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GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Plagiarism, Citations, and Note Taking<br />&<br />Cause and Effect Writing Models<br />
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Let’s Review from Week 5:<br /> - Thesis Statement = A narrow, specific topic + an attitu...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />	Week 5 Review (Continued):<br /><ul><li>Evidence can include: Examples, Facts, Reasons, ...
Evidence should be: Relevant, Unified, Specific, Adequate, Dramatic, Accurate, Representative, and Documented (if borrowed...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br /> Q: What is “plagiarism” ?<br /> A: Plagiarism occurs when a writer borrows or steals the...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Q: Why is plagiarism wrong?<br />A: 1) It robs someone else of their work.<br />	 2) It g...
Q: How does plagiarism occur?<br />A: While some students intentionally decide to buy or copy an assignment, others do gen...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Q: If most cases of plagiarism are unintentional, how can I be sure to avoid it?<br />A: ...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Taking Notes<br /> - Create a consistent system for taking and storing notes: Index cards...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Taking Notes<br /> - When researching your topic, strive to write notes only when you bel...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing acceptable notes<br /> - When writing notes, always remember there are only three...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing acceptable notes<br /> - If you write down a note, and more importantly, if you a...
Writing Summaries<br /> - A summary is written in your own words.<br /> - It’s shorter and more condensed than the origina...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Summaries<br /> - Summaries can cover a lot of material in a little bit of space....
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Summaries<br /> - Read the original material thoroughly, put the source aside, an...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Paraphrases<br /> - A paraphrase is also written in your own words.<br /> - A par...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Paraphrases<br /> - A paraphrase is as detailed and specific as the original sour...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Paraphrases<br /> - Read the original source carefully, and then put it aside.<br...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Quotations<br /> - A quotation is the use of someone else’s exact words.<br /> - ...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Quotations<br /> - Since paraphrases and summaries require you to use your own wo...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Quotations<br /> - Quote when a writer’s words are particularly memorable or eloq...
MLA Citation System<br /> - A Citation System is an artificial but consistent method to document all research sources used...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />MLA Citation System<br /> - All citation system can be described as either being Note-bas...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />MLA Citation System<br /> - MLA is a Parenthetical Citation System<br /> - MLA requires w...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />MLA Citation System<br /> - An in-text attribution is a simple indicator of the last name...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />MLA Citation System<br />Ex: A growing number of scientists have become impatient with th...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />MLA Citation Style<br /> - Try to use both forms of in-text citation for variety’s sake.<...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />MLA Citation System<br /> - A bibliography is a list of all relevant information about th...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />MLA Citation System<br /> - MLA is flexible enough that you can cite anything as an origi...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br /> - Causal analysis is based on the human need to make connections b...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br /> Causes can also be worded as:<br />           - Reasons<br />     ...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br />	Causes are concerned with what happened or led up to an event or p...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br />Effects can also be worded as:<br />	- Results<br />   - Impact<br ...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br />	Effects are concerned with what happens after an event or phenomen...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br />There are three likely objectives or reasons to use C/E as a writin...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br />Some basic strategies for using C/E :<br /> 1) Stay focused on your...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br />3. Think carefully and rigorously about Cause and Effect relationsh...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br />5. Use an organization pattern for your Causes and/or Effects:<br /...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br />6. Use language appropriate for C/E writing. Nothing is black or wh...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br />  Let’s read a good example of Cause & Effect writing!<br />Read :<...
GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Now for Homework, PRACTICE!<br />  - Course Project Part two: Selecting and narrowing the...
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Transcript of "Ge117 week six"

  1. 1. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Plagiarism, Citations, and Note Taking<br />&<br />Cause and Effect Writing Models<br />
  2. 2. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Let’s Review from Week 5:<br /> - Thesis Statement = A narrow, specific topic + an attitude, belief, opinion about the topic.<br /> - Thesis Statements must be debatable in a sense, or it’s not a Thesis.<br /> - Thesis Statements require Evidence for support.<br />
  3. 3. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br /> Week 5 Review (Continued):<br /><ul><li>Evidence can include: Examples, Facts, Reasons, Experiences, Anecdotes, Numbers, Statistics, Quotations, Expert Opinions, etc.
  4. 4. Evidence should be: Relevant, Unified, Specific, Adequate, Dramatic, Accurate, Representative, and Documented (if borrowed) </li></li></ul><li>GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Today’s Objectives:<br />1) Describe strategies to avoid plagiarism.<br />2) Review how to use the MLA Citation System in your Research Paper.<br />3) Know when to cite sources, and how to cite them properly.<br />4) Describe and use the Cause-Effect as a writing model. <br />
  5. 5. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br /> Q: What is “plagiarism” ?<br /> A: Plagiarism occurs when a writer borrows or steals the ideas, thoughts, facts, or words of another writer without giving credit to the original source.<br />
  6. 6. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Q: Why is plagiarism wrong?<br />A: 1) It robs someone else of their work.<br /> 2) It gives a student an unfair advantage in grading compared to students who do not plagiarize.<br /> 3) It hurts the student, who doesn’t learn anything in the process.<br /> 4) It devalues the worth of a diploma from the student’s college or institution.<br />
  7. 7. Q: How does plagiarism occur?<br />A: While some students intentionally decide to buy or copy an assignment, others do genuine research on a topic but they still unintentionally plagiarize. <br />Believe it or not, most cases of plagiarism are unintentional!—crazy, eh?<br />
  8. 8. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Q: If most cases of plagiarism are unintentional, how can I be sure to avoid it?<br />A: By doing two things: <br /> 1) Taking proper notes carefully<br /> 2) Use a method for citations<br />
  9. 9. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Taking Notes<br /> - Create a consistent system for taking and storing notes: Index cards, a dedicated notebook, a specific file on a hard drive, etc.<br /> - Write your notes while reading your original sources, then write your paper from your notes, not the sources.<br />
  10. 10. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Taking Notes<br /> - When researching your topic, strive to write notes only when you believe it will be useful in your paper. Avoid recording everything and anything.<br /> - Consider taking notes on: Facts, Stats, Anecdotes, Quotations, Expert opinions, etc. (anything considered “evidence”).<br />
  11. 11. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing acceptable notes<br /> - When writing notes, always remember there are only three types of notes that are acceptable in a research paper or academic essay.<br />- The three types of notes are: Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation.<br />
  12. 12. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing acceptable notes<br /> - If you write down a note, and more importantly, if you actually use it in your work, it must be one of the acceptable types, or it will lead to plagiarism! Bad note taking is like a gateway drug. The first one’s free, kid.<br /> - Therefore, when you write a note, always record in shorthand (S, P, Q) what type of note it is FIRST!!!!!!!!<br />
  13. 13. Writing Summaries<br /> - A summary is written in your own words.<br /> - It’s shorter and more condensed than the original source material.<br /> - Summaries focus only on main ideas and the “big picture.”<br /> - They never go into specifics or details.<br />
  14. 14. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Summaries<br /> - Summaries can cover a lot of material in a little bit of space.<br /> - Summaries are useful in providing necessary background information or an overview on a topic.<br /> - Summaries are often found early on in papers, before the writer goes into detail.<br />
  15. 15. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Summaries<br /> - Read the original material thoroughly, put the source aside, and in your own words, express only the main ideas.<br /> - Compare your summary to the original and make sure you aren’t occasionally borrowing exact words and phrases from the original source.<br />
  16. 16. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Paraphrases<br /> - A paraphrase is also written in your own words.<br /> - A paraphrase is just as long as the original source material.<br /> - There is a sentence by sentence correspondence between the original and the paraphrase.<br />
  17. 17. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Paraphrases<br /> - A paraphrase is as detailed and specific as the original source material.<br /> - Paraphrases are useful in providing specifics, details, and ideas beyond the main ideas.<br /> - Paraphrases are found anywhere a writer needs to use specifics or details.<br />
  18. 18. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Paraphrases<br /> - Read the original source carefully, and then put it aside.<br /> - Write out your paraphrase in your own words, creating the same number of sentences as the original.<br /> - Compare your paraphrase, sentence by sentence, to the original. Change any exact words or phrases you use that come from the original source. <br />
  19. 19. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Quotations<br /> - A quotation is the use of someone else’s exact words.<br /> - A quotation must be indicated through the use of “quotation marks.”<br /> - A quotation is exactly as long as the original material.<br /> - Quotations cannot be rewritten or edited<br />
  20. 20. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Quotations<br /> - Since paraphrases and summaries require you to use your own words, there should be a good reason to use a quotation instead.<br /> - Quote when a writer’s thoughts are unusual or controversial to accurately convey their beliefs.<br />
  21. 21. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Writing Quotations<br /> - Quote when a writer’s words are particularly memorable or eloquent.<br /> - Quote when any attempt to paraphrase or summarize would make the material less clear or less eloquent.<br /> - Quote when an expert’s opinion reinforces your own beliefs (and thesis!)<br />
  22. 22. MLA Citation System<br /> - A Citation System is an artificial but consistent method to document all research sources used in a writer’s work.<br /> - Citation Systems were first created in the 1900’s by the University of Chicago.<br /> - Chicago Manual, MLA, APA, etc.<br />
  23. 23. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />MLA Citation System<br /> - All citation system can be described as either being Note-based or Parenthetical<br /> - A Note-based system uses sequential numbers in the text and footnotes or endnotes to indicate and reveal sources.<br /> - A Parenthetical system cites sources using parentheses ( ) and a bibliography.<br />
  24. 24. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />MLA Citation System<br /> - MLA is a Parenthetical Citation System<br /> - MLA requires writers to pay attention to 2 different aspects of the system:<br /> 1) In-text, parenthetical attribution<br /> 2) A separate and complete bibliography<br />
  25. 25. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />MLA Citation System<br /> - An in-text attribution is a simple indicator of the last name of the author of the original source, followed by a page number (if no pagination, always use 1)<br /> - The attribution occurs at the end of each and every note used in a paper. It doesn’t wait until the end of the paragraph or page! <br />
  26. 26. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />MLA Citation System<br />Ex: A growing number of scientists have become impatient with the lack of government involvement regarding global warming (Thomas 6).<br />Ex: Researcher Richard Thomas reveals that a growing number of scientists have become impatient with the lack of government involvement regarding global warming (6). <br />Don’t forget your PGRG—an excellent resource for MLA documentation styles<br />
  27. 27. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />MLA Citation Style<br /> - Try to use both forms of in-text citation for variety’s sake.<br /> - If you’re not sure if you should cite an idea or not, cite it anyway! When in doubt, always document!!!!<br /> - Common knowledge does not need to be cited, even if found in original sources.<br />
  28. 28. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />MLA Citation System<br /> - A bibliography is a list of all relevant information about the original source cited in a paper.<br /> - Usually includes: Author’s Name, Title, Publication, Pages, Volume/Issue, Date, Publisher, Publishing city, etc<br />
  29. 29. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />MLA Citation System<br /> - MLA is flexible enough that you can cite anything as an original source.<br /> - Every different type of source or even variations of the same type have different rules for formatting the bibliography entry.<br /> - Refer to your textbook and MLA guides for unique or individual cases.<br />- Utilize Citation Generators like KnightCite.<br />
  30. 30. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br /> - Causal analysis is based on the human need to make connections between events and make sense of the world.<br /> - It answers natural questions that we all have about the world: Why?, How Come? What if?, etc.<br />
  31. 31. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br /> Causes can also be worded as:<br /> - Reasons<br /> - Factors<br /> - Precipitating events<br /> - Sources<br /> - Motivations<br />
  32. 32. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br /> Causes are concerned with what happened or led up to an event or phenomena occurring. Identifying causes helps us answer the questions “Why?” and “How come?” <br />
  33. 33. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br />Effects can also be worded as:<br /> - Results<br /> - Impact<br /> - Significance<br /> - Consequences<br /> - Aftermath<br />
  34. 34. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br /> Effects are concerned with what happens after an event or phenomena occurs. Identifying effects answers the question “What if?”<br />
  35. 35. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br />There are three likely objectives or reasons to use C/E as a writing model.<br /> 1) To simply give information <br /> 2) To argue or persuade the reader<br /> 3) To speculate or predict <br />
  36. 36. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br />Some basic strategies for using C/E :<br /> 1) Stay focused on your main objective and don’t lose sight of it.<br /> 2) Adapt tone, diction, and content for your audience, especially for topics unfamiliar to your readers.<br />
  37. 37. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br />3. Think carefully and rigorously about Cause and Effect relationships. Understand Causal Chains and avoid mistaking correlation for causation!!!<br />(Bell ringing, teacher entering example)<br />4. In a small essay, focus just on the causes of a phenomena, or just on the effects. You won’t have enough room to do both.<br />
  38. 38. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br />5. Use an organization pattern for your Causes and/or Effects:<br /> A) Chronological (the order they happen in)<br /> B) Emphatic (the order of importance they have)<br />This will help to avoid reader confusion<br />
  39. 39. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br />6. Use language appropriate for C/E writing. Nothing is black or white or guaranteed. Avoid words such as “clearly”, “definitely”, “obviously”, “without a doubt” or “guaranteed.” Try to use words such as “probably”, “most likely”, or “seems to be”. They give you room for doubt and show you understand the complexity of C/E relationships<br />
  40. 40. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Cause and Effect<br /> Let’s read a good example of Cause & Effect writing!<br />Read :<br /> “Why we crave horror movies” by Stephen King, pages 398-399.<br />
  41. 41. GE 117 Composition I Week 6<br />Now for Homework, PRACTICE!<br /> - Course Project Part two: Selecting and narrowing the topic<br />Read assignments 2, 3, and 4 on page 412 of The Longman Writer. Select one of the situations ("flunking out," the "trash crisis," or "Turn off the TV") and follow the directions given in the book. Submit a minimum of three well-developed paragraphs. Remember that a "well developed” paragraph has a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and a conclusion sentence. Submit your work in a Word document. <br />
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