manipulating the silhouette theme. any other desrgnreferencesthat rnspireyou, suchas
inspiring elements with examples of lndranscrrpts As you arrangeyour research.
youwrll begrnto assemblea moodconceptandformulate
a color palette
Designs inspired by traditional Indiandress might be looseand flowing, or involve
the clever use of wrapping and layeringas seen in turbans and saris.The color
scheme maywell be boldly vibrant, reflectingthe richtones of the source material.
When exploringan ethnic source, it is important to gather as many culturalreferences
as possibleso that the sketchbook research and mood inspirationgels intowork that
retainsthe distinctivefeel of the subject matterwithout being derivative.Traditional,
non-Westerncultures offerthe designer awonderful sourceof fabric, silhouette,and
embellishment ideas. However,a successfuldesignwill always put a new spin on
these traditionalideas, perhapsmeldingthem in an original way or incorporating
contemporaryinfluencesto create an original concept out of an ancient design.The
- collection pictured here strongly reflects its culturalstarting
pointwhile remaining essentially multiculturalin feel.
A b Embellishment
The useof found items
such as leaves,flowers,
and beads collaged onto
the imagesgives an
evocative textured feel to
A b Fusionfashion
textures and colors of Indiainto a
altogether.The rich, patterned
fabrics and swirlingskirts clearly
reflect the Indiansource,and the
Western-style low-cut bodice
contributesto the modern feel of
A A free-spirited collection
The illustrateddesignswere finally made up into
finished garments (with some changesto the
color palette) and photographed. Care was
taken inthe styling of the shoot to give the
collection a flowing,free-spiritedfeel: a
fashion photograph does not haveto betoo
representational,but it should conveythe spirit
of the designer's vision.
Fine art and graphics
An importantareafor the fashion student to explore
is print design, and one of the best sources of
inspirationfor this is the world of fine art.A print
designer should be ableto imitatethe structure and
style of a painting, and keeptrue to its color palette.
Twentieth-century modernistpainting provides
especially rich material, as the fresh brushwork and
bright colors lendthemselves very well to print
designs. painters favored by textile designersinclude
Dufy (whowas himselfalso a print designer),
Mondrian, Kandinsky,Mir6, Matisse, and Picasso.
An alternativesource is public domain graphic ,;
material.This is easily accessibleas, for example, .'
books or as clip-art images,available free throughthe
Internet.Great results can be achieved by adapting
and coloringthese illustrations.
There are no rules about which motifscan be best
repeated-in fashion print anj~thinggoes! However,if
designing a printfor a specific garment,you needto
considerthe cut of the fabric. Printsfollowthe fabric's
grain,so cutting fabric on the bias (diagonallyto the
grain) will reorientthe print.Also, a "one-way"print,
where motifs are aligned in one direction, has less
cutting flexibilitythan an "all-ways"print.
Choose either fine art or graphic materialas your source.
Forthe first approach, try to imitatethe style of a painting
that you like and design five textile print patterns.Forthe
second, reworkyour source materialby photocopying,
enlarging, and adding marksto createa squaredesign for
a headscarf. Try at least three colorways (i.e. makethree
versionsof the design in different combinations of colors).
Observe in detail the source material, noting colors,
Experimentwith scale and coordination.
* If you choosethe scarf option, discover how a change
of colorway can alter the dynamic of a design.
Ifyou decide to design
the print patterns,
of paintingsthat you think
convert into a repeatable
print idea. Chooseone
picture, and observeits
various sections and
details.Then design at
leastfive prints. Try to
work in the style of
the artist, taking care
to usethe same density
of color and similar
handling of paint or
crayon. Itcan be
with differentscales of
shape and alsoto make
4 Creatingart from art
The strong shapes and colors in
the work of painterssuch as
Mondrianlend themselves very
readilyto print design. Here,key
aspects of the original painting
were abstractedto achievea
design that refers recognizably
to its sourceyet is itselfa unique
architecture,p. 20 I
two or more designs
designs comefrom the
samesource, there is
a good chancethat
they will coordinate
designing both "one-
way" and "all-ways"
prints. You will be
low many great print
~deascan come from just
Forthe scarf project,
select your graphics and
make creativeuse of a
blow imagesright up so
that the edges begin to
fragment, giving an
iyou makethe painting or graphic your own by
using it in an unexpectedway?
Didyou experimentwith scale and coordination? -
Are your colorways balanced?
cut out shapes and
arrangethem in several
ways, differingthe scale.
These images can be
juxtaposed withfine lines
or other markings.Also
are satisfied, commit
yourself to a design. Stick
images, and photocopy
them severaltimes to
work on your chosen
colorways.You can then
work into the designs
with paint, crayon, and
ink. It is often best not to
usetoo manycolors; by
simplify the processof
balancing colors.You will
see that makingdifferent
colorwaysof the same
design can achievevery
4 Buildinga design
from graphic materialto
rough printdesign, The
sketcheswere madeto test
the design and the color
1 then arranged inthe
chosen design,which was
photocopied to allowfor the
use of differentcolorways.
The lines, shapes,and patternsof existingworks of art and graphics can provide
great inspirationfor fashion designers.There isn't a painting in the world that
couldn't be made to yield ten print designs,and the potentialfor manipulatinggraphic
material is endless.The key to success in the first part of the project-using fine art to
create print design-is to observe the works in great detail and imitate closelythe
style and techniquesof the painter.Intheir bold geometric lines,the print patterns
shown here have a clearly recognizablesource in paintings by Dufy and Mondrian,
while being at the same time original designs.
The different colorways of the scarf designs demonstratehow dramatically a new
color palette changesthe look of a piece. It is often best not to usetoo many colors;
restrictingthe color palette simplifiesthe processof balancingcolors and makes it
easier to achieve a strong statement.
4 t Repeating the motifs
Here,thework of Dufyand Mondrianhas been usedto
createa collectionof print designs.Just by taking one
small p e t of a paintingand replicatingit aroundthe
page, a familiar artworkcan be reinterpretedintoa
The scarf printswere made in
different combinations of colors,
demonstrating how much a simple
alteration in coloring can change the
lookof a design.
A An integrateddesign
The finalscarf print has been slightlyalteredin minordetailsbut still
reflects clearly itsjourney from individualgraphic motifsto
integrateddesign.The individualcomponents have beenblown up
or reduced in scale, using a photocopier,to produce an interesting
divergencein line strength.
One simple way to see something in a fresh light is to experiment with its
scale. If a small part of a commonplace object is blown up to a much
larger scale, it will appear new and instead of being boring and familiar
might becomethe source of creative ideas. It is this sort of in-depth
consideration of a source that puts an individual stamp on your work. IA Take a
p items canprovoke
- interestingseam detail
could bebasedon theway
By describing the details of an imageor object
in a much largerscale-through drawing,
photography,embroidery, or using a
photocopier-you will havealready startedthe
creative process.When experimentingwith
scale inthis way, it is usefulto try to abstract
the elementsthat most interestyou, instead
of aiming simply to create a realistic
representationof your topic. For example, a
close-upof insectwings may inspireyou to
createsome original color combinations or
scale-likepatterns.Letyour series of drawings
or photographsevolve to becomeincreasingly
abstract.This process of selection and
developmentis important-you are on your
way to creating a uniquedesign solution
inspired by your research.
Ask yourselfwhy you are attractedto the
imagesyou havechosen:what is it about
pebbles or snowflakesthat interestsyou?The
A b Unexpected beauty
Some man-madeobjects are
seen upclose.This circuit
beadingor textured knitwear.
4 Inspired by science 1 1
magazinesare agood source
iridescentwing could be
1 4 A Natural
answerwill point your developmentsin the
rightdirection;this is what you should try to
captureas you abstract out the important
elementsof your research. Inthis way,
somethingas ordinary as paint peelingfrom a
wall will becomea wonderful mineof ideasfor
layersof textureand color-and you will start
to seethat wallthrough the eyes of a designer.
Natureis an endless
sourceof shapes and
folds of a red cabbage
Smooth black pebbles
could be investigated
their subtletexture and
flecks of contrasting
colors, or seen as a
L arour, of similarly
Repetitiveman-made 'IIn the grain
patternscan inspireprint Wood grain providesanotherexampleof nature's
designs; looka littlecloser ability to generatebeautifuland uniquepatterns.
and layersof rust or Here,the weather has also played its part by
discolorationmay evoke causing interestingcracks,which might be evoked
ideas aboutfabric layering. in a design through printing,pleating, or gathering.
Designing fabric ideas
V Rapid research
Photographyisagreatway to quicklygather useful
focusyour mindon texture andlinear pattern,
whereas color photographycan provideyouwith a
good startingpointfor your color palette.
The close examlnatlon of the surface detallof your
source of lnsplrationcan stimulate excltlng ~deas
about textures and colors,whlch will influenceyour
cho~ceof fabrlcs Insteadof relylngon fabr~csthat you
can buy,you mlght dec~dethat you want to deslgnyour
owntextiles, using methods such as embroidery,
dyelng, knitting, or printing These or~glnaltext~lescan
then be ~ncorporatedIntotruly uniquegarment
deslgns As a general rule,when you let your ornate
textlle Ideastake the lead,your garment des~gns
should become slmpler to let the beautyof the fabrlc
be seen and appreciated
Choosea theme that allows the examination of detail and
would be suitableto inspire interestingtextile ideas.
Exploreyour conceptthrough drawings or photography.
Usea mood board to helpyou select a color paletteand
finalizeyour fabric ideas. Choosethe strongesttextile the process
concepts and let them inspire some simple fashion Choosea promising
designsthat display the fabric ideas in their best light. theme to research; an old
graveyard, for example,
offers many interesting
the objective texturaldetails such as
Selectan appropriate starting pointfor
railings,and layered photographs, scanning
-, view your subject as an
will helpyou focus on
Expandyour ideas about creatingdifferentfabrics.
leaves. Photographyis a imagesinto a computer shapesand textures.
Assess your strongestfabric conceptsto inspireyour
good way to gather and using software Consider howyour
rough fashion designs.
researchquickly. You can researchthemeswould
Photoshopto manipulate betranslated onto fabric.
SELF-CRITIQUE overallscene or in close- scale and color. You can embellishfabrics
Was your chosensource of inspirationsufficient1 up, and the very act of Grouptogether your through methodssuch
detailed to inspiretextile ideas? looking through the color photographs and as cutting, bleaching,
Haveyou expandedfrom the original starting point to viewfinderwill giveyou a createcolor palettesby painting, dyeing, printing,
createuniquetextile designs? fresh perspectiveon the selecting the important beading,or applique. You
Have YOU usedthe strongest t .---.. ...,- ~ r source. Then make shadesand identifying could even design an
ih garment designs? further sketcheseither on ideafor an entirely new
Isthere a good balancebetweenthe fashion and site or later inthe studio, combinations (see page textile, generatedthrough
textile elements of your designs? using the photographs 104). Alternatively, knitting, for example. Use
as reference.You can limiting yourself to black- a mood board as a focus,
=-------=-- also digitally edit the and-whitephotography gathering any trims,
A Creating a theme
Compilinga mood board will
materialwith fashion ideas.
All the selectedmaterial
beads, ribbons, or print
effects that you may wish
Finally, sketch some
fashion designs that
show off your textile
ideas to best advantage.
Remember that an
intricate fabric is often
best shown in a simple
A Simplicity in design
Simplify imagessuch as representations
of overlappingleavesdown to repetitive
patternsthat can be used ina decorative
way. These printswere inspiredby art
nouveau examples of leaf designs.
4 A Trying out ideas
Startto sketchyour rough
fabrlc ~deasthat reflectthe
shapesand patternsof your
researchmaterial Try placlng the
fabrlc concepts on a flgure In
different scales and proportions
Developing a fabric concept in conjunctionwith a garment design allows for total
I controlof the creative process-giving a designer the opportunityto produce a
! truly original collectionthat reflectsthe researchmaterial in a uniqueway. To give
designsa strong overall look,the inspirationof the sourceshould be shown in
differentways. For example, it is not just the surfacetreatment of the fabrics that
u ; strongly reflectsthe theme inthe garments illustratedhere-even the poses of the
figures are reminiscent of the graveyard source,
Here,the simplefashion shapes are a suitable vehicle for displayingthe fabric
ideas.When designersinvest a great deal of effort into creatinga beautifulfabric, they
tend to keepoutlines as simple as possible.An elaboratesilhouette combined with a
complextextile can leadto a confused overalleffect.Conversely,the illustrationof the
textile should not be so over-the-topthat it detractsfrom the silhouette.For clarity,
garment designs can always be presentedaccompanied by fabric swatches or
A Devore design W l
to burnthe design intothis store-purchasedsilkvelvet. 7
Starting with embroidery
The previous unit demonstratesthat fashion design
can be driven by fabric development.Inthe same
way, embroiderycan be used as the starting pointfor a
garment idea.You can draw on paintingsfor patterns
and shapes to develop intoembroiderydesigns.The
artist Gustav Klimt,for example, used intricateandI
~ ornate patterns,and hiswork would be an ideal
startingpointfor this exercise.You may haveyour own
preference,but be sureto choose a source that
containssufficient decorativeinformationto inspireyou
i throughoutyour investigations.Lookfor shapes and
patterns that can be simplifiedand adapted to your
own design ends.
As you incorporateyour embroideryideas into
garment designs,take your lead from the pages of
1 your fashion magazines,The size. amount.and
placementof embroideryused by designerstends to
I vary as fashion changesthroughthe seasons.
Select a work of art that you find inspiring. Explorethe
patterns,colors, and shapes of the chosen piece, using
scrapbook ideas, and fashion magazinecuttings. As you
work, gradually isolatesimple patternsand shapes that
are easily interpretedinto embroidery ideas, and use
these to inspire some rough fashion designs.
4 Patternand rhythm
Chooseworks that show astrong
sense of patternandrhythm, like
this painting by Gustav Klimt.The
swirlingshapesare idealto translate
4 A Widening
, magazinesto suppot?your
observationsof an artist'swork.
' Useasketchbookto abstract
out simplepatternsfrom your
I wrought-ironrailings providea
Select a suitable starting point for
Combinetextile and garment design by using intricate
ornamentationin a fashion context. I
Selectyour ideas inspire i ' Was vour chosen source of insairation suitablv detailedfor the develoamento
your fashion designs. - -fn;3;*e2*;Ts& .*.*."L - - = -
embroidery as well as fashion ideas? $1aL4aLUljlii;~~&q&gisf~%~
Did you let your decorativeconcept takethe lead in the garment des~gn,
intricateornamentationwith simple design?
HWC?you taken- the strongest id$,a~hr~ughto rough sketch sta
-- -*- I
Beginby looking at a
numberof your chosen
artist's works, but stay
focusedby editing down
the starting points. As
always, thejourney of
selectionis vitalto the
mightwish to combine
photographsof your own
that capturea similar
seriesof shapes and
patterns.This kind of
primaryresearch adds to
the originality of your
own interpretationsof the
work, evolvingthese into
patterns and shapes. Still
ideason paper, use
ideas. Echothe shapes
and patternsthat you
have observed. These
piecesare drawings in
themselves-done with a
than a pen!
Begin by using the
colors of your source
material, but feel free to
move away into your own
can be a productiveway
to give a newtwist to a
' Nowwork your
"mbroidery ideas into
some rough garment
a simple garment shape
will show off embroidery
to best effect. Pockets,
and cuffs can all be good
placesto site decoration,
or you might want to
be bolder and place a
design within the front
Ir back bodice or on a
Je usedonce or repeated
a number of times over
the garment, in a random
1 or engineeredpattern.
' V this stageyou should
f choice of colors and
1 makethe palette
appropriateto your target
1 customer (see page 94).
jeas to pull together as
hefinal fashion designs.
4 V Isolatingshapes
Drawingor paintingyour own interpretationsof
an artist'sworkwill encourage youto examine
your source materialclosely. Useyour
patterns,derived fromyour startingpoint.
C' P ~ W I OVisiting .iseum,
Fineart and graphics, p.
A Drawingwith a sewing machine
A sewlng mach~necan becomea toolfor
Idraw~ngHere colored paper has been
usedto experiment w~thcomb~nat~onsof
colorsand shapes - --
Embroideryideas can betranslateddirectly
onto fabric and usedwith fashion designs as
appropriate,or they can be developedfurther as print
ideas or texturesfor knittedstitches. It is possibleto
combine a number of thesetechniques,embroidering
intoa print idea or printing over a knit,for example.
It might bethat a collectioncontainssome garments
that are printedwhereas others are knittedor
embroidered-but they should all reflect,even if only
distantly,the essential elements of the initial research.
The four final garment designs illustratedhere
have evolved a longway from the initial starting point,
and referencesto Klimt have
become subtle.The finished
collection has beenshaped
by the designer's own
sense of style and reflects
the sourcewithout being
overwhelmed by it.
4 Beversatile 4 A rnemed outline
A set of simple patternscan The curvesand swirls of the
be used in manydifferent source material are reflected
ways. For example, inthe silhouettesof the
embroideryideas can be garmentsas well as intheir
echoed in knittedstructures embroidereddecoration.
or print designs.
V Communicating clearly
By showing the decorativedetail separately
fromthe garment itself,these four final
illustrations can make a strong statement
about both. Some of the embroideryideas
have beendevelopedfurther into knitted
textures.These designs have moved away
from the originalsource to become strong
concepts intheir own right.
4 'IUsing a template
of these garmentswere used
to finalize the placementof
Nowthat you have developedsome great design ideas, it'stime to look more
closely at the techniques of fashion illustration.This chapter discusses creating
figures, whether through an easy paper-foldingmethod or by drawingfrom life, as
well as exploring the wide range of mediathat you can use in illustratingdesigns
and looking at howto lay out your page effectively.Throughoutthis part of the
course, you will learnto observe carefully and to representwhat you see in a bold
area 0 0 Joints
As a fashion designer you should always rememberthat clothes
are madeto beworn by real people.It is important,therefore,to
gain some understandingof the structure and proportionsof the
The exercise in figure drawing described in There are obvious differencesinthe
Unit8 will introduce you to a simple and easy male and female forms, such as narrower
system that you can useto draw figures that waists and wider hips for females and
are roughly in proportion. The exercise has squarer chests and faces for men. However,
nothingto do with creativity but will helpyou these variationsshould be incorporatedonce
grasp the possibilities and restrictions of the
the basics have been sketched. Maleand
framework on which your creationswill hang. female bodies can both be broken down into
A Vitruvian Man
renownedfor his realistic
representationsof the human
body.He drewthis illustration
of a preciselyproportioned
figureto accompany his notes
on Vitruvius.This architect
wrote in Romantimes that the
human body is the ideal
it fits, with arms and legs
forms of both the square and
half heads .
The heightof a realistic human
figurefrom crownto toe is
the heightof the head. For
fashion purposes,this can be
stretched (belowthe waist only)
to eight-and-a-halfhead sizes.
I F ~simple block shapes. The head can
frayed as an egg; the chest as a
laper basket; the pelvic area as a wide
isticvaulting horse; the limbs astapering
--.,thefeet and hands as cones; and the
b a sballs. Onceyou havedrawnthese
Pbsinthe relativesizes shown (opposite),
~traighffowardfront view, you can move
fiaroundlike parts of awooden drawing
qmyto createthe poseyou want.
A b Exploring
A wooden artist's
dummy can helpyou
There is a convention infashion illustration When you come to draw from life, a grasp of
that afigure should be elongatedto give it these principles will helpyou enormously in
moreelegance. However,that elongation understandingthe mechanicsof the figure in
should involveonly the legs. A real-lifebody front of you. It is always good to rememberthat
will measure around seven-and-a-half-head these "rules" are just conventions,but by
sizes; in fashionthis increasesto eight-and-a- gaining a basic understandingof the structure
half heads, with the extralength added below and proportions of the human body you will be
the waist. All the other proportions of the basic better placedto breakthe rules later.
block shapesshould be basedon reality.
A b Free illustration
A drawing based on an
awareness of correct body
proportionscan still be free in
execution andwill stillallow
you to experiment with the
presentationof the garments.
An exercise in figure drawing
If you are inexperiencedin drawingfigures, usingthis
easy methodcan add to the confidenceof your
illustrations by ensuringthat your figuresare roughlyin
proportionand all drawnto the same scale.The simple
shapes and proportionsof the method ensurethat the
figuresare easy to draw and look correct. Furthermore,
by grasping howthese basic shapes fit togetherto
form a humanfigure,your drawingswill become better
anchoredon the page and the poses more convincing.
Forthe sake of this exercise,the body,brokeninto its
After You haveCompletedthe task,you should keep
the drawings as a reference,YOU can always come
backto this book, but nothing stays inthe memory
better than something learnedby actually doing
Using a simple paper-folding method,divide your pageto
makea Proportional blueprintof the humanfigure. Then
draw inthe basic block shapesthat representdifferent
Partsof the body to make an easy-referencetool for use
when You create fashion drawings inthe future.
The humanbody is
the way it divides up into
sections. Makea mark
just below the top of a
pageof paper (11 x
Gain a framework to strengthenthe more creative
14 in.). Then draw a
aspects of your work. straight plumb line down
Practicedrawing an elongatedfigure to use in
the page, leavingabout
an inch atthe bottom,
and markthe end of the
line. old your page at the
halfway point between
the top and bottom
marks. Foldthe page
again, finding the halfway
point on the plumb line
as before,and then
fashion designs inthe future?
1 repeat once more. Flatten
out the sheet, and you
can nowfill in your
4 The folded-
w creases as described
proportional blueprint of
Fromthe top markto
the nextfold draw your
the line betweenthis fold
and the next, and mark
acrossthe plumb line.
This markforms the
base of the neck and the
pointpf the rib cage. One
fold down is the navel,
followed by the crotch on
fold four. Ignorefold five.
Onfold six mark your
and ignore fold seven. At
the levelof the bottom
mark, fill inthe anklewith
anotherball shape. The
gap left at the bottom of
the page is for the cone-
shapedfoot, which will
protrude by about half the
distanceof the spaces
You now have an
fashion figure that you
can useas a basisfor
your designs. Ifyou wish
to elongatethe figure
further (some designers
work to a nine- or even
length should be added
only belowthe knee.
Usingthe block shapes,
you canthen draw inthe
remaining body parts to
fill out the figure. Draw
4 Usingthe framework
Us~ngthe "e~ghtand a half heads" proportions as a rough
framework for your ~llustrat~onsw~llsupport even the most
"- styl~zedrepresentation of a f~gure
the chestfrom the neck
basethrough fold two
way down to fold three.
Drawthe pelvic box up
from fold four, extending
three-quartersof the way
to fold three. When you
add the limbs, remember
thatthe upper arm is
shorter thanthe lower.
The elbow,with arms
hanging, is just above
navel level; the wrist is
just belowthe crotch.
life, p. 58
A Manipulatingthe basicforms
This sequenceof drawrngsshows how scr~bbles The bas~cformsremalnIn proportion, but have
made uslngthe folded-paper method can be been manipulated, the lhmbs rotatedto createa
worked up ~ntosketchesfor a f~nal~llustrat~on sense of life and movement
AN EXERCISE I
Althoughit is essentialfor a fashion designer to strive to breaknew ground and
sometimes disregard conventions,it is neverthelessalso usefulto be grounded
in a few basic design principles.It is importantfor designers always to keep in mind
the fact that,whateverflights of fancy they may be exploring,their garmentswill
eventuallyhaveto fit on a humanbody.
Infashion illustrationit is usualto stretch the legs a little,but all other body parts
shouldconformto their real proportions.This simplefolded-paper system achieves a
patternfor a fashionably elongated but correctly
proportionedfigure that can then be used as a
foundationfor illustrations such as those pictured
here. It is always possibleto breakcompletely
with convention,but a student should start
with a framework to support the free
ideasthat mightfollow. It is only
- once the basic principleshave been
Babsorbed that a designer can enjoy
true artistic freedom.
4 A Hidden
These figures haveall been
created usingthe folded-
paper method, butthe nuts
and bolts of the construction
are hidden under afree-and-
the garments.A stylized
depiction of garmentsis
morelikelyto be successful
ifthe viewer can accept the
underlyingfigure as realistic.
One of the most important aspects of design drawing is the ability to "loosen up."Often a budding
designer will freeze up over an important drawing, whether it'sfor presentation, publication, or just to
show to someone else. Spontaneity is lost and any freedom that existed in the private sketchbook
suddenly becomes rigid and dull.
We can all be a bit uptight about our work; One of the best exercises for practicing
let's face it, fashion is known as a somewhat boldness is to allow yourself a very short time
uptight industry. However, a bold, flamboyant to complete each illustration. Limityourself
illustration is more likelyto sell your concept to quick sketches, and try out as many
than an overworkedand nervousone, so you approachesas you can. Perhapswork on a
needto havethe courage of your convictions. larger sheet of paperthan usual.Try different
crayonsand paints; if by natureyou prefer a
thin, hard pencil,force yourself to use bright
colors applied with a wet, broad brush. Even
if you returnto your usual methodsafter the
exercise, the experienceof exploring different
mediawill giveyour illustrations an extrazest.
A Varying the effect
-heseillustrationshaveall been drawnto the
proportions described in Unit 8. Noticethe variety
of effects achievedby using differentmedia, such
as oil pastel,felt-tip pen, gouache, and pen.
Experimentingwith different techniques is essential
to improvingyour abilityto illustrateyour designs.
i ILLUSTRATING F/
Many of these experimentalattemptsare
destinedfor the wastepaper basket, but don't
worry. Thereare so manyways of putting your
ideason paper: pen and ink, watercolor, oil
pastel, conte, felt-tip pen, charcoal, poster
paint, and soft pencil. These mediacan even
beaccompaniedby colored paper and tissue,
foundtextures, or cuttings from newspapers
and magazinescollaged onto the drawing.
Onefun exercise is to quickly sketch a
friend, or even your own reflectionin the mirror,
resistingyour naturalinstinct to look at the
page. Try drawing in a continuous line,without
taking your hand off the paper. The results
might be rather bizarre, but this is a good way
to practiceobserving your subject, and
expressing what you see, without worrying
about howthe whole picture is developing.
You can also experiment with making
doodlesand scribbles. Thesetoo will achieve
afreedom in mark-makingthat will be lacking
if you aretoo concernedwith the final outcome
of the picture.
sketches should be private.
Itis herethat you can dare to
fail. Infact, you will not haveachieved anything
if all these experimentswork, becauseyou
will not havetested yourself beyondthe
boundariesof your ability. It is only by going
that bit further that you can makean excitLng
breakthrough. If you are really brave,you will
keepthe failed drawingsas a reminder of your
creative journey (just remember not to include
them in your presentationportfolio!).
It cannot be stressedtoo strongly that if you are I
designing clothes, however exoticyour sources,you
mustalways rememberthat at the end of the day you
are designingfor a human body.Practicinglife drawing
is therefore a very valuable exercisethat will helpyou
observe clearly and assess quicklywhat you see.
Using a model meansyou do not haveto invent
anything out of thin air.The informationis in front
of you-all you needto do is interpret it in your own
You may havethe opportunityto draw from life in an
art-schoolenvironment, but you can also improviseif
you are working at home by askinga friend to pose.
There is no needfor your model to befashionably
dressed. Normaldaywearwith a few additional
accessoriessuch as hats,scarves,boots, or
sunglassesis quite sufficient.It is more importantfor
the class tutor, or you if you are working at home,to
persuadethe model to exaggeratethe poses,and to
changethem often.Accentuationadds dramato the
drawings,and responding quicklyto the changing
poseswill bring spontaneityto your work.
the project other students in
Spenda day practicing life drawing either in classwith a the roomfires up
professionalmodel, or at home having persuadeda friend
to posefor you. If you choosethe privateroute, there ar well as givingyou
bound to be some giggles at the outset.That is not a valuable practicein
problem-the exercise should befun. Try to achieve figure drawing.
fifteen drawings by the end of the session, spending no
morethan two to five minuteson each.
Makeover reality in your own style.
Improveyour ability to observequickly and well.
Achievefreshnessand boldness in illustration by
getting the poses down on paper as quickly as possible.
B,"pseesIntfhestZng? "^ ' ' '
Capturethe spirit of the garmentswhile representing
Firstspend a few minutes
drawing the pose and the
garmentoutlines in what
you considerto beyour
own style. Be bold.
Quickly capturing the
pose,you haveto assess
the essentialsand get
them down on paper very
fast. Avoid makingfeeble:
sketchy pencil marksthat
result in tentative "hairy-
Next, try not to look at
your paper, and make a
continuous line drawing,
pencil from the paper.
Keepthe poses changing
every few minutes. Now
you can use some paints,
choosing just three or
complete each pose has ,
the essence of the garments
andmake a strong statement.
ifyou do not havetime to worry
about getting outlinesexactly
right,you are morelikelyto
andfull of lifeand spontaneity.
four colors. Apply the
color with a broad brush,
jotting down the poses
with quick brushstrokes.
Nowyou can start
in paint but use crayon or
oil pastelto delineate the
Rememberto try to
make each drawingfill
the whole page and
to bring drama to the
can be productiveto ask
the modelto adopt
seated, standing, or
draped over a prop
either to include or leave
out in order to make use
of the white space left on
the page). However, be
surethat the pose does %
not interferewith the
I drawing, p. 52
0ne of the most stimulatingaspects of working with a life model is havingto use
every second of the session to best advantage.The challengeof responding
quicklyto fast-changing poses brought an urgency and spark to these drawings.A
bold commitment can makeany drawingstate its case: these figures were drawnto
fill the whole page,with the model'sextremeposes exaggeratedto bring energyto
the picture.Unexpectedcolors enlivenwhat might have beena dull subject; a cursory
glanceat a magazine provesthat, in fashion images,skin is not always flesh-colored,
hair not always natural.The confident use of different media, such as gouache and oil
pastel,can also lendvibrancyto a posed subject. It is importantnot to be afraid to
make mistakes.Done quickly, some drawings will inevitably not be successful,but
the ones that are will retaina freshnessthat is destroyed by overworking an idea.
4 b Exploitingcolor
/ and medium ,
These illustrationsuse both
7 color and mediumto good
effect.The purple hair and
greenishskin harmonizewell ,
, with the tones usedfor the
' palette hasensuredan
unclutteredrepresentationof 1the garments. Usingonly
pencil and paint applied
boldlywith a wet brush,the
essenceof each pose has
been swiftly identifiedand
captured on paper.
Eachpage hasbeenfilledwith an
onlygives a graphic representation
of the individualgarmentsbut also
suggeststhe spirit of the ensemble.
TOO muchattention to detailcan
As a designer it is essentialthat you explore allthe
drawingand illustrationtools availableto you. One
of the most liberatingtechniques is collage.There are
so many ways to use this medium-you can use bold
cutouts of colored paper,tonal newsprint,or colors
and texturestorn from magazines.
An unusualway of working with collage is to take
the technique intothe lifeclass. Either by freehand
ripping or moredetailedcutting you can represent an
illustrationwithout drawingat all.Just as with the life-
drawing sessions,working quicklyadds spontaneity
to the result.You are forced to make instant decisions
to get the idea down on paper beforethe pose
changes.This can be testingwhen you haveto find
boththe source material and then cut and apply it.
Don't go for the obvious choices;you can create an
interesting illustrationby using unexpectedblocks or
strips of found images (as shown opposite).
Collage frees you from the needto use drawing
skillswhile at the same time increasingyour visual
vocabulary. Using other means of realizingthe model's
poseswill open up your drawingto new approaches.
Collage-makingmay seem like the type of thing you
did in grade school, but that is not surprising,because
you were not encumberedin those early days by
preconceivedideas.As a designer youwill needto
banishthe baggage of ordinary expectation.
- 4 Creative collage
,u can cut up magazines,
wallpaper or fabric
Access a pile of old magazineson any subject. Makesure
they contain lots of photographsto usefor your own
creativepurposes. Either enlist a friend to spend a day as
your model, or attend a life class. Make up to five
representationsof your live model, using materialtaken
from the magazines. Naturallythese will take a little longer
than drawn poses,but set yourself a challengingtime limit
for each representation.
Explorea newway of getting your ideas down on
paper by using cuttings as your medium, ratherthan more
conventionaltools such as pencil and paint.
Freeyourselffrom preconceivedideas of how an
image can be usedso that your work will be original
and have spontaneity.
Haveyou filledthe pagewell:
Didyou use materialfrom magazines in an
Doesthe result reflectfresh
speed of execution?
Didyou resist using a pencil
as possible, though you
may not wish to include
props such as chairs. Us
scissors or a craft knife,
or just rip the paperto ge
your cuttings readyto
apply; then pastethem
to the page.Try not to
spend too long on any
instead keepyour work
fresh by setting a time
limit for completing each
figure on the pageto
Don't betempted to
with your own freehand
drawing and painting.
k Duringthis unit you
' should befocused
on learningto usethe
L and a hostof the process haveto select, cut, rip, EE ALSO
other items. Bring a good-sizedstack ,- and paste paper onto Drawingfrom are, p. 5t
of magazinesto the the page! Notjust pencil, p.70 4i Q
session. Ask your model Think laterallyas you
to fall into an interesting work with your material, page, P. 74
pose-and the more combining unlikely colors
uncomfortablethe pose, and textures.Always try
the lesstime you will to fill as much of the page
4 b Quick thinking
You will haveonly a few mlnutesto
cut or rlpthe material, and then glue
~tdown One tlme-savrng and
sophlstlcatedoptlon IS to make use
of "negat~vespace" (leavlng blank
what m~ghtusually be drawn)
Exploringdifferent ways to illustrate garments can be liberatingfor a designer.
Although putting pen or paintto paper is the obvious approach,the use of
collage can produce particularlyintriguing,contemporaryresults. Collage
is infact often used infinal design illustrations,but workingwith it inthe
spontaneousenvironment of a lifeclass is an especiallyinterestingand
challengingtechnique.The needto select, cut, and pastevery quickly
in responseto fast-changing poses added freshness and a sense of
immediacyto these illustrations.They fill the page and makea statement:
the biggerthe image on the pagethe stronger the effect will be. A bold
tearing approachworked well in conjunctionwith morecarefully cut
outlines.(Ifthe result looks a little rough at the edges,the presentationcan
always be improvedlater by feeding itthrough a color photocopier.)
working with collage,the designer is continually challengedto think one
step ahead.The results, however,are wonderfully unpredictable.
4 New approaches
This collage enlivensthe
unexpectedcolors and patterns.
Creating acollage encourages
the designerto think more
deeplyaboutthe color palette,
fabrics, and overallstyleof
The scrapsof paperwere
their interestingtextures and
out or cut with a craft knife.
4 Creating an illusion
be collaged togetherto createthe
overall effect of a humanfigure
wearinggarments. It is not
necessaryto represent everypart
of afigure to makeit believable:
here, "negative" (white) space,
used at the ankles of the girl,
for example,lendsvitality to
Drawing from your wardrobe
It is never easy to put that first mark on a blank sheet
of paper.A valuable exercise,therefore,for the
student of fashion design is to practicedrawing a
collectionmade up from garmentsthat already exist,
giving an overall lookto a selectionof unrelated items.
By choosing piecesfrom your own wardrobe,you are
makingsure that you start with clothesthat you like
and already coordinateto best effect everytime you go
out.You know on which occasionsyou would wear
them and therefore havesome ideaof the style of
illustrationthat might be appropriate-casual, chic, or
glamorous.Sometimesyou needto be very literal in
your drawings;at other times you can be more
flamboyant.Inthis unit,you will explore howto project
not simply the shape and color of the clothes but also
the overall image. Boldness is oftenthe best
approach-be confident and use your own style in
select four combinations of garments from your wardrobe
that could be loosely described as a collection and
combinethem in differentways. Experimentwith various
styles of drawing. Finda commontheme to makethe
selection look like a coordinated collection. Complete
four illustrations of the outfits.
V b Planninga range
This selectionof tailoredjackets,
trousers,and a skirtseemed
likelyto workwell together as a
piecesyou select,cut out the
photographs, andthen make
Take a more detailed look at clotheswith which you
thought you were familiar.
Focusyour mind on differentstyling possibilities and
Think of the bestways of representingthe fabrics and
overall imageof the clothes you are portraying.
Hangup the garments or
laythem out on the floor.
sketchpaperto come up
with ideasfor poses. Try
out paintsand crayonsto
create a color palette
that, with some artistic
the actual color of
Next, try to givethe
collectionan overall look.
themesto the series of
illustrations. For example,
you could draw the
Y b Capturingthe colors
Havingtested a few color swatches,use
crayonsand paintsto practice making
representationsof the fabrics used inyour
figuresin similar poses,
or representthem all in a
minimaliststyle, or make
usethroughout of areas
of white "negativespace"
that omit an outline.
Youwant your work to
lookfresh so don't betoo
drawings-be bold. Work
going if the first attempts
the details -
These markswere made
to test different ways of
representingthe hair of the
'4 DidYOU findthe best mediumto representthem?
Haveyou usedsimple but effectiveposes?
Doesyour collection havean overall look?
Illustratingfound garments,ratherthan original ideas, is a very usefulway for a
designer to develop observational skills. By lookingclosely at clothesthat seemed
familiar,it is possibleto spot previously unnoticedaspects of constructionor
embellishment.Whether it is the cut of a neckline or the detail of a fastening,this new
observation can be of use in a designer'swork.
It is importantto select carefullythe garments to be illustrated,consideringwhich
elementswill form the main strengths of the planned collection.This task introduces
the processof planninga range (seepage 88).As can be seen from the examples
here,the garmentsmay befairly ordinary individualpieces but,when put together in
a stylizedway, they form a collectionwith a powerfuloverall image.Oncethe poses
have beenworked out and the colorways mixed,the designer needsto decide on
the most strikingway to get the imagesdown on paper.This is where it is important
to choose a strong style and cohesivetheme that will hold the garmentstogether
as a collection.
These sketchedfigures explore stylized
aspects, such as horizontallyextendedhair
and an outstretchedarm,that will be
applied to the whole series of illustrations.
with the other
ensures that a
group of unrelated
the feel of a
A Reading between
These images make bold useof
white areas untouchedso that
the invisiblelinescan be read.
The picturesare clear without
beingobvious and are more
interestingas a reqult.
'IMaking a wave
Extendedhair is an unusual
theme common to allthe figures.
A A sense of unity
Repeatingposes, such as plac~ng
the figureswith hand on hip or left
arm extended,givesthe series of
drawingsa sense of unity.
Not just pencil
Fromthe vast range of
you were directed earlier
in this book, select a
theme on which to base
your collection. Try out
your chosen colors
together to makesure
they are a good
quickly test some ideas
by first drawingwith oil
pastels, then washing
over the markswith
watery but full-colored
paint. The oil pastelwill
resistthe paint and create
Then lay out four
sheetsof paper (20x 30
in.) in front of you. Using
pencil, and covering as
much of the page as
drawthe outlines of
apply the oil pastels,
color by color to all the
Keep your nerve! Finally,
usethe paint, applying
one color at atime to all
When one usesthe term "drawing,"the most
obvious tool that springsto mind is a pencil,with
all itsvarious grades from hard to an almost creamy
softness.However,as you haveseen in Unit 10,you
can "draw" evenwith paper torn from a magazine.
When you useyour imagination,there is no limit to the
materialsyou can employ to achieve the lookyou
want. Slow-dryingpaints,such as oils, are not really
suitable for use in fashion illustration,but there
is a wide rangeof other mediato choose
from, including colored felt pens,water-
based paints,crayons,or a mixtureof
several of these. In recentyears,the
mouse on a personalcomputer has
to some designers become equal
in importanceto the penciland
brush.Some materials may suit
your way of working betterthan
others,but untilyou havetried a
large selection,you will never know.
Experimentingwith newways of
working is very stimulatingand also
enjoyable.It is worth repeatingthat it
is never a crimeto try and fail. It is
understandableto want to have pride
in your work, but youwill produce
only mediocreideas if you always
play it safe.
Experimentwith using mixed mediato open up new
approachesto a design.
Explorethe ideathat a collection of drawingswill
makea better presentationif atheme is strongly and
Createa cohesivelook by applying colors
t, simultaneouslyto all illustrations insteadof completing
one picture at atime. .
Usingsome of the more easily availablematerials,such
as gouachepaint and oil pastels (water-basedacrylics
and crayonsdo not work for this project),select a
restricted rangeof colors: perhapsthree pastelsand
three paints.Designa collection of four costumeswith a
theme and distinct color look. Ensurethe final drawings
makea bold statement about your concept.
Didyou choose colors that work well together?
ere your final illustrations bold?
dthey havea cohesivelook portray~ngtne essence
Was full use made of your different materials?
A Mixingyour media
The colors andthemes of these roughs
were adjusted for the final designs (see
pages 72-73), but the technique used
was the same. Here,yellow oil pastel
was applied to allfour drawings,
followed by white, and then pink.Then
I roughs,p. 84 I
I Planninga range. p. 88
Ipaintwas added, one color at a time.
JST PENCIL 71
I xperimenting with applying and mixing different media can achieve stunning
Eresults Unusual combinationsof techniques lend a freshness and originality to
I fashion illustrationsthat really makesthem stand out from the crowd.As seen inthe
designs pictured here,a strikingeffect can be achieved by using oil pastelas a
starting point and then adding awatercolor wash over the pastels,exploitingthe
cravons' propertiesof resistance.By choosing the color palettebeforethe design is II. .
committedto paper,and then applyingthe colors step-by-steponto the whole series
of designs at once, a designer can ensure that the common concept comes through
stronglyover a whole series of illustrations.Working inthis way, all the pictureswill 1I- -
come to completion at the same time and a powerfuloverall lookwill emerge.
4 A b Vibrant colors
initial color ideashavebeen
rejectedfor a moresubtle mix
resistantqualities of the oil
pastels have beenusedto
createa paint-freeaura around
wash of the water paint and
4 V A Unifyingfeatures
The group of drawings hasbeen givencohesionthroughthe use
of well-delineatedfigures, eachwith an aura, aswell as through
the consistencyof the colorwayandthe uniformmedium-level
applicationof the media.
The four illustrationspicturedaboveform a
strong collection unifiedby the theme of the fairy
tale. Eachpage is filledwith design ideasthat
expressthe costumefeel of the collection.
Laying out your page
A designer is inthe business of visual communication,whether the informationis presentedpurely
~ictoriallvor with the addition of words. The pages of this book have been designed to impart the
informationof text and illustrationwith maximumclarity and visual impact.That iswhat you should ar
to in any work that is to sellyour ideas successfully to the client.
Whenstudents start out illustratingdesigns,
they tendto be a littletentative about attacking
the dauntingblank page infront of them.The
resultcan often bea small, faint drawinginthe
corner of the page or, only marginally better,
inthe center surroundedbyvast areas of
It is importantthat your drawingsreflectthe
spirit of the subject. If,for example, you are
illustratingsomethinginherently bold, such as "
a Hawaiianbeachshirt collection,the drawings
must beequallybold. It is alwaysworth making
rough sketchesto planyour page and ensure
that the informationyou aretrying to portrayis
foremost. For example, drawingan elongated
figurewith long legswhen the point of interest
is a shirtwastesvaluablepage spaceto tell
your real story-the wild print of the shirt.
It isworthwhilerememberingthat you don't
want your pageto be cluttered. Mostof the
areashould befilled but notwithtoo much
information; the phrase"less is more" is very
often appropriatehere. It is the main m
that you aretrying to put across; remer
minimalistexamplesin Unit 11, Drawin
It cansometimes helpto prepareth
with a color wash or areas of colored F
give atexturefrom whichto work up yc
image.Another techniqueto ensurey(
page isto think outside its edges.You
this by layingthe sheet of paperyou a
4 Don't cramp
Fillyour pageboldly by laying
it over a larger sheet and
drawingover the edges, or by
startingwith avery largepage
andcroppingit laterso as to
achievethe best composition.
working with onto a larger sheet and then
drawing over the edges. This will allow you to
avoidthe trap of cramping your style as you
approachthe edge of the page.The same
effect can be achieved by starting on a sheet
of paper largerthan you intendto display,
completingyour illustration,andthen cropping
it bravelyto producethe best composition.
When planninga page it is usually bestto
start at the top and roughly plot where you
want the head (or evenjust half the head) to
be, then work down the figure. You must also
be constantlyaware of the side margins.The
magicword to strive for in page layout is ,
"balance." That doesn't meanuniform
4 Balanced stance
P I :
-. 1 Thlsfeet-apartpose frlls
the page Ina sat~sfylng
way, the extendedleft
hand echolngthe posltlon
L. of the r~ghtfoot
s y ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e t r y ,just an innatefeel that the picture is
well composed and at the sametime tells the
mainstory of the garment.
Infashion illustration you will mainly be
working in "portrait" format, in which the sheet
is positioned with its longer edges at the sides
and shorter edges at the top and bottom (as
opposed to "landscape" format, in which the
longer edges are at the top and bottom).
However,this is not a hardand fast rule.
As you see, this book is in a squareformat,
which produces a landscapespread across
1. ... -good ideato
experiment with different
committing yourself to
the final design.
Using morethan one
figure inthe same
the impact of the
garment-but be careful
not to loseyour focus