Crea%ve	
  Commons	
  
geis%ges	
  Eigentum	
  neu	
  gedacht	
  
Peter	
  Troxler	
  
trox@fabfolk.com	
  
Mach	
  Dein	
  Ding	
  
The	
  Stuff	
  We	
  Make	
  in	
  Legalese	
  
Peter	
  Troxler	
  
trox@fabfolk.com	
  
Programme	
  
•  Intellectual	
  Property	
  
–  Thinking	
  in	
  legal	
  terms	
  about	
  “the	
  stuff	
  we	
  make”	...
Intellectual	
  Property	
  
•  the	
  no%on,	
  that	
  the	
  results	
  of	
  intellectual	
  or	
  
crea%ve	
  work	
 ...
History	
  of	
  Patents	
  
•  Patents	
  apparently	
  existed	
  in	
  ancient	
  Greece	
  
•  Monopolies,	
  granted	...
History	
  of	
  Copyright	
  
•  15th	
  century	
  Europe:	
  the	
  prin%ng	
  press	
  
•  Crown	
  &	
  church	
  fel...
Intellectual	
  Property	
  Protec%on	
  
•  protec%on	
  of	
  the	
  commercial*	
  interests	
  of	
  a	
  
creator/inv...
Fab	
  Charter	
  
Secrecy:	
  designs	
  and	
  processes	
  developed	
  in	
  fab	
  labs	
  must	
  remain	
  availabl...
The	
  Stuff	
  We	
  Make	
  
What
type of thing
Things that
work
Ornamental
things
Beautiful
things
Electronic
cirquits
C...
The	
  Stuff	
  We	
  Make	
  
What
type of thing

Legally
speaking

Things that
work

inventions
(technology)

Ornamental
...
The	
  Stuff	
  We	
  Make	
  
What
type of thing

Legally
speaking

Protection
mechanism

Things that
work

inventions
(te...
Patent	
  
•  A	
  patent	
  consists	
  of	
  a	
  set	
  of	
  exclusive	
  rights	
  granted	
  by	
  a	
  sovereign	
 ...
Copyright	
  
•  Copyright	
  gives	
  the	
  creator	
  of	
  an	
  original	
  work	
  exclusive	
  rights:	
  
•  Copyr...
Industrial	
  Design	
  Right	
  
•  An	
  Industrial	
  Design	
  Right	
  protects	
  the	
  visual	
  design	
  of	
  o...
U%lity	
  Models	
  
•  A	
  u%lity	
  model	
  is	
  an	
  intellectual	
  property	
  right	
  to	
  protect	
  inven%on...
Trademarks	
  
•  A	
  trademark	
  is	
  the	
  right	
  to	
  sue	
  for	
  unauthorized	
  use	
  of	
  that	
  tradema...
Integrated	
  Circuit	
  Topologies	
  
•  Because	
  of	
  the	
  func%onal	
  nature	
  of	
  the	
  mask	
  geometry,	
...
Trade	
  Secret	
  
•  A	
  trade	
  secret	
  is	
  a	
  formula,	
  prac%ce,	
  process,	
  design,	
  instrument,	
  pa...
The	
  Stuff	
  We	
  Make	
  
What
type of thing

Legally
speaking

Protection
mechanism

What is still
possible

Things t...
The	
  Stuff	
  We	
  Make	
  
What
type of thing

Legally
speaking

Protection
mechanism

What is still
possible

Sharing
...
Defensive	
  Publica%on	
  
•  A	
  defensive	
  publica%on,	
  or	
  defensive	
  disclosure,	
  is	
  an	
  intellectual...
Crea%ve	
  Commons	
  
•  A	
  system	
  of	
  public	
  licenses	
  that	
  grant	
  reuse	
  of	
  copyrighted	
  work	
...
Human	
  Readable	
  
Human	
  Readable	
  
Human	
  Readable	
  
Human	
  Readable	
  
Lawyer	
  Readable	
  
Machine	
  Readable	
  

<?xpacket begin='' id=''?>
<x:xmpmeta xmlns:x='adobe:ns:meta/'>
<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf='http://www.w3...
Modular	
  System	
  

CC 0
The	
  Stuff	
  We	
  Make	
  
What
type of thing

Legally
speaking

Protection
mechanism

What is still
possible

Sharing
...
Waiver	
  
•  Example	
  CC0	
  or	
  "Commons	
  Deed"	
  

–  The	
  person	
  who	
  associated	
  a	
  work	
  with	
 ...
design
right

design
right
design
right
copyright

copyright

copyright
design
right

design
right
copyright
copyright
•  CC license, including CC0, only covers
copyright
reproduction, communication,
making available to the public, distribut...
blueprint
blueprint
cc-by-…
cc-by-…

reproduction

blueprint
blueprint
cc-by-…
cc-by-…
•  CC license, including CC0, only covers
copyright
reproduction, communication,
making available to the public, distribut...
Proposal Magroni
•  CC+
•  CC license
+ waiver
design registration
•  declare not to have registered
•  relinquish any rig...
The	
  Stuff	
  We	
  Make	
  
What
type of thing

Legally
speaking

Protection
mechanism

What is still
possible

Sharing
...
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Mach Dein Ding: The Stuff We Make in Legalese (Creative Commons: Geistiges Eigentum neu gedacht)

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Präsentation im Fab Lab Zürich zur 1. Geburtstagsparty, 21. November 2013 (http://zurich.fablab.ch/node/286)

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Mach Dein Ding: The Stuff We Make in Legalese (Creative Commons: Geistiges Eigentum neu gedacht)

  1. 1. Crea%ve  Commons   geis%ges  Eigentum  neu  gedacht   Peter  Troxler   trox@fabfolk.com  
  2. 2. Mach  Dein  Ding   The  Stuff  We  Make  in  Legalese   Peter  Troxler   trox@fabfolk.com  
  3. 3. Programme   •  Intellectual  Property   –  Thinking  in  legal  terms  about  “the  stuff  we  make”   –  IP  protec%on  mechanism   •  Sharing   •  Crea%ve  Commons   –  Business:  “How  to  make  money  with  free”   •  Q&A  
  4. 4. Intellectual  Property   •  the  no%on,  that  the  results  of  intellectual  or   crea%ve  work  have  the  same  (legal)  quali%es   as  physical  property   •  this  idea  makes  some  sense  with  unique   artworks   •  hard  to  understand  why  something  that  can   be  copied  without  taking  away  the  original   should  be  property  
  5. 5. History  of  Patents   •  Patents  apparently  existed  in  ancient  Greece   •  Monopolies,  granted  by  the  kings,  e.g.   –  1105  Count  William  of  Mortagne  grants  a  patent  to  a  Norman  abbot   for  erec%ng  wind  mills   –  1449  Henry  VI  grants  a  patent  to  John  of  Utynam  for  making  stained   glass     •  15th  century  Venice:  patents  on  glass-­‐making,  mainly  to  control  the   trade   •  1624,  UK:  Statute  of  Monopolies  –  Parliament  act  against   monopolies  granted  by  the  Crown   =  monopolies  should  be  granted  only  for  the  introduc%on  of  new   manufactures  to  the  inventor   •  1790  patent  law  in  the  US   •  1791  patent  law  in  France  
  6. 6. History  of  Copyright   •  15th  century  Europe:  the  prin%ng  press   •  Crown  &  church  felt  a  need  to  control  prin%ng  –  license  to   print  and  trade  books  (i.e.  censorship)   •  England,  16th  century:  printers  guild  –    Sta%oners’  company   •  1709  Statute  of  Anne  An  Act  for  the  Encouragement  of   Learning,  by  ves7ng  the  Copies  of  Printed  Books  in  the   Authors  or  purchasers  of  such  Copies,  during  the  Times   therein  men7oned   =  trade  regula%on   –  limi%ng  the  term  of  protec%on   –  breaking  up  the  monopoly  of  the  Sta%oners’  Company:   copyright  availability  to  anyone  
  7. 7. Intellectual  Property  Protec%on   •  protec%on  of  the  commercial*  interests  of  a   creator/inventor   •  a  monopoly  to  use  the  crea%on/inven%on  (thing)   for  commercial  gain   •  various  types  or  protec%on,  depending  on  the   type  of  thing   •  some  types  arise  automa%cally,  some  types  only   on  registra%on     *  in  some  types  and  legisla%ons  also  moral  interests  
  8. 8. Fab  Charter   Secrecy:  designs  and  processes  developed  in  fab  labs  must  remain  available   for  individual  use  although  intellectual  property  can  be  protected  however  you   choose     •  Sharing  for  individual  use  –  learning   •  This  is  provided  for  in  some  of  the  legal  IP  protec%on  mechanisms  (privat   use,  educa%onal  “excep%on”,  fair  use  
  9. 9. The  Stuff  We  Make   What type of thing Things that work Ornamental things Beautiful things Electronic cirquits Code (Software) Documentation
  10. 10. The  Stuff  We  Make   What type of thing Legally speaking Things that work inventions (technology) Ornamental things industrial designs Beautiful things works of art and literature Electronic cirquits ? work of art and literature Code (Software) invention / work of art Documentation work of art and literature
  11. 11. The  Stuff  We  Make   What type of thing Legally speaking Protection mechanism Things that work inventions (technology) Patent Ornamental things industrial designs Industrial design right Beautiful things works of art Copyright and literature Electronic cirquits ? work of art Copyright and literature Code (Software) invention / work of art Documentation work of art Copyright and literature 1 also: Utility model 2 1 2 Patent / Copyright registered / unregistered (EU); also Trademark: distinctive sign or indicator
  12. 12. Patent   •  A  patent  consists  of  a  set  of  exclusive  rights  granted  by  a  sovereign  state   to  an  inventor  or  their  assignee  for  a  limited  period  of  %me  in  exchange   for  the  public  disclosure  of  an  inven%on.   •  The  rights  typically  include  the  right  to  prevent  others  from  making,  using,   selling,  or  distribu%ng  the  patented  inven%on  without  permission.   •  A  patent  is  granted  upon  applica%on   •  Typically  a  patent  applica%on  must  include  one  or  more  claims  defining   the  inven%on  which  must  meet  the  relevant  patentability  requirements   such  as  novelty  and  non-­‐obviousness.     •  A  patent  lasts  normally  20  years.  
  13. 13. Copyright   •  Copyright  gives  the  creator  of  an  original  work  exclusive  rights:   •  Copyright  it  is  "the  right  to  copy",  the  right  to  determine  who  may   financially  benefit  from  it,  who  may  adapt  the  work  to  other  forms,  who   may  perform  the  work  (related  rights);  and  it  gives  the  creator  the  right  to   be  be  credited  for  the  work,  not  to  have  it  falsely  akributed,  and  to  not   have  their  work  used  in  a  derogatory  or  prejudicial  manner  (moral  rights).   •  Copyright  arises  automa%cally  with  the  (physical)  crea%on  of  the  work.  In   the  US,  copyright  can  be  registered  which  gives  addi%onal  rights  to   recompensa%ons  in  case  of  infringement   •  Copyright  is  applicable  to  any  expressible  form  of  an  idea  or  informa%on   that  is  substan%ve  and  discrete.  Some  countries  require  the  no%on  of   originality.   •  A  note  on  moral  rights:  those  can  not  be  traded.   •  Copyright  normally  lasts  70  years  post  mortem  auctoris  
  14. 14. Industrial  Design  Right   •  An  Industrial  Design  Right  protects  the  visual  design  of  objects  that   are  not  purely  u%litarian.     An  industrial  design  consists  of  the  crea%on  of  a  shape,   configura%on  or  composi%on  of  pakern  or  color,  or  combina%on  of   pakern  and  color  in  three  dimensional  form  containing  aesthe%c   value.  An  industrial  design  can  be  a  two-­‐  or  three-­‐dimensional   pakern  used  to  produce  a  product,  industrial  commodity  or   handicran.   •  The  rights  typically  include  the  right  to  prevent  others  from  making,   using,  selling,  or  distribu%ng  the  object  without  permission.   •  The  Design  Right  protec%on  is  granted  upon  applica%on  with  a  12   month  grace  period  (EU)  –  however  in  the  EU  there  is  the   Unregistered  Design  Right  that  automa%cally  gives  protec%on  of  3   year  from  the  first  disclosure  of  the  design   •  A  design  must  be  novel  and  have  individual  character   •  Design  rights  last  normally  up  to  25  years  in  5  year  periods  (need  to   be  renewed)  
  15. 15. U%lity  Models   •  A  u%lity  model  is  an  intellectual  property  right  to  protect  inven%ons.  This   right  is  available  in  a  number  of  many  na%onal  statutes.  It  is  very  similar  to   the  patent,  but  usually  has  less  stringent  patentability  requirements.   •  Peky  patent  (Indonesia),  “poor  man’s  patent”   •  Term  onen  6  to  15  years  
  16. 16. Trademarks   •  A  trademark  is  the  right  to  sue  for  unauthorized  use  of  that  trademark   •  A  trademark  requires  registra%on  (®)  –  but  not  in  the  US,  there  it  is   sufficient  to  use  it  in  trade,  so  there  also  exist  unregistered  trademarks  (™)   •  A  trademark  is  typically  a  name,  word,  phrase,  logo,  symbol,  design,   image,  or  a  combina%on  of  these  elements.  There  is  also  a  range  of  non-­‐ conven%onal  trademarks  comprising  marks  which  do  not  fall  into  these   standard  categories,  such  as  those  based  on  color,  smell,  or  sound.   •  The  registra%on  of  a  trademark  can  be  revoked   •  Trademark  needs  to  be  maintained  (renewed),  typically  every  10  years,   indefinitely  
  17. 17. Integrated  Circuit  Topologies   •  Because  of  the  func%onal  nature  of  the  mask  geometry,  the  designs   cannot  be  protected  under  copyright  law  (except  perhaps  as  decora%ve   art).   •  Because  individual  lithographic  mask  works  are  not  clearly  protectable   subject  maker,  they  also  cannot  be  effec%vely  protected  under  patent   law.     •  So  since  the  1990s,  na%onal  governments  have  been  gran%ng  copyright-­‐ like  intellectual  property  rights  conferring  %me-­‐limited  exclusivity  to   reproduc%on  of  a  par%cular  layout.   •  Protec%on  term  is  much  shorter:  10…15  years   •  Protec%on  upon  registra%on  or  first  commercial  use  
  18. 18. Trade  Secret   •  A  trade  secret  is  a  formula,  prac%ce,  process,  design,  instrument,  pakern,   or  compila%on  of  informa%on  which  is  not  generally  known  or  reasonably   ascertainable,  by  which  a  business  can  obtain  an  economic  advantage   over  compe%tors  or  customers.  In  some  jurisdic%ons,  such  secrets  are   referred  to  as  "confiden%al  informa%on"  or  "classified  informa%on".   •  A  company  can  protect  its  confiden%al  informa%on  through  non-­‐compete   and  non-­‐disclosure  contracts  with  its  employees  or  business  partners.    
  19. 19. The  Stuff  We  Make   What type of thing Legally speaking Protection mechanism What is still possible Things that work inventions (technology) Patent private use, research† Ornamental things industrial designs Industrial design right private use, inspiration Beautiful things works of art Copyright and literature private use, educational Electronic cirquits ? work of art Copyright and literature privat use, educational Code (Software) invention / work of art see above Documentation work of art Copyright and literature † WARNING: not in the US Patent / Copyright private use, educational
  20. 20. The  Stuff  We  Make   What type of thing Legally speaking Protection mechanism What is still possible Sharing mechanism Things that work inventions (technology) Patent private use, research Defensive publication Ornamental things industrial designs Industrial design right private use, inspiration Waiver Beautiful things works of art Copyright and literature private use, educational Creative Commons Electronic cirquits ? work of art Copyright and literature privat use, educational Creative Commons Code (Software) invention / work of art see above FLOSS licenses Documentation work of art Copyright and literature private use, educational Creative Commons † WARNING: not in the US Patent / Copyright
  21. 21. Defensive  Publica%on   •  A  defensive  publica%on,  or  defensive  disclosure,  is  an  intellectual  property   strategy  used  to  prevent  another  party  from  obtaining  a  patent  on  a   product,  apparatus  or  method  for  instance.     •  The  strategy  consists  in  disclosing  an  enabling  descrip%on  and/or  drawing   of  the  product,  apparatus  or  method  so  that  it  enters  the  public  domain   and  becomes  prior  art.     •  Therefore,  the  defensive  publica%on  of  perhaps  otherwise  patentable   informa%on  may  work  to  defeat  the  novelty  of  a  subsequent  patent   applica%on.   •  Needs  to  be  available  to  a  “relevant  audience”  (e.g.  conference,  trade   journal)  
  22. 22. Crea%ve  Commons   •  A  system  of  public  licenses  that  grant  reuse  of  copyrighted  work   •  The  strategy  is  to  use  a  publicly  available,  standardized  license  to  replace   the  normal  contractual  rela%onship  between  rights  holder  and  user.   •  Rights  holder  can  select,  which  restric%ons  s/he  wants  to  add  to  the   general  permission  to  use,  distribute  or  perform  the  work  addi%onally  to   credi%ng  the  creator  and  men%oning  the  license   –  Share-­‐alike  –  user  must  re-­‐license  deriva%ves  under  the  same  license   –  Non-­‐commercial  –  use  in  connec%on  with  “making  money”  is  not  allowed  (not  even   fundraising  for  a  charity  or  puung  on  a  blog  with  Google  Ads  to  cover  hos%ng  costs)     –  No  deriva2ves  –  use  only  unaltered  copies   •  There  are  (up  to  now)  na%onal  versions  of  the  licenses  –  the  idea  was  to   adapt  the  licenses  to  na%onal  legisla%on.  This  is  probably  going  to   disappear   •  Pay  aken%on  to  compa%bility  issues  when  re-­‐using  material  
  23. 23. Human  Readable  
  24. 24. Human  Readable  
  25. 25. Human  Readable  
  26. 26. Human  Readable  
  27. 27. Lawyer  Readable  
  28. 28. Machine  Readable   <?xpacket begin='' id=''?> <x:xmpmeta xmlns:x='adobe:ns:meta/'> <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf='http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#'> <rdf:Description rdf:about='' xmlns:xapRights='http://ns.adobe.com/xap/1.0/rights/'> <xapRights:Marked>True</xapRights:Marked> </rdf:Description> <rdf:Description rdf:about='' xmlns:dc='http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/'> <dc:rights> <rdf:Alt> <rdf:li xml:lang='x-default' >This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Netherlands License.</rdf:li> </rdf:Alt> </dc:rights> </rdf:Description> <rdf:Description rdf:about='' xmlns:cc='http://creativecommons.org/ns#'> <cc:license rdf:resource='http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/nl/'/> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF> </x:xmpmeta> <?xpacket end='r'?> 10-­‐11-­‐2008   <div class=”license”> <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/nl/"> <img alt="Creative Commons License" style="border-width:0” src="http://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/3.0/nl/88x31.png" /> </a> </div> Crea%ve  Commons  –  Erfgoed  delen   28  
  29. 29. Modular  System   CC 0
  30. 30. The  Stuff  We  Make   What type of thing Legally speaking Protection mechanism What is still possible Sharing mechanism Things that work inventions (technology) Patent private use, research Defensive publication Ornamental things industrial designs Industrial design right private use, inspiration Waiver Beautiful things works of art Copyright and literature private use, educational Creative Commons Electronic cirquits ? work of art Copyright and literature privat use, educational Creative Commons Code (Software) invention / work of art see above FLOSS licenses Documentation work of art Copyright and literature private use, educational Creative Commons † WARNING: not in the US Patent / Copyright
  31. 31. Waiver   •  Example  CC0  or  "Commons  Deed"   –  The  person  who  associated  a  work  with  this  deed  has   dedicated  the  work  to  the  public  domain  by  waiving  all  of   his  or  her  rights  to  the  work  worldwide  under  copyright   law,  including  all  related  and  neighboring  rights,  to  the   extent  allowed  by  law.   •  You  can  copy,  modify,  distribute  and  perform  the  work,  even  for   commercial  purposes,  all  without  asking  permission  or  giving   akribu%on.     •  In  the  case  of  design registration –  declare not to have registered –  relinquish any rights: •  to register the design •  from unregistered design protection (EU)
  32. 32. design right design right design right copyright copyright copyright
  33. 33. design right design right copyright copyright
  34. 34. •  CC license, including CC0, only covers copyright reproduction, communication, making available to the public, distribution •  design rights not affected by CC licencse (i.e. designer can still register design right)
  35. 35. blueprint blueprint cc-by-… cc-by-… reproduction blueprint blueprint cc-by-… cc-by-…
  36. 36. •  CC license, including CC0, only covers copyright reproduction, communication, making available to the public, distribution •  design rights not affected by CC licencse (i.e. designer can still register design right)
  37. 37. Proposal Magroni •  CC+ •  CC license + waiver design registration •  declare not to have registered •  relinquish any rights –  to register the design –  from unregistered design protection (EU)
  38. 38. The  Stuff  We  Make   What type of thing Legally speaking Protection mechanism What is still possible Sharing mechanism Things that work inventions (technology) Patent private use, research Defensive publication Ornamental things industrial designs Industrial design right private use, inspiration Waiver Beautiful things works of art Copyright and literature private use, educational Creative Commons Electronic cirquits ? work of art Copyright and literature privat use, educational Creative Commons Code (Software) invention / work of art see above FLOSS licenses Documentation work of art Copyright and literature private use, educational Creative Commons † WARNING: not in the US Patent / Copyright

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