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Biology Unit 4 notes



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  • 1. Chapter 4 Ecosystems & Communities
  • 2. 4.1Climate • What is the difference between weather and climate?
  • 3.  The three main zones are the polar, tropical, and temperate climates. polar climate: the far northern and southern regions of Earth tropical zone: surrounds the equator temperate zone: the wide area in between the polar and tropical zones
  • 4. The Greenhouse Effect • Greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • 5. 4.2 Niches and Community Interactions  Every Organism has a habitat and Niche A habitat is the general place in which an organism lives. A niche describes not only the place an organisms lives, but the range of physical and biological conditions in which it lives and interacts.
  • 6. The Competitive Exclusion Principal • If two species attempt to occupy the same niche, one species will be better suited to obtain limited resources and will eventually exclude the other. What would happen if two of these warbler species tried to occupy the same niche at the same time?
  • 7. Community Interactions  Predator-Prey  Herbivore-Plant
  • 8. Symbiotic Species  Two or more species living together in a close, long-term association. Parasitism – the host is harmed and the parasite benefits Ex: lice, hookworm, roundworms _ 0 Parasitism + Hornworm caterpillar The host hornworm will eventually die as its organs are consumed by wasp larvae. _ Organism is harmed 0 Braconid wasp Braconid larvae feed on their host and release themselves shortly before reaching the pupae stage of development. Organism benefits
  • 9. Mutualism – benefits both participating species Ex: Clownfish and sea anemone Commensalism – one species benefits, and the other is neither harmed nor helped Ex: Barnacles on a blue whale
  • 10. 4.3 Succession  When new land is created, or a habitat is destroyed by disaster a new habitat will be created.  Succession is a regular progression of species replacement.
  • 11.  Primary succession occurs where life has not existed before. Ex: A new volcanic island  Secondary succession occurs where there has been previous growth. Ex: A forest that has been burned Untamed science video
  • 12. 4.4 Biomes  Biomes factors. are described in terms of abiotic and biotic
  • 13.  Tropical rain forest biomes produce lush forests.  warm temperature  abundant precipitation all year Source: World Meteorological Organization
  • 14.  Grassland biomes are where the primary plant life is grass. Temperate grasslands are dry and warm during the summer; most precipitation falls as snow.
  • 15.  Tropical grasslands (savanna) are warm through the year, with definite dry and rainy seasons.
  • 16.  Desert biomes are characterized by a very arid climate.  very low amount of precipitation  four types: hot, semi-arid, coastal, and cold
  • 17.  Temperate forest biomes include deciduous forests and rain forests.  Temperate deciduous forests have hot summers and cold winters.  Deciduous trees are the dominant plant species.
  • 18.  The taiga biome is located in cooler northern climates.  boreal forest  long winters and short summers  small amount of precipitation
  • 19.  The tundra biome is found in the far northern latitudes with long winters.  winter lasts 10 months  limited precipitation  permafrost
  • 20. 4.5 Aquatic Ecosystems • Nearly ¾ of Earth’s surface is covered with water. • Aquatic organisms are affected primarily by water depth, temperature, flow, and amount of dissolved nutrients.
  • 21. • Freshwater ecosystems include moving and standing water (wetlands, lakes and ponds, and rivers and streams).
  • 22.  Estuaries are dynamic environments where rivers flow into the ocean. Mixture of fresh water with salt water Serve as spawning and nursery grounds for many fish and shellfish Chesapeake Louisiana Florida Bay bayous Everglades
  • 23. Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems.  Estuaries provide a protected refuge for many species.  Estuaries are primarily threatened by land development.
  • 24. Marine Ecosystem  Intertidal Zone  Affected by tides  Costal Ocean  Coral reefs and kelp forests  Open Ocean  90% of ocean  Photic and Aphotic zones