Models of classroom discipline
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Models of classroom discipline

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Models of classroom discipline

Models of classroom discipline

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    Models of classroom discipline Models of classroom discipline Presentation Transcript

    • MODELS OF CLASSROOM DISCIPLINE
    • SUMMARY  In this section, we will be going to look into two models of classroom discipline, and they are:  The Kounin’s Model of Discipline.  The Skinner’s Model of Discipline.
    • THE KOUNIN MODEL WITH-IT-NESS, ALERTING AND GROUP MANAGEMENT.
    • KEY IDEAS  The ripple effect: when you correct a student’s behavior, it tends to change the behavior of others.  The teacher needs to be with it to know what is going on everywhere in the room at all times.  Smooth transitions between activities and maintaining momentum are key to effective group management  Optimal learning takes place when teachers keep pupils alert and held accountable for learning
    •  Boredom [satiation] can be avoided by providing variety to lessons, classroom environment and by pupil’s awareness of progress.
    • THE RIPPLE EFFECT  Teacher issues encouragement and at the same time gives reprimands.  E.g. “Good, I see a lot of you are almost done with your tasks, and I see a few people who may have to stay after school to finish,”  Makes students aware of the consequences of completing/not-completing their tasks.  Most powerful in childhood/primary levels.
    • WITH-IT-NESS  Describes teachers’ knowing what was going on in all areas of the classroom all the time.  Teachers need to assert this trait verbally, as students are only convinced that teachers really know what is going on if they give responses to classroom goings-on.  Handling the correct deviant on time is more important than firmness, or clarity of desist – students are less likely to misbehave.
    • OVERLAPPING  Ability to attend to two issues at the same time.  Teacher must be able to handle one thing without affecting the other, for example: Students are playing while the rest are doing tasks in small groups. Teacher should have the small group continue while addressing the deviants from a distance, instead of stopping the small group activity, handle the deviants and reestablishing the small group work.
    • MOVEMENT MANAGEMENT  Smooth transition is important.  Teachers must be able to move smoothly from one activity to the next and maintain momentum within every activity – keeps students attention on task on hand.
    • EFFECTIVENESS OF KOUNIN’S MODEL  Very effective in preventive facet of discipline, maintaining a good learning environment and preventing misbehavior.  However, not effective (almost no help) in corrective facet of discipline, wherein misbehaviors must be dealt with and redirected positively.
    • NEO- SKINNERIAN MODEL BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
    • KEY IDEAS  Behavior is shaped by its consequences – what happens to the individual immediately afterward.  Systematic use of reinforcement (rewards) can shape pupils’ behaviors in desired manner.  Behavior weakens if no reinforcement follow-up and punishment.  Once learning achieved, best maintained through intermittent reinforcement.  Can be easily modified with students of all ages and backgrounds.
    • TYPES OF REINFORCERS SOCIAL  Words, gestures and facial expressions. GRAPHIC  Numerals, checks, happy faces and special symbols.
    • ACTIVITY  In the form of activities that students prefer in school, e. g. playing games, decorating classroom, free reading etc. TANGIBLE  Real objects that students can earn as rewards for desired behaviors.
    • EFFECTIVENESS OF NEO- SKINNERIAN MODEL  Powerful effect, as systematic attention and reinforcing becomes natural parts of the teaching act.  However, there are concerns over free will of students – Skinner rejected free will in principle, an essential human trait.
    • THANK YOU
    • REFERENCES Kaufman, M., et. al. (1993). Managing classroom behavior: A reflective case-based approach. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon. Marzano, R. J., et. al. (2005). A handbook for classroom management that works. Virginia: ASCD Alexandria.