Middle age notes

7,450 views

Published on

Discussion Notes for the middle Ages

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
7,450
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
9
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
760
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Middle age notes

  1. 1. THE MIDDLE AGES 800-1215
  2. 2. FEUDAL & MANORIAL SYSTEMS
  3. 3. <ul><li>Origins of Feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Feudalism originated as result of invasions </li></ul><ul><li>Kings can’t defend their lands & lands of their nobles </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles had to find way to defend own lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built castles, often on hills (wood to stone) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knights and Lords </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles need trained soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Knights : highly skilled soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Mounted knights best defenders </li></ul><ul><li>Being a knight expensive; weapons, armor, horses </li></ul><ul><li>Knights need payment, usually land </li></ul>The Feudal System KNIGHTS
  4. 4. <ul><li>Feudal system , or feudalism: Giving land for service </li></ul><ul><li>Fief (Fiefdom): Land given to knight for service </li></ul><ul><li>Vassal: Anyone accepting fief </li></ul><ul><li>Lord : Person from whom he accepted fief was his lord </li></ul>Fiefs and Vassals
  5. 5. <ul><li>Oath of Fealty </li></ul><ul><li>Lords, vassals in feudal system had duties to fulfill </li></ul><ul><li>Oath Of Fealty: Promise to remain loyal </li></ul><ul><li>Knight’s Obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Knights provide military service to his lord </li></ul><ul><li>Knight had financial obligations to lord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay ransom for lord’s release if captured in battle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave money on special occasions, such as knighting of son </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lord’s Obligations </li></ul><ul><li>Lord treat knights fairly, not demanding too much time, money </li></ul><ul><li>Protect knight if attacked by enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Act as judge in disputes between knights </li></ul>Feudal Obligations
  6. 6. <ul><li>Lord and Vassal </li></ul><ul><li>Person could be both lord, vassal </li></ul><ul><li>Knights gave land to other knights, created many levels of obligations </li></ul><ul><li>One knight could serve many lords </li></ul><ul><li>Fealty to King </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone supposed to be loyal to the king, not everyone loyal </li></ul><ul><li>Some powerful nobles as strong as kings, ignored duties as vassals </li></ul><ul><li>Feudal rules specific to time, place; could change over time </li></ul>A Complicated System FEUDALISM VIDEO
  7. 7. <ul><li>Feudal system : was a political and social system. </li></ul><ul><li>Manorial system : governed medieval economics </li></ul><ul><li>Lords, Peasants, and Serfs </li></ul><ul><li>Manors owned by wealthy lords, knights </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants farmed & given protection & plots of land </li></ul><ul><li>Serfdom </li></ul><ul><li>Most peasants were serfs , tied to manor, </li></ul><ul><li>Not slaves, could not be sold </li></ul><ul><li>Could not leave or marry without permission </li></ul><ul><li>Free People </li></ul><ul><li>Manors had free people, that rented land </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled workers like blacksmiths, millers </li></ul><ul><li>Priest for spiritual needs </li></ul>The Manorial System
  8. 8. <ul><li>Most of manor’s land for crops, pastures for animals </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Ages farmers learned, leaving field empty improved soil </li></ul><ul><li>Three Crop Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>1 field planted for fall harvest </li></ul><ul><li>2nd field planted for spring harvest </li></ul><ul><li>3rd field unplanted for year </li></ul><ul><li>Small Village </li></ul><ul><li>Manor included fortified house for noble family, village for peasants, serfs </li></ul><ul><li>Goal to make manor self-sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Typical manor also included church, mill, blacksmith </li></ul>A Typical Manor
  9. 9. <ul><li>Life in a Castle </li></ul><ul><li>Early castles built for defense not comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Few windows, stuffy in summer, cold in winter, dark always </li></ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles share space with soldiers, servants, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>Private rooms very rare </li></ul><ul><li>Main room the hall, large room for dining, entertaining </li></ul><ul><li>Bedrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Noble family bedrooms separated from main area by sheets </li></ul><ul><li>Later castles had separate bedrooms; latrines near bedrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Wooden bathtub outside in warm weather, inside near fireplace in winter </li></ul>Daily Life in the Middle Ages
  10. 10. <ul><li>Typical village family lived in a small wooden one-room house. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roof = straw, the floor of dirt, Open holes served as windows. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bedrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Slept on beds of straw on floor </li></ul><ul><li>All shared one room with animals </li></ul><ul><li>Animals to provide heat in winters </li></ul><ul><li>Meals </li></ul><ul><li>Cooked meals over open fire </li></ul><ul><li>No chimneys, smoke; fires common </li></ul><ul><li>Meal: bread, cheese, vegetables, occasionally meat </li></ul>Life in a Village
  11. 11. Power of the Church Main Idea Reform and changes swept through the Christian Church, one of the most influential institutions in medieval Europe.
  12. 12. <ul><li>Popes as Political Figures </li></ul><ul><li>Pope is head of Roman Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Early popes = spiritual leaders </li></ul><ul><li>During Middle Ages = political figures </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Manorialism, feudalism encouraged local loyalties </li></ul><ul><li>Religion touched almost every aspect of Christians’ lives </li></ul>Religion in the Middle Ages
  13. 13. <ul><li>Religious Ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li>Major life events marked by religious ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li>Monks acted as peacemakers, prayed for safety of rulers, armies </li></ul><ul><li>Church officials served as teachers, record keeper </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic Increase </li></ul><ul><li>Around 1000, influence of church increased dramatically </li></ul><ul><li>Great upwelling of piety , level of devotion, in Europe </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Europe’s common people inspired by a new sense of piety, </li></ul><ul><li>Clergy members sought ways to improve conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Papacy </li></ul><ul><li>900s, Pope = little authority </li></ul><ul><li>Local bishops make most religious decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Papacy not held in high regard </li></ul><ul><li>Church Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>1049, Leo IX, reform papacy </li></ul><ul><li>Believe, Europe’s clergy was corrupt </li></ul><ul><li>Simony , buying/selling of church offices by bishops </li></ul>Growth of Papal Power
  15. 15. <ul><li>Excommunication </li></ul><ul><li>Bishops guilty of bad offenses Excommunicated , cast out of church </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No greater punishment for Christians </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excommunicated could not take part in Eucharist, could not be saved </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Leo active in governing church than other popes </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms = conflict with political, religious leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Many bishops believed pope had no authority </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict (GREAT SCHISM) </li></ul><ul><li>Bishop of Constantinople, Reject Leo </li></ul><ul><li>1054, Leo excommunicated bishop, </li></ul><ul><li>Follow Leo = Roman Catholics; </li></ul><ul><li>those who sided with bishop = Orthodox </li></ul>Power and Conflict
  16. 16. <ul><li>Pope became head of huge network of ecclesiastical courts, heard cases on religious, moral matters </li></ul><ul><li>Pope also ruled territories, like Papal States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had ability to raise armies to defend territories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several popes hired Normans to fight wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crusades against Muslims launched by popes </li></ul></ul>Popes and Politics
  17. 17. <ul><li>Popes had increased their power, still conflict with political leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Kings active role in choosing clergy & Bishops </li></ul><ul><li>Reform </li></ul><ul><li>Issue became critical during Pope Gregory VII ’s pontificate </li></ul><ul><li>Popes think only clergy should choose religious officials </li></ul><ul><li>Bishop of Milan </li></ul><ul><li>Henry IV , Holy Roman emperor, chose new bishop for city of Milan </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory removed bishop </li></ul><ul><li>Henry disputed Gregory’s authority </li></ul>Conflict over Bishops
  18. 18. <ul><li>Excommunication </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory excommunicate Henry </li></ul><ul><li>Henry traveled to Canossa to beg forgiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Reluctantly, Gregory lifted excommunication </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise: local clergy would choose bishops </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Gregory stood up to emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Pope become one of strongest figures in Europe </li></ul>Gregory and Henry
  19. 19. <ul><li>Contemplation and Prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries founded by men seeking lives of contemplation and prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries often paid for by local rulers, who chose abbots who led them </li></ul><ul><li>Benedictine Rule Abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>900, Rulers stopped choosing qualified abbots, Benedictine Rule abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>Return to Monasticism </li></ul><ul><li>Early 900s, New monastery at Cluny, France, to live by Benedictine Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monks of Cluny choose own abbot </li></ul></ul>Changes in Monasticism
  20. 20. <ul><li>Cluny became most influential monastery in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>For some monks, Benedictine life not strict enough </li></ul><ul><li>Cistercian order: wanted lives free from any worldly distractions </li></ul>New Orders <ul><li>built outside of towns = Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Undecorated, unheated; monks divided time between prayer, labor </li></ul>Cistercian Monasteries Network of Monasteries
  21. 21. Monk’s Life Illuminated Manuscripts
  22. 22. THE CRUSADES
  23. 23. <ul><li>GOAL OF CRUSADES </li></ul><ul><li>Goal to reclaim Holy Land from Muslims-Seljuk Turks </li></ul><ul><li>Christians launched Crusades: series of religious wars o reclaim the Holy Land </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem; Holy Temple of Jews, where Jesus crucified, buried, was to come again </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims Control Holy Land </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1000’s, Fatamids </li></ul><ul><li>Turkish Muslims persecuted Christians visiting region </li></ul><ul><li>1071, Turks attacked Byzantine Empire, destroyed army </li></ul><ul><li>Byz. Emperor turned Pope Urban II , for help </li></ul>Launching the Crusades
  24. 24. <ul><li>Pope Urban II called leaders to Clermont, France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavenly (Salvation) & Earthly Rewards (Family & Lands) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Call on Christian warriors to forget differences, & fight for and defend Constantinople against Seljuk Turks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds of knights, nobles volunteered for Crusade, “God wills it!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knights seek Glory & Land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merchants seek $$$$$ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Debtors, debt cancelled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Criminals, forgiven </li></ul></ul></ul>The Council of Clermont
  25. 25. First Crusade - 1096-1099 <ul><li>1096, Crusaders left France </li></ul><ul><li>9 Crusades in all, (1096 and 1291) </li></ul><ul><li>FIRST CRUSADE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNSKILLED PEASANTS answered Pope’s call </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slaughtered German Jews despite protests, Fell to Seljuk Turks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KNIGHTS, Many Unprepared for trip & fighting - climate & supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trained in warfare, but unprepared for 3 year journey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Siege of Jerusalem = 1099, Victory for Crusaders & disaster for city </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Four Crusader states in Holy Land; Jerusalem, Edessa, Antioch, & Tripoli </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Second & Third Crusade <ul><li>Second Crusade - 1147 - 1149 </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims began retaking lands </li></ul><ul><li>1144, Took city of Edessa, European leaders called for Second Crusade, launched in 1147 </li></ul><ul><li>Second Crusade a failure, took no lands from Muslims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emp. Conrad III (H.R.E.), King Louis vii (Fr) & wife Eleanor of Aquitaine </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Third Crusade <ul><li>Third Crusade - 1189 - 1192 </li></ul><ul><li>1177, Saladin arose as Leader in Muslim world, </li></ul><ul><li>Overthrew Fatamids, took title of sultan </li></ul><ul><li>Retook Crusader states, drove Christians out of Jerusalem </li></ul><ul><li>Three Kings </li></ul><ul><li>Richard, Philip, Frederick set out on Third Crusade </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick (H.R.E.)Drowned, Philip (Fr) quarreled with Richard (Eng), returned home </li></ul><ul><li>Only King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England fought in Holy Land </li></ul>
  28. 30. Third Crusade <ul><li>Mutual Respect </li></ul><ul><li>Richard, Saladin admired each other as military leaders, gentlemen </li></ul><ul><li>Made proposals for peace, including marriage alliance of Richard’s sister, Saladin’s brother; never took place because of religious differences </li></ul><ul><li>Fierce Fighting </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Unable to drive Muslims from Holy Land </li></ul><ul><li>Richard could not take Jerusalem, had to return to England </li></ul>
  29. 32. Fourth and Later Crusades <ul><li>Fourth Crusade, 1201 </li></ul><ul><li>Innocent III, Call French Knights </li></ul><ul><li>Crusaders could not pay Venetians to take them to Holy Land </li></ul><ul><li>In lieu of payment, Crusaders agreed to attack Zara (Christian King) </li></ul><ul><li>-Pope angered that Christian city attacked, excommunicated all </li></ul><ul><li>Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>Crusaders Attacked Christian city of Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>More Failures </li></ul><ul><li>Disorganization, lack of leadership made Fourth Crusade failure </li></ul><ul><li>Five other Crusades followed, none successful </li></ul><ul><li>Children's Crusade : ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Most not return settle or slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth Crusade 1217–1221 </li></ul><ul><li>A/H Army, Surrender Quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Sixth Crusade 1228–1229 </li></ul><ul><li>Emp. Fredrick II, Excomm Greg IX </li></ul><ul><li>Diplomatic Success </li></ul><ul><li>Seventh Crusade 1248–1254 </li></ul><ul><li>Louis IX of France, Failed </li></ul><ul><li>Eighth Crusade 1270 </li></ul><ul><li>Louis IX, Died, Canonized </li></ul><ul><li>Ninth Crusade 1271–1272 </li></ul><ul><li>Edward I of England </li></ul>
  30. 34. Effects of the Crusades <ul><li>Economic Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades enhanced existing trade; Europe & Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Returning Crusaders brought more goods, spices, textiles, to Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Political Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Crusades led to deaths of knights & nobles </li></ul><ul><li>Lands vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>Ambitious nobles took unoccupied lands </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles & Kings increase power, influence in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Social Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Many viewed non-Christians as enemies, persecuted Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Jews saw Crusaders as cruel invaders </li></ul><ul><li>Relations strained </li></ul>CRUSADES
  31. 36. ART & CULTURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES
  32. 37. Architecture <ul><li>GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE </li></ul><ul><li>Churches Built in Gothic Style </li></ul><ul><li>-Taller, brighter than previous churches </li></ul><ul><li>-Spires & High Walls - Notre Dame </li></ul><ul><li>ENGINEERING </li></ul><ul><li>Gothic possible through advances in engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Flying Buttress: Supported walls from outside </li></ul><ul><li>AIRY FEELING </li></ul><ul><li>Flying buttresses = higher ceilings, no columns </li></ul><ul><li>Larger Stained glass show Biblical scenes, saints </li></ul>
  33. 39. <ul><li>Decorations </li></ul><ul><li>Statues of saints, kings, figures from Old Testament </li></ul><ul><li>Exterior had gargoyles, spouts for rainwater </li></ul><ul><li>Adornments </li></ul><ul><li>Walls = elaborate murals of religious scenes </li></ul><ul><li>Candleholders, crosses, statues = works of art </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decorated with gold, precious stones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Priests’ Robes = embroidered, w/ gold threads </li></ul>
  34. 40. Visual Arts <ul><li>art in the Middle Ages, was created as a symbol of God. </li></ul><ul><li>Illumination </li></ul><ul><li>Illumination , decorating manuscript with pictures, designs (Gold & Silver) </li></ul><ul><li>Illuminators brought pgs to life </li></ul><ul><li>Decorated the 1st letter on a pg </li></ul>Illuminated Manuscript
  35. 41. Visual Arts <ul><li>Tapestry </li></ul><ul><li>Tapestries, large woven wall hangings, hung in castles to prevent drafts </li></ul><ul><li>Show scenes from daily life, fantastic creatures, unicorns, dragons </li></ul><ul><li>Bayeux Tapestry, story of William the Conqueror 224 Ft Long </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bayeuxtapestry.org.uk/BayeuxContents.htm </li></ul>
  36. 42. Literature <ul><li>Middle Ages produced works that covered a wide spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Texts </li></ul><ul><li>Few people other than monks, priests could read or write </li></ul><ul><li>Range of works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sermons on how to live </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretations of Bible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lives of saints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Widely read by nobility, clergy </li></ul><ul><li>Songs & Poems </li></ul><ul><li>Writers created religious songs, poems </li></ul><ul><li>Hildegard of Bingen , famous poet/nun </li></ul><ul><li>Hildegard, used Latin, language of Roman Church </li></ul>
  37. 43. <ul><li>Literature included epics, romances </li></ul><ul><li>Epic Poems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell tales of war & heroes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Song of Roland , Charlemagne’s fight against Muslims in Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Romances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell tales of true love & chivalry (Code of Honor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>King Arthur and knights of Round Table (25-150) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Troubadours : Wandering Singers Tell Tales </li></ul><ul><li>Vernacular : Writing in spoken language of region/country </li></ul>Literature
  38. 44. Major Works - Chaucer <ul><li>Canterbury Tales </li></ul><ul><li>Geoffrey Chaucer’s collection of stories </li></ul><ul><li>Group of pilgrims traveling to Canterbury </li></ul><ul><li>Characters give insight of life in the Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Backgrounds & Social Classes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contributions </li></ul><ul><li>Chaucer helped increase use of written English language in England, many had been speaking French </li></ul>
  39. 45. Major Works - Dante <ul><li>The Divine Comedy </li></ul><ul><li>Dante Alighieri’s Story of his imaginary trip thru the afterlife </li></ul><ul><li>Composed in 3 Cantos (Parts); Hell, Purgatory, & Paradise </li></ul><ul><li>On journey, met people from own life, & figures from history </li></ul><ul><li>Contributions </li></ul><ul><li>Dante’s writing shaped Italian language for centuries </li></ul>
  40. 46. Thinking & Learning <ul><li>New Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Writers spread ideas thru Europe </li></ul><ul><li>New ideas = new ways of thinking and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Alchemy </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct scientific experiments in alchemy, early chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>-Turn metals into gold </li></ul><ul><li>Alchemy = later growth of science </li></ul>
  41. 47. Education <ul><li>Universities </li></ul><ul><li>European universities influenced by Islamic scholarship </li></ul><ul><li>Translation of Aristotle, other Greek scholars, from Arabic into Latin </li></ul><ul><li>European scholars exposed to new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Universities taught religious courses, but later include medicine, law </li></ul><ul><li>Paris, Oxford, Bologna, & Salerno </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Aquinas </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Aquinas, 1 of most influential medieval scholars, </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in works of ancient philosophers, especially Aristotle </li></ul><ul><li>Used Aristotle’s logic to prove God </li></ul><ul><li>Teachings </li></ul><ul><li>Scholasticism, Aquinas’ use of intellect and logic to bring together opposing ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Teachings expanded thinking & understanding </li></ul>
  42. 48. Black Death <ul><li>100 Years’ War took toll </li></ul><ul><li>1347 - 1351 another crisis Strikes </li></ul><ul><li>Black Death , deadly plague </li></ul><ul><li>- Combination of two different plagues </li></ul><ul><li>-Bubonic, Pneumonic </li></ul><ul><li>Origins </li></ul><ul><li>Brought by sailors from Genoa </li></ul><ul><li>Flea-infected rats from Genoa to Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Spread Quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Plague traveled with merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Struck coastal regions first, moved inland </li></ul><ul><li>1351, Most of Europe touched by Black Death </li></ul>
  43. 49. <ul><li>Course of the Disease - </li></ul><ul><li>Black Death, one of worst global killers in all history </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: dark splotches, high fever, vomiting, severe headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Almost always fatal, most who caught plague died within days </li></ul><ul><li>Priests and doctors who tended sick also caught plague, died </li></ul><ul><li>25 Million in Europe (1 in 3) 75 Million World Wide </li></ul>Black Death
  44. 50. <ul><li>EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Some Feel Plague = God’s punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Some turned to witchcraft for cures </li></ul><ul><li>Some blamed Jews, poisoning water wells </li></ul><ul><li>Led to increase in anti-Semitic in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of population = vacant land, bought by wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>Created more organized estates, less labor </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants moved to cities to find work </li></ul><ul><li>Manorial system fell apart </li></ul>Black Death RING AROUND THE ROSY?? BLACK DEATH
  45. 51. HISTORY VIDEOS (History Teacherz Channel, You Tube) <ul><li>Illuminated Manuscript </li></ul><ul><li>William the Conqueror </li></ul><ul><li>King Arthur and knights of Round Table </li></ul><ul><li>Canterbury Tales </li></ul><ul><li>The Divine Comedy </li></ul><ul><li>BLACK DEATH </li></ul>

×