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HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM
What’s Referencing? <ul><li>Referencing is acknowledging the author when quoting or using other people's ideas in your wor...
Check this  out ‘  When you are taking notes, you should record not only the main points of the author’s work, but also yo...
Why? <ul><li>To avoid plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>To acknowledge direct quotes </li></ul><ul><li>To provide evidence to s...
Referencing FAQ’s
What? <ul><li>Direct quotes </li></ul><ul><li>Summarising </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing  </li></ul>
Direct Quotes? <ul><li>When the words are taken exactly they must be acknowledged as a direct quote. </li></ul><ul><li>Imp...
Direct Quotes, E.G. <ul><li>Travel is an excellent tool for broadening the mind and gaining skills in cross-cultural commu...
Direct Quotes, Short Quotes E.G. <ul><li>Interpersonal perception is defined as “how we see other people” (Lewis & Slade 2...
Direct Quotes, Short Quotes E.G. <ul><li>Interpersonal perception is defined as “how we see other people” (Lewis  et al   ...
Summarising <ul><li>Is   stating briefly and succinctly.  </li></ul><ul><li>Is taking a large idea or statment and just go...
Summarising, E.G. <ul><li>Original: </li></ul>Summary: “  Fear and foreboding have become common reactions to terrorism in...
Paraphrasing. <ul><li>PARAPHRASE is when you re-word the writers words (same idea but different words) </li></ul><ul><li>A...
Paraphrasing E.G. The original passage: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they...
Differences: Quote, Summary, Paraphrase <ul><li>Quotations  must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of t...
Differences: Quote, Summary, Paraphrase <ul><li>The original passage: </li></ul><ul><li>Students frequently overuse direct...
Differences: Quote, Summary, Paraphrase <ul><li>The original passage: </li></ul><ul><li>Students frequently overuse direct...
Differences: Quote, Summary, Paraphrase <ul><li>The original passage: </li></ul><ul><li>Students frequently overuse direct...
When? <ul><li>General, common knowledge ideas can be stated - but you need to be sure. </li></ul><ul><li>When describing o...
How Accurate are these statements? Too general – Where? Who? Statistics? Some places have flood problems <ul><ul><li>There...
When? Commonly known facts do not need a citation.  Look at the following statements. Which one needs a citation? <ul><li>...
Referencing Conventions
Referencing Types Check this out: “  Fear and foreboding have become common reactions to terrorism in general and no longe...
Referencing Types There are two types of references: In-Text:  These appear in the main body of the text to indicate the s...
Referencing Types There are two types of references: Full Reference  (End List References / Bibliography)  : The end list ...
In-Text References: <ul><li>Write the surname  of the author and the date of publication, in brackets e.g. (Greaves, 2004)...
End-List References: <ul><li>You should also include a bibliography of items consulted but not cited in your work  </li></...
End-List References, BOOKS: <ul><li>MEGGS, P.B. (ed.) (1998)  A history of Graphic Design , 3rd ed., Chichester: John Wile...
End-List References, Journal Articles: <ul><li>GERA, T. (2002) “Keep your hair on”,  New Scientist , 23 (12), 13 October, ...
End-List References, Web-Sites: Jazz review .  Your complete resource for jazz music reviews . Online. Available from:  ht...
In-Text v/s End-List References In-text: (Author surname, date of publication) End-list: AUTHOR .   ( ed . )  ( Publicatio...
Anything Else? There are further issues to consider, therefore, handouts will be given for you to comply with assignment
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Harvard referencing system

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Transcript of "Harvard referencing system"

  1. 1. HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM
  2. 2. What’s Referencing? <ul><li>Referencing is acknowledging the author when quoting or using other people's ideas in your work. </li></ul><ul><li>A term used to describe the use of a source in a research paper. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Check this out ‘ When you are taking notes, you should record not only the main points of the author’s work, but also your initial critical evaluation of the material ’ (Davis & McKay, 1996). 1. Authors Surname (s) WHO? 2. A comma 3. Year of Publication WHEN?
  4. 4. Why? <ul><li>To avoid plagiarism </li></ul><ul><li>To acknowledge direct quotes </li></ul><ul><li>To provide evidence to support arguments </li></ul><ul><li>So that readers can check how much preparation has gone into your work and can find extra information </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge debts to other writers. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the body of knowledge upon which your assignment is based. </li></ul><ul><li>Enable the reader(s) to locate your sources easily. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Referencing FAQ’s
  6. 6. What? <ul><li>Direct quotes </li></ul><ul><li>Summarising </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing </li></ul>
  7. 7. Direct Quotes? <ul><li>When the words are taken exactly they must be acknowledged as a direct quote. </li></ul><ul><li>Important to build a context around them. </li></ul><ul><li>Be cautious regarding cohesion and coherence </li></ul>
  8. 8. Direct Quotes, E.G. <ul><li>Travel is an excellent tool for broadening the mind and gaining skills in cross-cultural communication. “Travel helps build character” (Lee, 2005 p. 7). It is important to travel with an open mind and to restrict yourself from judging based on your home country. </li></ul>*** You might prefer to use connectors: In fact , some psychologists feel that / prominent psychologist, Terence Lee goes as far as saying…… The quote is not linked to the rest of the text. Try rewriting the text so the quote is SYNTHESISED WHO
  9. 9. Direct Quotes, Short Quotes E.G. <ul><li>Interpersonal perception is defined as “how we see other people” (Lewis & Slade 2000, p. 33). </li></ul>Surnames only. Do not include title of paper. ‘ &’ or ‘and’ ? It is recommended ‘and’ for 2 authors and ‘&’ for 3. The message – be consistent!!!
  10. 10. Direct Quotes, Short Quotes E.G. <ul><li>Interpersonal perception is defined as “how we see other people” (Lewis et al 2000, p. 33). </li></ul>et al. for more than 3 authors. Sometimes this can be in italics – be consistent!!! Sometimes Year only. Page number is ONLY FOR QUOTES – not for paraphrased information.
  11. 11. Summarising <ul><li>Is stating briefly and succinctly. </li></ul><ul><li>Is taking a large idea or statment and just going over the highlights </li></ul>
  12. 12. Summarising, E.G. <ul><li>Original: </li></ul>Summary: “ Fear and foreboding have become common reactions to terrorism in general and no longer appear limited to particular attacks.” (Accessed 2010) Terrorism is everywhere (Accessed 2010) How Accurate is that?
  13. 13. Paraphrasing. <ul><li>PARAPHRASE is when you re-word the writers words (same idea but different words) </li></ul><ul><li>A paraphrase is a passage borrowed from a source and rewritten in your own words. </li></ul><ul><li>A paraphrase should be true to the original authors idea, but is rewritten in your own words and sentence structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Since you are using someones else’s ideas and expressing them in your own words, it is very important to give credit to the source of the idea </li></ul>
  14. 14. Paraphrasing E.G. The original passage: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. A legitimate paraphrase: In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).
  15. 15. Differences: Quote, Summary, Paraphrase <ul><li>Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Differences: Quote, Summary, Paraphrase <ul><li>The original passage: </li></ul><ul><li>Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Differences: Quote, Summary, Paraphrase <ul><li>The original passage: </li></ul><ul><li>Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. </li></ul><ul><li>An acceptable summary: </li></ul><ul><li>Students should take just a few notes in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in a research paper (Lester 46-47). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Differences: Quote, Summary, Paraphrase <ul><li>The original passage: </li></ul><ul><li>Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47. </li></ul><ul><li>A plagiarized version: </li></ul><ul><li>Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes. </li></ul>
  19. 19. When? <ul><li>General, common knowledge ideas can be stated - but you need to be sure. </li></ul><ul><li>When describing or discussing a theory, model or practice associated with a particular writer. </li></ul><ul><li>To give weight or credibility to an argument presented by you, or supported by you, in your assignment </li></ul><ul><li>When giving emphasis to a particular idea that has found a measure of agreement and support amongst commentators </li></ul><ul><li>To inform the reader of sources of direct quotations or definitions in your assignment. </li></ul>
  20. 20. How Accurate are these statements? Too general – Where? Who? Statistics? Some places have flood problems <ul><ul><li>There is widespread acceptance of a global water shortage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people smoke. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. When? Commonly known facts do not need a citation. Look at the following statements. Which one needs a citation? <ul><li>The moon revolves around the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Sydney is on the east coast of Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Australia’s population will double by 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Food is necessary for survival. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Referencing Conventions
  23. 23. Referencing Types Check this out: “ Fear and foreboding have become common reactions to terrorism in general and no longer appear limited to particular attacks.” (Accessed 2010) Terrorism is everywhere. Only it isn't . Online. Available from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/opinion/editorials/2005-08-08-siegel-edit_x.htm [Accessed 23 May 2010]
  24. 24. Referencing Types There are two types of references: In-Text: These appear in the main body of the text to indicate the source of your information Use in-text references whenever you mention facts written by someone else, or when you include someone else’s ideas
  25. 25. Referencing Types There are two types of references: Full Reference (End List References / Bibliography) : The end list is a list of sources that you have either quoted directly or used arguments from, listed in alphabetical order by author (or editor) surname Be consistent with formats – capitals & italics should be used in the same way throughout You should also include a bibliography of items consulted but not cited in your work
  26. 26. In-Text References: <ul><li>Write the surname of the author and the date of publication, in brackets e.g. (Greaves, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Use letters after the date to distinguish between books by the same author published in the same year (Greaves, 2004a) </li></ul><ul><li>Include a reference at the end of a sentence. (Greaves, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Greaves (2004) says that references can be written in the middle of a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>“ For direct quotes, use speech marks and state the page number of the source in the reference.” (Greaves, 2004, p.72) </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that what you put in the in-text reference must direct the reader to the correct reference in the end list. </li></ul>
  27. 27. End-List References: <ul><li>You should also include a bibliography of items consulted but not cited in your work </li></ul><ul><li>You have to bare in mind the source and nature of your reference. </li></ul><ul><li>Referencing convention might change if you are extracting the information from a book, a scientific magazine, a journal. Or if you are using a quotating quoted by other people, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The key: document your reference using a guide. In this course we will be using the Harvard Referencig System. </li></ul><ul><li> ** There are other systems too. </li></ul>
  28. 28. End-List References, BOOKS: <ul><li>MEGGS, P.B. (ed.) (1998) A history of Graphic Design , 3rd ed., Chichester: John Wiley </li></ul><ul><li>In-text – (Meggs, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>1st & 2nd author / editor surnames (include (ed.) if editors) in capitals </li></ul><ul><li>Publication year in brackets </li></ul><ul><li>Title in italics </li></ul><ul><li>Edition number (where relevant) </li></ul><ul><li>Place of publication </li></ul><ul><li>Publisher </li></ul><ul><li>Also note the punctuation between each piece of information about your sources. </li></ul>
  29. 29. End-List References, Journal Articles: <ul><li>GERA, T. (2002) “Keep your hair on”, New Scientist , 23 (12), 13 October, p. 28-35 </li></ul><ul><li>In-text – (Gera, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Article author in capitals </li></ul><ul><li>Publication year in brackets </li></ul><ul><li>Article title in speech marks </li></ul><ul><li>Journal title in italics </li></ul><ul><li>Volume & issue / part number, and publication date </li></ul><ul><li>Page numbers </li></ul>
  30. 30. End-List References, Web-Sites: Jazz review . Your complete resource for jazz music reviews . Online. Available from: http://www.jazzreview.com . [Accessed 18 October 2003] In-text – (Jazz review, accessed 2003) Title of web site in italics Web site address underlined The date you accessed the site in square brackets (this is important as web pages can change frequently)
  31. 31. In-Text v/s End-List References In-text: (Author surname, date of publication) End-list: AUTHOR . ( ed . ) ( Publication year ) Title , ed. , Place of publication : Publisher .
  32. 32. Anything Else? There are further issues to consider, therefore, handouts will be given for you to comply with assignment
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