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Designerly ways of research
 

Designerly ways of research

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talk given at the faculty of informatics PhD school, vienna university of technology, about my research background and methodology.

talk given at the faculty of informatics PhD school, vienna university of technology, about my research background and methodology.

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    Designerly ways of research Designerly ways of research Presentation Transcript

    • peter purgathoferpurg@igw.tuwien.ac.at @peterpur
    • designerly ways of research
    • design?
    • designerly ways of research
    • sciencesdesign? humanities arts
    • ...design is essentially prescriptive whereas science ispredominantly descriptive. Designers do not aim to dealwith questions of what is, how and why, but, rather,with what might be, could be and should be.Bryan Lawson, 1980
    • »Software design is the process of translating a set oftask requirements (functional specifications) into astructured description of a computer program that willperform the task.«r. jeffries et al.»The optimum solution to the sum of true needs of aparticular set of circumstances.«e. machett
    • 1. In most cases the people who commission thebuilding of a software system do not know exactly whatthey want and are unable to tell us all that they know.2....Many of the details only become known to us as weprogress in the implementation. (p.251)Parnas & Clements, 1986
    • 1. In most cases the people who commission thebuilding of a software system do not know exactly whatthey want and are unable to tell us all that they know.2....Many of the details only become known to us as weprogress in the implementation. (p.251)Parnas & Clements, 1986
    • Hence, ideally problem solving theory would be correct,but in reality, producing the problem is work that thedesigner must do.Gedenryd, 1998
    • …that you cannot understand the problem without havinga concept of the solution in mind; and that you cannotgather information meaningfully unless you haveunderstood the problem but that you cannot understandthe problem without information about it.Horst Rittel, 1968 Wenn also Software-Engineering von der Möglichkeit träumt, eine vollständige Definition des Problems an den Beginn des Prozesses zu stellen, dann steht es damit in direktem Widerspruch zur Theoire des Designs. Es braucht also niemand zu wundern, wenn man damit scheitern muss. Damit wird das Pflichtenheft zum potentiellen Stolperstein der Software-Entwicklung.
    • Evidence suggests that usability practice is more craftthan engineering, but we sell it as an engineeringpractice.Jared Spool
    • what informs design?
    • artefact
    • requirements artefact
    • problem is »given«requirements artefact
    • It is clear from our analysis of the nature of design problems that the designer mustbryan lawson inevitably expend considerable energy in identifying the problems. It is central to modern thinking about design that problems and solutions are seen as emerging together, rather than one following logically upon the other…. [B]oth problem and solution become clearer as the process goes on.
    • ✘requirements artefact this is an illusion
    • artefact
    • requirements artefact
    • ideals, ethics, morals regulations, lawsrequirements artefact aesthetics, styletechnological constraints hopes, projections
    • UsabilityUtility Likeability
    • source designer client user legislator symbolic function domain internal formal practical external radical
    • what informs design?
    • › three generations of design models »thinking« »talking« »doing«
    • »thinking«
    • »thinking«central assumption: design is a problem solving activity problem analysis definition synthesis result»design methods movement«
    • »thinking«central assumption: design is a problem solving activity problem analysis definition synthesis result»design methods movement«
    • »thinking«central assumption: design is a problem solving activitychristopher alexander: »notes on the synthesis of form« problem analysis definition synthesis result given deduction plan
    • »thinking«central assumption: design is a problem solving activityjohn christopher jones: »design methods«
    • »thinking«a little later: alexander and jones desertThere is so little in what is called ›design methods‹ that has anything useful to sayabout how to design buildings that I never even read the literature anymore [...] Iwould say forget it, forget the whole thing. christopher alexanderIf you wish for certainty you might as well leave this subject aloneBecause design is to do with uncertaintyAs far as I can seeBut a lot of people who do wish for certainty do dabble in itAnd I fear they are wrecking the subject j. christopher jones
    • »thinking«
    • › three generations of design models »thinking« »talking« »doing«
    • »talking«
    • »talking« - horst rittel: »wicked problems«1 Wicked problems have no definitive formulation, but every formulation of a wicked problem corresponds to the formulation of a solution.2 Wicked problems have no stopping rules.3 Solutions to wicked problems cannot be true or false, only good or bad.4 In solving wicked problems there is no exhaustive list of admissible operations.5 For every wicked problem there is always more than one possible solution, with explanations depending on the Weltanschauung of the designer6 Every wicked problem is a symptom of another, ›higher level,‹ problem.7 No formulation and solution of a wicked problem has a definitive test.8 Solving a wicked problem is a ›one shot‹ operation, with no room for trial and error.9 Every wicked problem is unique.10 The wicked problem solver has no right to be wrong—they are fully responsible for their actions.
    • »talking« - horst rittel: »wicked problems«-› …that the design process is not considered to be a sequence of activities that are pretty well defined and that are carried through one after the other like ›understand the problem, collect information, analyze information, synthesize, decide‹, and so on.-› …that you cannot understand the problem without having a concept of the solution in mind; and that you cannot gather information meaningfully unless you have understood the problem but that you cannot understand the problem without information about it. horst rittel
    • »talking« - horst rittel: »wicked problems«IBIS - »issue-based information system«a counterplay of raising issues and dealing with them,which in turn raises new issues and so on.analysis and synthesis are not seperate activities, butmust be seen as together: »analysis thru synthesis«
    • »talking«
    • › three generations of design models »thinking« »talking« »doing«
    • »doing«
    • »doing« – based on theory of »interactive cognition«
    • »doing« – based on theory of »interactive cognition«
    • »doing« – based on theory of »interactive cognition«core concepts: »problem setting« »doing for the sake of knowing« »inquiring materials« –› »design instruments«
    • »doing« – based on theory of »interactive cognition«core concepts: »problem setting« »doing for the sake of knowing« »inquiring materials« –› »design instruments« sketching szenario writing personas »probes« prototyping
    • »doing« – based on theory of »interactive cognition«core concepts: »problem setting« »doing for the sake of knowing« »inquiring materials« –› »design instruments«
    • »doing« – based on theory of »interactive cognition« »having a conversation with his drawing« »Such a drawing is done by the designer not to communicate with others but rather as part of the very thinking process itself which we call design.« »seeing-moving-seeing« »my thinking pen« sketching »whenever we have a design session or crit review in the office I cannot say anything until Ive got a pencil in my hand«
    • as we converge on the final design. sketching prototyping Figure 34: Overlapping Funnels The reduction that results from decision making is balanced by the
    • sketching not obvious attend invite suggest suggest refine exploreobvious test evoke answer question resolve provoke specific tentative prototyping
    • the start, these can be surprisingly simple. Figure 27: Reproduction of 3D “Sketch” of the PalmPilot
    • designerly ways of research!
    • http://chrisrust.wordpress.com/2000/12/31/whiteleythesis/#more-130http://mikepress.wordpress.com/2010/07/15/arty-fartys-contribution-to-science-and-technology-research/
    • designerly ways of research!
    • »doing for the sake of knowing« »analysis through synthesis«»oneness of analysis and synthesis« »explorative design«
    • some further questions for design theoryresearch› role of design in software development› methods & strategies for design› how to teach design› what not to do in design
    • designer als »auftraggeber«design implementierungentwickler als »nutzer« workshop»light weight« »heavy weight«
    • designerly ways of research peter purgathofer purg@igw.tuwien.ac.at @peterpur
    • william buxtonsketching user experiencesgetting the designright and the rightdesign