Projects of Change
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Projects of Change

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About the challenges of managing organizational changes.

About the challenges of managing organizational changes.

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    Projects of Change Projects of Change Presentation Transcript

    • Projects of Change Challenges of managing organizational changes Peter Pfeiffer August 2009
    • Presentation Content
    • Organizations change … All the time, each and every day! Some because they want to, Others because they need to, Some evolve and develop,
    • Some organizations simply disappear
    • What does organizational change has to do with projects ?
    • The vast majority of projects is related to organizational change Some projects are proactively turned towards organizational change. Others are reactively related to change.
    • … but ¾ of all organizational change projects fail
    • Why do so many change projects fail?
    • People’s resistance inadequate PM approach Confusion of change and product
    • Resistance, Doubts, Fear
    • Forms of Resistance Active / passive Open / covered Individual / group Aggressive / timid
    • Perspectives of Resistance biological sociological psychological
    • Resistance and Adaptation Changes necessity changes in the of adaptation in living environment to environment beings The change comes from outside: the reference is the environment.
    • Resistance and Adaptation Changes in the congruency environment Internal adjustments with the until self-conservation changes is reestablished in the Self- environment conservation The change comes from inside: the reference is the living being.
    • Collective Resistance Organizational change affects interest groups, influence, control, power.
    • Groups are fundamental elements of organizations They are links between the individual and the organization. Generate more identity than the organization as a whole. Allow to share perceptions and visions.
    • Groups are also a critical element of change Facilitate to “organize” resistance, without exposing the individual. Suggest the impression that the collective is stronger than the sum of the individuals. Change tends to stimulate the competition between groups.
    • Individual Resistance Organizational change affects people not only as employees but also as individuals.
    • Objective Information Tasks Technology Procedures Rules/Norms Hierarchy Sentimentos Medo Desejos Insegurança Esperança Ansiedade Desconfiança Simpatia/Antipatia Rejeição Status Ambição Valores Tabus
    • To know the risks, one needs to dive deeper!
    • Objective Information Tasks Technology Procedures Rules/Norms Hierarchy Feelings Fear Insecurity Desire Anxiety Hope Mistrust Sympathy/Antipathy Rejection Status Ambition Values Taboos
    • Resist or not resist? People don't resist change, they resist being changed. Peter Bregman
    • PM Approach
    • “Classical” Project Management might not be the best approach to deal with organizational change.
    • Change should be strategic – that is rather a program's issue. PM’s main purpose is to deliver products – change is different. Its structure is temporary – change has to be permanent. It does not include some important tools and techniques - organizational development does.
    • Types of Projects Deployment Development
    • Organizational Development x Engineering Purpose/Objectives Planning/Monitoring ≠ Direction/Leadership Needed Competencies
    • Project Organization
    • People x Products
    • Development Projects Provoke behavioral changes, intangible, but relevant. Are strongly influenced by organizational, social, cultural and economic aspects.
    • Development Projects Have to deal with a high degree of uncertainty for planning and implementation. Beneficiaries are not commercial clients of the project.
    • Example Project Management Office PMO is to At the same introduce time, the change and establishment promote of a PMO is a development development within the project. organization.
    • More explicit Challenges Obtain sponsorship and resources. Demonstrate the value of the PMO. Have qualified staff. Have the responsibilities well defined. “Culture” (whatever that means).
    • Less explicit Challenges The management of perceptions, beliefs, politics and power.
    • What are the keys to success?
    • Recognize the diversity of people. Build up trust. Orient the pace of change towards people, not technology. Reveal the value for the people, not only for the organization. Involve people actively. Create, use and share the organizational knowledge.
    • Not all organizations need to be identical ...
    • ... but all should comply efficiently with their mission and be a pleasant place to work!
    • Some resources used: • Bauer, Ruben (2009): Conhecimento e cognição. Apresentação no SBGC no Rio de Janeiro. • Bregman, Peter (2009): How to Counter Resistance to Change. http://blogs.harvardbusiness.org/bregman/ • Burke, Wyatt Warner (2007): Organization change. Theory and Practice. Los Angeles: Sage Publications. • Friess, Peter M. (2000): Systemische Konzepte für das Management von Organisationsprojekten. www.gpm-ipma.de/docs/ • Neumann, Donald/Baureis, David/Stock, Torsten (2009): Capacidade de Transformação: Gestão Ágil de Projetos em Estruturas Organizacionais Transformáveis. In: Revista MundoPM, nº 26. • Nicolette, Dave/ Kosekla, Lasse (2008): Overcoming Resistance to Change. http://submissions.agile2008.org/node/1655 • Pfeiffer, Peter (2005): Gerenciamento de Projetos de Desenvolvimento. Conceitos, Instrumentos e Aplicações. Rio de Janeiro: Brasport. • Pfeiffer, Peter (2006) Facilitação de Projetos. Conceitos e técnicas para alavancar equipes. Rio de Janeiro : Brasport. • Schlichter, John (2009): Transformando a Cultura através do PMO e OPM3. In: Revista MundoPM, nº 27. • www.flickr.com