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R, r & sci rev notes
R, r & sci rev notes
R, r & sci rev notes
R, r & sci rev notes
R, r & sci rev notes
R, r & sci rev notes
R, r & sci rev notes
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R, r & sci rev notes
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R, r & sci rev notes


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R, R & Sci Rev Notes

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  • 1. THE RENAISSANCE, THE REFORMATION, & The Scientific revolution
  • 2. The Italian Renaissance Main Idea In Italy the growth of wealthy trading cities and new ways of thinking helped lead to a rebirth of the arts and learning. This era became known as the Renaissance.
  • 3.
    • Changes in Society
    • 1300, Black Death, starvation, warfare had overtaken Europe
    • Decrease in population led to:
      • Increase in food production
      • Decline in food prices
      • More money to spend
      • Specialization in products
    • The Rise of City-States
    • Urban areas specialized, particularly in Italy
    • Italy; large city-states in north, Papal States south
    • Catholic Church, nobles, merchants, artisans dominated society in city-states
    • Many sought to display new wealth with knowledge of arts
    The Beginning of the Renaissance - 1300-1650
  • 4.
    • Venice
    • Venice built economy & reputation on trade (Sea) Long History
    • Shipbuilding prospered, sailors traveled to Near East
    • Venetian merchants built unique city, “work of art”
    • Milan, Florence
    • Milan, based economy on agriculture, silk, weapons
    • Florence, to south, famous for banking, cloth
      • Monarchs appealed to bankers for money to fund wars
      • Merchants refined raw wool into fine cloth
      • Bankers, merchants created city to rival any in Europe
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
    • New Society + New Economy = New ideas
    • Renaissance : “rebirth” of art, literature, science and learning
    • Inspiration from the Ancients
    • Ships carried goods for trade
    • Scholars brought ancient works thought to be lost
    • New World of Ideas
    • Literate Italians looked for information
    • Read Arabic translations
    • Searched libraries, found lost texts
    • Different Viewpoints
    • People think about philosophy, art, science in different ways
    • Began to believe in human capacity to create, achieve
    Renaissance Ideas
  • 8.
    • Humanities
    • Interest in Greek, Roman culture
    • Scholastic education gave way to classics: rhetoric, grammar, poetry, history, Latin, Greek
    • Humanism : Study worldly subjects, Focus on People
    • Roots
    • Dante contained glimpses of focus on human nature
    • Renaissance began with 2 humanists
    • 1. Giovanni Boccaccio,
    • 2. Francesco Petrarch, “Father of Humanism”
    • Both wrote Vernacular : Everyday language not Latin
    • Advances were made in medicine, as well as astronomy
  • 9.
    • Early 1500s life in Italy seemed insecure, precarious
    • Church no longer served as source of stability, peace
    • Form of humanism developed from Petrarch’s ideas; focus was secular , was worldly rather than spiritual
    • Service
    • Humanists argued that individual achievement, education could be fully expressed only if people used talents, abilities in service of cities.
    • Renaissance Man
    • Ideal Renaissance man = “universal man,”
      • accomplished in classics,
      • man of action, who could respond to all situations.
    Secular Writers
  • 10.
    • How to Act
    • Italian diplomat Baldassare Castiglione wrote book, The Courtier
    • Described how perfect Renaissance gentleman, gentlewoman should act
    • Book includes fictional conversation between duke, guests
    • How to Rule
    • Philosopher, statesman Niccol ò Machiavelli also wrote influential book
    • Experiences with violent politics influenced opinions on how governments should rule in The Prince
    • Castiglione’s Advice
    • Castiglione gave nobles new rules for refined behavior in humanist society
    • Speak of serious, as well of amusing subjects; know Latin, Greek
    • Be well-acquainted with poetry, history; be able to write prose, poetry
    Examples of Renaissance Men
  • 11.
    • Machiavellian advice seemed to encourage harsh treatment of citizens, rival states
    • Describes men as “ungrateful, fickle, liars, and deceivers”
    • Advises rulers to separate morals from politics
      • Power, ruthlessness more useful than idealism
      • Ruler must do whatever necessary to keep political power, even if cruel
    • Machiavelli’s theory that “the end justifies the means” deviated from accepted views of correct behavior, “Better to be feared, than loved”
    • Idea that state an entity in itself, separate from its ruler, became foundation for later political philosophy , State before people
  • 12.
    • Scientific Information
    • Humanists searched archives, Arab translations for classical texts
    • Discovered wealth of scientific information
    • Natural World
    • Focus on human sciences, history, politics, geography
    • New ideas about natural world began to be explored
    Science of the Renaissance
  • 13. Science of the Renaissance
    • Scientific Challenges
    • Science became important avenue of inquiry
    • Church’s teachings about world were challenged, particularly that Earth center of universe
    • Earth, Sun
    • Nicholas Copernicus said Sun was center of universe-Heliocentric
    • Galileo Galilei arrested by church officials for saying Earth orbited Sun
  • 14. Medieval artists — idealized and symbolic representations-Religion Renaissance artists; Realistic, Nature & Human Body (Humanism)
    • Patrons of the Arts
    • Middle Ages created church art
    • Renaissance artists worked for $$
    • Patrons : Buyers of art
    • Competition Among Patrons
    • Wealthy individuals competed, through purchase of artworks
    • Florence, Lorenzo de Medici supported most talented artists
    • Milan, Sforza family benefactors of artists
    Renaissance Art
  • 15.
    • Artists Methods
    • Perspective: Illusion of Depth, 3-D-ish
    • Use color to portray shapes, textures
    • Artists paint, sculpt Greek, Roman myths
    • Classical Influence
    • Religious paintings focus on personality
    • Humanist focus; classical learning & human nature
    • Building design reflected Greek, Roman culture
    Styles and Techniques
  • 16.
    • Painter, Writer, Inventor, Architect, Engineer, Mathematician, Musician, & Philosopher
    • Paintings; Last Supper & Mona Lisa
    • Wrote out ideas, Tank, Plane, Anatomy, Machine Gun, etc…
    • His interests, enthusiasm boundless
    Leonardo da Vinci
    • Michelangelo
    • Studied anatomy
    • Piet à , sculpture of Mary holding Jesus' dead body
    • David , 13’ Statue, Marble
    • Sistine Chapel, Old Testament
    • Sculpture communicates grief, love, acceptance, immortality, energy, expression
  • 18.
    • Bramante
    • Famous, chosen architect of Rome
    • Design for St. Peter’s Basilica
    • Raphael
    • Renowned painter, architect
    • The School of Athens , fresco—painting made on plaster
    • Paintings of the Madonna, mother of Jesus
    Other Artists
    • Main Idea
    • Renaissance ideas soon spread beyond Italy to northern Europe by means of trade, travel, and printed material, influencing the art and ideas of the north.
  • 20. Trade, the movement of artists & scholars, and the printing press; helped spread Renaissance ideas north from Italy.
    • Trading Goods
    • Cities grew, trade network spread across northern Europe
    • Dominated by Hanseatic League,
      • Protected members from pirates, other hazards
      • Built lighthouses, train ship captains
    • Trading Ideas
    • Northern Europeans traded ideas, goods & Italian Renaissance north
    • Fleeing violence, Italian artists brought humanist ideas, painting techniques north
    • Northern scholars traveled to Italy, bring ideas home
    • Universities started in France, Netherlands, Germany
    The Renaissance Spreads North
  • 21.
    • Printing Press
    • Mid-1400s, Johannes Gutenberg cast letters of alphabet on metal plates, locked metal plates on wooden press; perfected movable type printing
    • Result, one of most dramatic upheavals world has ever known
    • Printed Word Available to More
    • Before Copies by hand; long, painstaking process
    • With movable type, books faster & cheaper
    • Easier access to books prompted = More Literacy
    • Italics
    • Gutenberg’s first publication, 1,282-page Bible
    • Explosion of printed material spread Renaissance ideas
    A Book Revolution
  • 22. Northern humanists, Combined interests; theology, fiction and history Created philosophical works, novels, dramas, and poems
    • Desiderius Erasmus
    • Combined Christian ideas, humanism
    • Pure, simple Christian life, educate children
    • Fueled discontent for Catholic Church, Censored
    • Sir Thomas More
    • Utopia , criticize English government & society
    • Vision of perfect, non-existent society based on reason
    • Christine de Pisan
    • Italian writer focus on women in society
    • The City of Women
    • Championed equality, education for women
    Philosophers and Writers
  • 23.
    • William Shakespeare
    • English , One of great writers
    • Plots not original, but treatments masterful
    • Inspiration from ancient, contemporary literature
    • Knowledge of natural science, humanist topics in plays
    Shakespeare and His Characters
    • Spread Renaissance Ideas
    • Use of language& themes made plays appealing
    • Plays helped spread ideas of Renaissance to mass audience
    • Realistic characters-Flaws
    • By Shakespeare’s death, 1616, London scene of thriving theatre district
  • 24.
    • Northern European artists influenced by Italian Renaissance
    • Adopted Italian techniques
    • Works reflected more realistic view of humanity
      • Northern artists depict people as they really were
    • Albrecht D ü rer:
    • 1400s, German artist visited Italy
    • Used Italian techniques of realism, perspective
    • Oils reproduce textures; reflection of objects, scenes outside window
  • 25.
    • Flemish School
    • Jan van Eyck , 1400s, Landscape & Domestic Life
    • Fused the everyday with religion; lit candle represents God’s presence
    • Everyday Life
    • Pieter Brueghel the Elder,1500’s used Italian techniques
    • Paintings of everyday peasant life
    • Different from Italian paintings
  • 26. The Protestant Reformation Main Idea Criticism of the Roman Catholic Church led to a religious movement called the Protestant Reformation and brought changes in religion and politics across Europe.
  • 27.
    • Roman Catholic Church — influential, extravagant, and worldly
    • Some felt church wanted money over saving souls
    • Concerns crystallized into the Protestant Reformation
    • Dissatisfaction
    • Financial corruption, abuse of power, immorality
    • Respect for Clergy weakened
    • Heavy taxation caused discontent
    • Financing Basilica
    • Pope Leo X approved sale of Indulgences
    • Indulgences, pardons reduced a soul’s time in purgatory
    • Needed money for St. Peter’s Basilica
    • Working Off Sins
    • Dead went to purgatory, worked off sins committed
    • Sale of indulgences widely criticized
    Catholicism in the 1400s
  • 28.
    • John Wycliffe - English
    • believed church should give up earthly possessions
    • His views unpopular with church officials
    • Was removed from teaching position
    Early Reformers
    • Jan Hus
    • Preached against Catholic Church
    • Excommunicated by Pope Gregory XII; later tried for heresy and burned at stake
    • Influential theologians openly criticized church, led to reform
  • 29. 1517, Martin Luther’s public criticism of the church in 1517 begins the Protestant Reformation .
    • The Ninety-Five Theses
    • 95 Theses, Luther's Ideas on Church
    • Martin Luther believe sell indulgences sinful
    • Key to Salvation = Inner Faith
    • Criticized power of pope & wealth of church
    • Theses written in Latin, intended for church leaders, not common people
    • Thesis Stimulate discussion among Intellectuals
    Martin Luther
  • 30.
    • Empowered the People
    • Insisted that individual Christians should be own interpreters of scripture, Christian practices should come only from Bible
    • To help, Luther translated Bible into German
    • Translation allowed more people to read Bible without aid of clergy
    • Luther’s Message
    • Contradicted basic Catholic beliefs, insisted God’s grace cannot be won by good works; faith alone needed
    • 1519, declared only head of Christian Church was Jesus, not pope
  • 31.
    • Church’s Response
    • 1520, Pope Leo X excomm. Luther
    • 1521, Luther summoned to appear before Holy Roman emperor Charles V
    • German Diet
    • Luther appeared before Charles V, German Diet (assembly), at Worms
    • Refused to change opinions
    • Edict of Worms
    • Emperor Decree Edict of Worms
    • Declared Luther to be outlaw, condemned his writings
    • Luther’s ideas spread
    • Protestant
    • 1529, Charles V tried to suppress Lutherans in Germany
    • German princes protestatio , protest, against Charles V
    • Term Protestant came from this
    Reactions to Luther
  • 32.
    • Luther opened the door for others with Differing religious ideas
    • Ulrich Zwingli (Switzerland)
    • Preached ideas similar to Martin Luther’s, viewed as radical
    • Theocracy , government in which church, state joined; officials divinely inspired
    • Opposed by Luther
    • Many support Zwingli, Luther did not
    • Luther accused Zwingli of tampering with word of God
    • Without Lutherans’ support, Swiss Protestants vulnerable to attack by Catholics
    • Swiss Protestants and Catholics erupted into war,
    • Zwingli died in battle in 1531
    The Spread of Protestantism
  • 33.
    • Background
    • John Calvin (France), influenced by Erasmus, Renaissance humanists
    • Supported reforms of Luther in Germany
    • Influenced by Augustine
    • Preached Predestination: God knows who will be saved at birth
    • Nothing humans can do, good or bad, will change predestined end
    • People Sinful by Nature
    • Geneva became Theocracy under Calvin; strict laws regulated behavior
    • Church Mandatory, Courses of Meals, Color of Clothes,
    • Forbid, Dancing, Singing, Feasting, & Jewelry
    • Strictness gave Calvinism’s appeal, gave sense of mission, discipline
    • Calvinists making world fit for “elect” who had been chosen for salvation
    John Calvin
  • 34.
    • John Knox
    • Spokesman for the Reformation in Scotland
      • Knox’s Reformed Church replaced Roman Catholic Church
      • Laid groundwork for later Presbyterian denomination
    • Anabaptists
    • Different beliefs about baptism; insisted on re-baptizing adults
      • Re-baptizing Crime punishable by death at that time
      • Anabaptist Church evolved into Hutterites, the Mennonites, and the Amish Mennonites
    Other Reformers
  • 35.
    • A King’s Protest
    • 1509, Henry VIII became king, age 17
    • Devout Catholic
    • Wrote angry protests against Luther
    • Title “Defender of the Faith”
    • 1525, Wife, Catherine of Aragon gave birth to Mary
    • Annulment
    • Henry wanted male heir
    • Wanted marriage to Catherine annulled
    • Pope would not agree to annulment
    • Opposition
    • Catherine & nephew H.R.E. Charles V, opposed annulment
    • Henry fell in love with Anne Boleyn
    Protestantism Spreads to England
  • 36.
    • Henry Takes Over
    • Reformation Parliament declared England no longer under authority of pope
    • Henry became head of Church of England, Anglican Church
    • Church of England
    • Henry changed rituals of church very little
    • Closed Catholic monasteries, convents, Land to nobles
    • This built more public support for split from Catholic Church
    • Act of Supremacy
    • 1533, Anne Boleyn & Henry married; marriage to Catherine annulled
    • Later that year Anne gave birth to daughter, Elizabeth
    • Act of Supremacy passed; Henry VIII “Supreme Head of Church of England”
    The Reformation Parliament
  • 37.
    • Third wife, Jane Seymour gave England male heir, Edward VI
    • 1547, Edward VI took throne, age 9
    • Edward died young; sister, Mary became queen of England
    • Bloody Mary,
    • Mary returned to authority of pope
    • Hundreds burned at state for Protestant beliefs, “Bloody Mary”
    • Her death caused little grief
    • Elizabeth’s Reign
    • Elizabeth I , Protestant at heart
    • 1559, drafted new Supremacy Act, splitting England again from Rome
    • Elizabeth persecuted Catholics, secured Church of England
    Henry’s Heirs
  • 38.
  • 39. THE COUNTER-REFORMATION Main Idea Catholics at all levels recognized the need for reform in the church. Their work turned back the tide of Protestantism in some areas and renewed the zeal of Catholics everywhere.
  • 40.
    • Before Luther, some Catholics working toward reform
    • Counter-Reformation , series of reforms by Catholics
    • Early Reformers
    • Monk Girolamo Savonarola tried to change church from within
    • 1400s, preached fiery sermons against abuses of church
    • Called for church to melt down gold, silver ornaments, buy bread for hungry, poor
    • Bonfire of the Vanities
    • “ Bonfire of the vanities”, Burn jewelry & Trinkets
    • Pope Alexander allowed Savonarola’s work, eventually excommunicated him
    • 1498, Savonarola was executed at Florence
    Reforming the Catholic Church
  • 41.
    • New Religious Orders
    • New religious orders whose members reform church
    • Renewed church’s emphasis on spirituality, service
    • Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits
    • 1534, Ignatius of Loyola , Founded Jesuits, Basque Nobleman, Soldier
    • Loyola ran Jesuits like military
    • Emphasizing obedience to church above all
    • Jesuits use education to combating Protestant Reformation; established missions, schools, universities
  • 42.
    • Need to redefine the doctrines of Catholic faith,
    • 1545, Council of Trent, Pope Paul III examined Catholic practices and clarified teaching on important points.
    • Reforms
    • Delegates addressed abuses
    • Reforms addressed corruption of clergy
    • Training of priests regulated
    • Financial abuses curbed
    • Sale of indulgences abolished
    • Church help believers achieve salvation
    • No Compromise
    • No compromise between Catholicism, Protestantism
    • Reforms boost to Catholicism, renewed energy, confidence
    • Jesuit schools expanded scope of church worldwide
    Council of Trent
  • 43.
    • Several important figures helped carry out Council of Trent reforms
    • Charles Borromeo
      • Archbishop of Milan
      • Built new school for educating priests
    • Francis of Sales , in France
      • Regain district of Savoy, had largely turned to Calvinism
      • Founded religious teaching order for women
    Reforming Catholics
  • 44.
    • Renaissance women in religious orders took more active roles
    • By late Middle Ages, acceptable for nuns to help poor, orphaned, sick
    • Italian nun Angela Merici began Company of Saint Ursula, teaching girls
    • Jane of Chantal and Francis of Sales began Visitation of Holy Mary, trained women to be teachers
    • Mary Ward
    • Began European network of girls’ schools
    • 1 st denounced because ideas about women dangerously new
    • Later missionary influence formally recognized by church
    Women and the Church
    • Teresa of Avila
    • Most famous female spiritual leader
    • Decided convent practices too lax, followed own strict rules
    • Reformed Carmelite order
    • Deep spirituality, visions, fervor inspired many to remain Catholic
  • 45.
    • Roman Inquisition
    • 1542, to counter Reformation, church established church court
    • Tried People for being Protestants, witchcraft, or breaking church law
    • Spanish Inquisition
    • Spanish monarchs set up, controlled much harsher Spanish Inquisition, 1478
    • Used to impose religion on converted Jews, Muslims, later on Protestants
    • Abuse of Church’s Power
    • Church tried to stamp out rebellion through Index of Forbidden Books
    • Church warned reading these books would cause people to lose souls
    • Accounts of torture, executions by courts damaged church’s image
    The Inquisition
  • 46.
  • 47.
    • Changes In Religion
    • Jesuits spread Catholicism to other continents
    • Jesuit’s softened harsh colonial rule in North America & beyond
    • Protestants split into many factions
    • Catholics persecuted non-Catholics, non-Catholics persecuted Catholics and one another
    • Conflict and Turmoil
    • Rifts open among Protestant churches
    • Martin Luther denounced radical ideas of Anabaptists, Zwingli’s followers
    • Calvinists disapproved of Lutheranism
    • Martin Luther’s theses open door to religious freedom
    Religious and Social Effects
  • 48.
    • Witchcraft
    • Many Europeans feared witches roamed land, killing children, cattle
    • Fears increased in times of poor harvests, other hardships; fears inspired hysteria = accused witches tried for alleged wrongdoing
    • Penalty for practicing witchcraft, death; many innocents executed
    • 1580-1660, Majority of executions; thousands, mostly women and poor, killed
    • Persecution and Hysteria
    • Catholics and Protestants viewed Jews, Muslims as heretics
    • Jews in 1492, Muslims in 1500, forced to convert to Catholicism or leave Spain; many Jews resettled in eastern, southern Europe
    • Some places, Jews forced to live in ghettos, walled in, gates closed
    • Jews who had converted, were members of educated elite, stayed in Spain
  • 49.
    • Rising sense of national identity = Decline in power of Catholicism
    • Protestant Reformation indirectly encouraged formation of independent states, nations
    • Rulers, merchants want church less involved in state, business affairs
    • Political power became separated from churches
    • Nations, churches still aligned with one another to increase influence
    Political Effects
  • 50.
    • 1494, King Charles VIII of France invaded Italy.
    • Series of wars, France & Spain for the Italian Peninsula.
    • The Italian Wars
    • Control of Italy bounced between France, Spain
    • England became involved
    • 1527, Fighting culminated in sack of Rome by H.R.E. Charles V
    • Significance of Wars
    • Expanded Italian Renaissance throughout Europe
    • Troops brought home ideas
    • Italian artists fled north, took techniques, styles with them
    Religious Wars and Unrest
  • 51.
    • New Ideas and Unrest
    • New ideas circulated among growing population
    • Peasants unhappy with high taxes & lack of power
    • Reformation preachers gave backing to idea of freedom
    • Peasants’ War, 1524
    • Peasants’ War ; 10’s of 1000’s of German peasants storm castles, monasteries
    • Nobles harshly suppressed uprising
    • Luther’s Reaction
    • Martin Luther denounced Peasants’ War
    • Stopped Reformation from spilling over into social revolution & social equality
    Conflicts among Germans
  • 52.
    • Charles V
    • H.R.E. Charles V turn back tide of Protestantism
    • 1546, began war against Lutheran princes of Germany
    • Peace of Augsburg
    • After years, enthusiasm for war waned
    • 1555, Peace of Augsburg signed
    • Agreement
    • Charles scorned religious compromise, would not attend
    • Agreement = Each prince choose religion
    • Seeds of Religious Freedom
    • Only choices = Catholicism, Lutheranism
    • Subjects had no say in choice
    • Seeds of religious freedom were planted
    Tide of Protestantism
  • 53.
    • In France, Huguenots; Protestant minority, fought for years against Catholics
    • Fighting end when Huguenot leader, Henry of Navarre, became Catholic
    • His conversion = political stability, encouraging Catholics to accept as king
    • 1598, Henry’s Edict of Nantes; granted religious freedom to Protestants
    Conflicts between Religions
  • 54. Main Idea New ways of thinking led to remarkable discoveries during the Scientific Revolution. The Scientific Revolution
  • 55.
    • The Old View (Church View)
    • Scholars relied on traditional authorities for beliefs about structure of universe
    • Geocentric theory , Aristotle , Earth center of universe
      • Sun, moon, planets revolved around Earth
    • Ideas upheld by church, accepted authority for European intellectuals
    • New Viewpoints
    • Scholars began to challenge traditional authorities, 1500s
    • Scientific Revolution : Transformation of European Thought, Question Traditional thinking
    • Posed theories, developed procedures to test ideas (Observe & Experiment – Sci. Method)
    • Why open to new ideas?
      • Exploration
      • New lands, new people, new animals
    Dawn of Modern Science
  • 56.
    • Ancient scholars could provide no information about new lands, people, animals
    • Age of Exploration led scientists to study natural world more closely
    • New things to be discovered, unknown to ancients
    • Navigators needed more accurate instruments, geographic knowledge
    • Scientists examined natural world, found it did not match ancient beliefs
    Dawn of Modern Science
  • 57.
    • New Approach to Investigation
    • Scientific Method
      • Identify problem
      • Form hypothesis
      • Perform experiments to test hypothesis
      • Record results
      • Analyze results, form conclusion
    • Scientific Method Scholars; Ideas of both continue to influence modern scientific methods
    • Francis Bacon (Eng), gain scientific knowledge; Experiment, Observe, Measure, Explain, & Verify
    • Rene Descartes (Fr), Reason, everything should be doubted until proved by reason
      • Relied on math, logic
    The Scientific Method
  • 58.
    • Early scientists
    • Made significant contributions in astronomy, physics and math
    • Began to explain complexities of solar system, limits of physical world
    • Copernicus
    • Found geocentric theory of movement of sun, moon, planets not accurate
    • Concluded sun, not earth, near center of solar system
    • Heliocentric theory , earth revolves around sun, Not new
      • Used mathematical explanation of process
      • 1 st to create complete model of solar system
    • On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
    • Copernicus’ famous book not published until last year of his life
    • Church opposed work, contradicted teachings of church
    • Weaknesses of theory
    • Mathematical formulas did not predict positions of planets well
    • Copernicus did not want to be ridiculed for weaknesses
    • Died 1543 after work published, other scientists expanded on ideas
    Discoveries in Astronomy, Physics, and Math
  • 59.
    • Brahe, Danish Astronomer
    • 1572, a bright object over Denmark sky, wrote book to prove it was a new star
    • Called it a Supernova , distant exploding star suddenly visible on earth
    • Book impressed Denmark’s King Frederick II
    • Gave Brahe money to build two observatories
    • Observatories
    • Developed system to explain planetary movement
    • Believed sun revolved around earth
    • Other five known planets revolved around sun
    Tycho Brahe
  • 60. Johannes Kepler
    • Kepler, German Mathematician
    • Brahe’s assistant to form mathematical theory from measurements of planets
    • Published result of measurements of orbit of Mars after Brahe’s death
    • Kepler solved main problem of
    • Copernicus assumed planets orbited in circle, the flaw
    • Kepler found planets orbited in oval pattern, ellipse
    • Wanted to prove Copernicus wrong, instead proved heliocentric theory correct
    • Kepler’s mathematical solar system model also correct
  • 61.
    • Galileo Galilei (It)
    • 1609, first telescope used for astronomy, scan heavens
    • Galileo described discoveries
      • Craters on moon, sunspots
      • Saturn, moons of Jupiter
      • Milky Way made up of star
    • 1610, Starry Messenger , Book of Discoveries
    Discoveries in Astronomy, Physics, and Math
  • 62.
    • Isaac Newton (Eng)
    • Brought together astronomy, physics, math, & wondered of Gravity
    • 1687, Principia : Book explained law of universal gravitation
      • Gravity affects objects on earth, also in universe
      • Keeps planets in orbit
    • Developed calculus, & predict effects of gravity
    • German philosopher Gottfried von Leibniz also developed calculus at same time
    • Each accused the other of plagiarism (Independent discovery)
    Sir Isaac Newton’s Findings
  • 63.
    • Biology; European Middle Ages doctors relied on Greek, Galen = Inaccurate
    • Andreas Vesalius (Flemish)
    • Focus on anatomy, Used bodies of executed criminals for dissection
    • 1543, On the Workings of the Human Body, used artists to produce accurate drawings
    • William Harvey (Eng)
    • Observed, explained workings of human heart
    • Described blood, circulatory system function
    • Antony van Leeuwenhoek (Dutch)
    • Used interest in developing magnifying lens to invent microscope
    • First to describe appearance of bacteria, red blood cells, yeast, other microorganisms
    • Robert Hooke (Eng)
    • Used early microscope to describe appearance of plants at microscopic level
    • Credited with creating the term cell
    Discoveries in Biology and Chemistry
  • 64.
    • Robert Boyle
    • Father of modern chemistry
    • First to define element
    • 1661 , The Sceptical Chemist , described matter as cluster of tiny particles (now called atoms)
    • Changes in matter occurred when clusters rearranged
    • Boyle’s law: Describe how temperature, volume, & pressure affect gases
    • Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (Fr)
    • Developed methods for precise measurements
    • Discovered law of Conservation of Mass, proved matter could not be created, destroyed
    • Recognized, named oxygen, introduced metric system, invented first periodic table
  • 65.
    • The church opposed the views of many scientists
    • Question? Church’s role in changing Society & Culture
    • Science and the Church
    • Church most powerful institution in Europe, Middle Ages
    • Primary resource for knowledge, learning
    • Cathedral schools, universities trained people to run the church
    • Conflicts
    • Most scientists did not want to challenge role of Christianity
    • Church explained world through inspiration, revealed truth
    • Science explained world through logical reasoning
    • The church feared reason as an enemy of faith, eventually embrace some changes
    Science and Society
  • 66.
    • Galileo’s Theories
    • Brought him into direct conflict with the church
    • Church leaders pressured him not to support ideas of Copernicus
    • Dialogue concerning Two Chief World Systems, 1632, showed support
    • Trial
    • Pope Urban VII ordered Galileo to Rome to stand trial before Inquisition
    • Church wanted to stamp out heresy, or dissenting views
    • Trial held, April 1633
    • House Arrest
    • Galileo stated would not use Copernican theory in work
    • Received lenient sentence in return
    • Pope ordered Galileo under house arrest, where he spent rest of life
    Science and the Church
  • 67.
    • Renaissance
    • Study of art, architecture not separate from study of science
    • Artists learned anatomy in order to paint the body
    • Artists
    • Experimented with chemistry of paints, nature of light
    • Used math to create compositions of perfect balance
    • Architecture
    • Mathematics, physics crucial to great architecture
    • Also used in engineering achievements of the time
    • Science and religion
    • Combined to produce great artistic achievements of Renaissance
    • Most art, architecture dedicated to glory of God
    Science and Art
  • 68.
    • Scientific Revolution = New way of thinking about physical world
    • Great advances made in astronomy, physics, biology, chemistry
    • Advances influenced developments in arts, architecture
    • Philosophers/Scholars wonder if reason could solve poverty, war, ignorance
    Science and Community