Imperialism in the
Rachel Seo and Peter Park
The Story of
Imperialism Through a
a Cuban Laborer’s
and a U.S. Senator’s
Spanish Rule in Cuba
1492-1902: Cuba under Spanish rule
Natives were forced to work hard long
hours on sugar fields, mines, etc.
Those who refused to work were taken Cuban Miners
to concentration camps
very low living conditions for the
1868-1878: first attempted war of
independence, failed Spanish Concentration Camps
Pressures In the US To
Expand into Latin America
Desire for new room to grow
access to world markets protected by a worldwide navy
establishing the imperial power of the U.S.
A desire to enlighten and Christianize the indigenous peoples
Latin America would provide a strategic commercial, military,
and political outpost for the United States.
José Marti And the War
1895: José Marti, a Cuban writer exiled by
the Spanish, returned after 20 years and
started a second war of independence.
José was killed near the beginning of the
war, but the Cubans fought on for their
More Pressures and
So-called “yellow journalists” triggered war
between the U.S. and Spain
atrocities in Cuba caused by Spanish
U.S. navy ship Maine exploded, supposedly
by the Spanish
supposed underlying motive
war -> more newspapers -> more profits Political Cartoon Satirizing
Yellow Journalists used the explosion of the Maine
as justification for the Spanish-American War.
1898: The Cuban Independence War
escalated into the Spanish-
American War after U.S.
The US attacked the Spanish from
two fronts: the Philippines and
Latin America. Spanish-American War
Destruction ensued in Cuba.
Alliance between U.S. and Cuba
The U.S. defeated the Spanish by the August of 1898,
only after four months.
The Cubans gained independence in 1901
not annexed by the U.S. due to the Teller Amendment,
which was passed to reduce the fears of the Spanish-
American War becoming an imperialist land grab
End of the Spanish-
The loss of the Spanish against the U.S. symbolizes:
U.S. emergence as a major world power
decline of the Spanish Empire
Spain conceded Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and
Guam to the U.S. -> economic U.S. empire in the
Teller Amendment: granted Cuba independence (in
U.S. Economic Empire in
name) Latin America
Cuba was only independent in name,
not in practice.
The US had huge political and economic
influence on Cuba. Cuban Miners (Before)
Most of the poor laborers remained in a
vicious cycle of poverty.
Working class still remained
Limited social and economic
development, political instability
Cuban Miners (After)
Imperialism Begins (U.S.)
U.S. attempted to buy the Isthmus of Panama
from Columbia, who had colonized there, but
Columbia demanded more money
1903: U.S. triggered and helped an
independence war in Panama against
In return, Panama gave the U.S. some
land to build the Panama Canal, which
connected the Pacific and the Atlantic
Completed in 1914: Gave the U.S. better
control of its Pacific empire Spain had
conceded after the Spanish-American Panama Canal
Imperialism Begins (U.S.)
Monroe Doctrine: exhibited U.S.
disapproval of European colonization
of other lands, 1823
Roosevelt Corollary: a corollary of the
Monroe Doctrine, gave the U.S. the
right to act as an international
police force in the Western
justified U.S. economic
imperialism and political
Cartoon Depicting the Impact of
intervention in Latin America the Roosevelt Corollary
Abdul, Paula. Cuban Miners. Digital image. Society. Altius Directory, 27 May 2008. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://www.altiusdirectory.com/Society/
"American Imperialism (Overview)." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 10 Feb. 2010. <http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com>.
Beck, Roger B. Modern World History Patterns of Interaction. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002. Print.
Boron, Atilio. The Militarization of Latin America. Digital image. NWO Observer. Global Research, 29 Aug. 2009. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://
Concentration camp victims in Cuba. Digital image. Spanish American War Info. Web. 10 Feb. 2010. <http://spanishamericanwar.info/causes.htm>.
Cuban War of Independence. Digital image. Wikipedia. 28 Jan. 2010. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuban_War_of_Independence>.
Duffy, Emily. Yellow Journalism. Digital image. Political Artwork. Blogspot, 11 May 2008. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://3.bp.blogspot.com/
Johantheghost. Panama Canal Rough Diagram. Digital image. Wikimedia Commons. Wikimedia Commons, 23 Nov. 2005. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://
José Martí. Digital image. Latin American Studies. 15 Dec. 1997. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/marti-1.htm>.
New York Journal Front page. Digital image. U.S. Diplomacy and Yellow Journalism. U.S. Department of State. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://
Rogovin, Milton. Miners, Cuba. Digital image. (Notes on) Politics, Theory & Photography. Blogspot, 1989. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://
Spanish-Cuban-American War. Digital image. Latin American Studies. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/spanwar.htm>.
War of independence. Digital image. SOL Pass. Web. 11 Feb. 2010. <http://www.solpass.org/7ss/Games/SpanishAmericanWar.htm>.