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Writing good peer instruction questions

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Writing good peer instruction questions. Presented at the CSULA STEM Summer Institute on Active Learning in the STEM classroom. …

Writing good peer instruction questions. Presented at the CSULA STEM Summer Institute on Active Learning in the STEM classroom.

Peter Newbury
September 2013

Published in: Education

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  • 1. Writing good peer instruction questions 1 (Image:stoolIIbytilanesevenonflickrCC) constructivist Peer Instruction Writing Good Questions Peter Newbury, Ph.D. Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu September 11, 2013 CSULA Unless otherwise noted, content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommericial 3.0 License.
  • 2. Writing good peer instruction questions2 peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction
  • 3. Clicker Question (Economics) Writing good peer instruction questions3 For which of the following professionals is driving an expensive car a credible signal of their relative abilities (that is, compared to others in the same profession)? A) a carpenter B) a realtor C) a politician D) a major league baseball player (Steve Morris, UCSD)
  • 4. Typical episode of peer instruction Writing good peer instruction questions4 Alternating with 10-15 minute mini-lectures, 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging, multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own. 3. Students vote for an answer using clickers, smart phones, colored/ABCD voting cards, Poll Everywhere,… 4. The instructor reacts, based on the distribution of votes.
  • 5. In effective peer instruction Writing good peer instruction questions5  students teach each other while they may still hold or remember their novice preconceptions  students discuss the concepts in their own (novice) language  the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reacts, building on their initial understanding and preconceptions. students learn and practice how to think, communicate like experts
  • 6. Effective peer instruction requires Writing good peer instruction questions6 1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions 2. creating multiple-choice questions that require deeper thinking and learning 3. facilitating peer instruction episodes that spark student discussion 4. resolving the misconceptions before class during class
  • 7. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l e Peer instruction helps students learn... Writing good peer instruction questions7 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteen
  • 8. What makes a good clicker question? Writing good peer instruction questions8 clarity Students should waste no effort trying to figure out what’s being asked. context Is this topic currently being covered in class? connection to learning goals Does the question make students do the right thing to demonstrate they grasp the concept. distractors What do the “wrong” answers tell you about students’ thinking? difficulty Is the question too trivial? too hard? stimulates thoughtful discussion Will the question engage the students and spark thoughtful discussions? Is there potential for you to be “agile”? (Adapted from Stephanie Chasteen, CU Boulder)
  • 9. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l e Peer instruction helps students learn... Writing good peer instruction questions9 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteen
  • 10. Clicker question Writing good peer instruction questions10 Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the chocolate from the heat. What will happen to the chocolate? A) It will condense. B) It will evaporate. C) It will freeze. (Question: Sujatha Raghu from Braincandy via LearningCatalytics) (Image: CIM9926 by number657 on flickr CC) assess prior knowledge
  • 11. Clicker question Writing good peer instruction questions11 Which had the most positive impact on the modern world? A) coffee B) tea C) chocolate D) spice E) sugar (Herbst, UCSD) provoke thinking clarity context learning goals distractors difficulty discussion
  • 12. Clicker question Writing good peer instruction questions12 In your opinion, which had the most positive impact on the modern world? A) coffee B) tea C) chocolate D) spice E) sugar (Herbst, UCSD) provoke thinking
  • 13. Clicker question Writing good peer instruction questions13 A ball is rolling around the inside of a circular track. The ball leaves the track at point P. Which path does the ball follow? P A B C E D (adapted from Mazur) predict
  • 14. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l e Peer instruction helps students learn... Writing good peer instruction questions14 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteen The students have not (re)solved concept X. But they’re know X exists and why X is interesting.
  • 15. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l e Peer instruction helps students learn... Writing good peer instruction questions15 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteen
  • 16. Clicker question Writing good peer instruction questions16 Which of these are reasons for the seasons? i. the height of the Sun in the sky during the day ii. Earth’s distance from the Sun iii. how many hours the Sun is up each day A) ii only B) iii only C) i and ii D) i and iii E) i, ii and iii clarity context learning goals distractors difficulty discussion probe misconception
  • 17. Clicker question Writing good peer instruction questions17 How many of these are reasons for the seasons? height: the height of the Sun in the sky during the day distance: Earth’s distance from the Sun hours: how many hours the Sun is up each day A) none of them B) one C) two D) all three probe misconception
  • 18. Clicker question Writing good peer instruction questions18 Select the line that you feel has the strongest imagery in “Fast rode the knight” by Stephen Crane (1905). analysis Fast rode the knight With spurs, hot and reeking, Ever waving an eager sword, "To save my lady!" Fast rode the knight, And leaped from saddle to war. Men of steel flickered and gleamed Like riot of silver lights, And the gold of the knight's good banner Still waved on a castle wall. . . . . . A horse, Blowing, staggering, bloody thing, Forgotten at foot of castle wall. A horse Dead at foot of castle wall. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P (David Kurtz, via LearningCatalytics)
  • 19. Clicker question Writing good peer instruction questions19 Select the line that you feel has the strongest imagery in “Fast rode the knight” by Stephen Crane (1905). analysis Fast rode the knight With spurs, hot and reeking, Ever waving an eager sword, "To save my lady!" Fast rode the knight, And leaped from saddle to war. Men of steel flickered and gleamed Like riot of silver lights, And the gold of the knight's good banner Still waved on a castle wall. . . . . . A horse, Blowing, staggering, bloody thing, Forgotten at foot of castle wall. A horse Dead at foot of castle wall. A B C D E (David Kurtz, via LearningCatalytics)
  • 20. Clicker question Writing good peer instruction questions20 Which of the following is an incorrect step when using the substitution method to evaluate the definite integral A) B)   4 0 32 1 dxxx 3 1 xu  dxx du 2 3  C. D. none of the above  4 03 1 duu (adapted from Bruff (2009)) evaluation
  • 21. Clicker question Writing good peer instruction questions21 Evaluate: A) B) (adapted from Bruff (2009))   4 0 32 1 dxxx 23 )65(16 9 16 C. D. )165( 9 2 23  3 1022 clarity context learning goals distractors difficulty discussion exercise skill
  • 22. Clicker question Writing good peer instruction questions22 Susan throws a ball straight up into the air. It goes up and then falls back into her hand 2 seconds later. Draw a graph showing the velocity of the ball from the moment it leaves her hand until she catches it again. time velocity 2 sec0 exercise skill (CWSEI UBC)
  • 23. time velocity 2 sec0 A time velocity 2 sec0 B time velocity 2 sec0 C time velocity 2 sec0 D E) some other graph Which one is the closest match to your graph? exercise skill (CWSEI UBC)Writing good peer instruction questions23
  • 24. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l e Peer instruction helps students learn... Writing good peer instruction questions24 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteen Students have had opportunities to try, fail, receive feedback and try again without facing a summative evaluation. [3]
  • 25. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l e Peer instruction helps students learn... Writing good peer instruction questions25 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteen
  • 26. Writing good peer instruction questions26 Clicker question Are features X and Y ridges or valleys? A) X=ridge, Y=valley B) X=valley, Y=ridge C) both are ridges D) both are valleys X Y (EOSC / CWSEI, UBC) demonstrate success
  • 27. Clicker question Writing good peer instruction questions27 For the data given below, which is larger, the mean or the median? 74, 32, 35, 87, 28, 36, 11, 26, 93, 56, 34, 52, 8 A) mean B) median (Peck, mathquest.carroll.edu/resources.html) review / recap clarity context learning goals distractors difficulty discussion
  • 28. Clicker question Writing good peer instruction questions28 For the data set displayed in the following histogram, which would be larger, the mean or the median? A) mean B) median C) can’t tell from the given histogram (Peck, mathquest.carroll.edu/resources.html) review / recap
  • 29. Clicker question Writing good peer instruction questions29 In your opinion, which had the most positive impact on the modern world? A) coffee B) tea C) chocolate D) spice E) sugar “big picture” (Herbst, UCSD)
  • 30. Your turn… Writing good peer instruction questions30
  • 31. Your turn… Writing good peer instruction questions31 Big Idea/Concept/Skill/ Learning Outcome Why do you need a peer instruction question here in the lesson?
  • 32. Your turn… Writing good peer instruction questions32 Question: (and choices) Think about clarity context learning outcome distractors difficulty discussion
  • 33. Your turn… Writing good peer instruction questions33 What should students say to explain why this choice is correct/incorrect? It’s not just about correct or incorrect. Direct the conversation!
  • 34. Your turn… Writing good peer instruction questions34 Are there really 5 meaningful conversations? (Are there even 4?)
  • 35. Your turn… Writing good peer instruction questions35
  • 36. Peer instruction helps teachers teach Writing good peer instruction questions36 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l e
  • 37. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l e Peer instruction helps teachers teach Writing good peer instruction questions37 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Do they care about this? Are they ready for the next topic? What DO they care about, anyway? What do they already know?
  • 38. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l eDid they notice key idea X? Where are they in the activity? Peer instruction helps teachers teach Writing good peer instruction questions38 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Are they getting it? Do I need to intervene?
  • 39. t h e l e a r n i n g c y c l eHow did I do? Did they get it? Peer instruction helps teachers teach Writing good peer instruction questions39 BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up instruction developing knowledge assessing learning Can I move to the next topic? Did that activity work?
  • 40. Writing good PI questions How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)40 It’s critical to have  content knowledge (the concepts)  pedagogical content knowledge (how people learn the concepts in your discipline and how to teach them)
  • 41. Running effective PI How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)41 It’s critical to  teach the students how to engage in peer instruction  choreograph each episode so students waste no precious cognitive load wondering what to do (call us for another workshop!) You might not write the perfect question the first time so  listen to the students’ conversations  write your self some notes immediately after class  revise and try it again next year
  • 42. References Writing good peer instruction questions42 1. National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2. Bruff, D. (2009). Teaching with Classroom Response Systems. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 3. Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • 43. Writing good peer instruction questions 43 (Image:stoolIIbytilanesevenonflickrCC) constructivist Peer Instruction Writing Good Questions Peter Newbury, Ph.D. Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu September 11, 2013 CSULA Unless otherwise noted, content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommericial 3.0 License. Slides and resources: tinyurl.com/PI-CSULA
  • 44. What makes a good clicker question? Writing good peer instruction questions Peter Newbury, Center for Teaching Development, UCSD clarity Students should waste no effort trying to figure out what’s being asked. context Is this topic currently being covered in class? connection to learning goals Does the question make students do the right thing to demonstrate they grasp the concept. distractors What do the “wrong” answers tell you about students’ thinking? difficulty Is the question too trivial? too hard? stimulates thoughtful discussion Will the question engage the students and spark thoughtful discussions? Is there potential for you to be “agile”? (Adapted from Stephanie Chasteen, CU Boulder)