Biology 1 Unit 3 notes

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Biology 1 Unit 3 notes

  1. 1. Chapter 3 – The Biosphere
  2. 2. 3.1 Ecologists study environments at different levels of organization. Ecology is the study of the interactions among living things, and between living things and their surroundings.
  3. 3. Organism Population Community Ecosystem
  4. 4. Biotic and Abiotic Factors  Biotic factors are any living part of an environment.  plants  animals  fungi  bacteria
  5. 5.  Abiotic factors are any nonliving part of the environment.  Sunlight  Temperature  Precipitation  Humidity  Wind
  6. 6. Biotic and Abiotic Factors Together  Physical factors can be strongly influenced by the activities of organisms.  Also, a change in physical factors can strongly affect the survival of the living organisms.
  7. 7. 3.2 Energy in Ecosystems  Living organisms need energy for growth, reproduction, and their metabolic processes.  Producers provide all of the available energy in an ecosystem  Primary Productivity  Producers are also called autotrophs because they make their own food.  Most producers uses sunlight as an energy source.
  8. 8.  Heterotrophs acquire energy from other organisms.  Also called consumers
  9. 9.  Consumers are not all alike.  Herbivores eat plants.  Carnivores eat other animals.  Omnivores eat both plants and animals.  Detritivores eat dead organic matter (detritus).  Decomposers break down organic matter into simpler compounds. carnivore decomposer
  10. 10. 3.3 Energy Flow in Ecosystems  A food chain links species by their feeding relationships.  A food chain follows the connection between one producer and a single chain of consumers within an ecosystem.  The ultimate source of energy for all producers and consumers is the sun.
  11. 11. Trophic Levels  First Level – Producers  Determine the available energy in the ecosystem  Second Level – First Level Consumers  AKA – primary consumers  Herbivores  Third Level – Second Level Consumers  AKA – secondary consumers  Omnivores and carnivores
  12. 12.  Fourth Level  Third level consumers (carnivores that eat other carnivores)  AKA - top carnivores or tertiary consumers  Decomposers – obtain energy from dead and decaying matter at all trophic levels.  produce detritus  Ex: bacteria and fungi decomposer
  13. 13. Energy Flow  An energy pyramid shows the distribution of energy among trophic levels.  Only 10 percent of the energy at each tier is transferred from one trophic level to the next.  90 percent of the energy is lost into the atmosphere as heat. energy transferred energy lost 100% 10% 1% 0.1%
  14. 14. Food Webs  A food web shows a complex network of feeding relationships.  An organism may have multiple feeding relationships in an ecosystem.  A food web emphasizes complicated feeding relationships and energy flow in an ecosystem.
  15. 15. Pyramid of Biomass  Biomass is usually measured in grams of organic matter per unit area.  Why does the amount of biomass decrease moving up the trophic levels? tertiary consumers secondary consumers primary consumers producers 75 g/m2 150g/m2 675g/m2 2000g/m2producers 2000g/m2
  16. 16. 3.4 Cycles of Matter  Elements essential for life cycle through ecosystems.  A biogeochemical cycle is the movement of a particular chemical through the living and non- living parts of an ecosystem.  Matter is recycled within and between ecosystems.  Biogeochemical Cycles
  17. 17. Water Cycle
  18. 18. CarbonCycle
  19. 19. Nitrogen Cycle

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