Key Finding 3SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu2A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can helpstudents learn to take control of their own learning bydefining learning goals and monitoring their progress inachieving them. (How People Learn , p. 18)Instructors need to provideopportunities for students topractice being metacognitive –thinking about their own thinking
Key Finding 2SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu3To develop competence in an area, students must:a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge,b) understand facts and ideas in the context of aconceptual framework, andc) organize knowledge in ways that facilitateretrieval and application. (How People Learn , p. 16)These are characteristics ofexpertize(together with metacognition)
Key Finding 1SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu4Students come to the classroom with preconceptions abouthow the world works. If their initial understanding is notengaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts andinformation that are taught, or they may learn them forthe purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptionsoutside of the classroom. (How People Learn , p. 14)Instructors mustdraw out students’pre-existingunderstandings.Instruction must bestudent-centered.
Learning requires interaction SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu5
Alternatives to LectureSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu6peer instruction with clickersinteractive demonstrationssurveys of opinionsreading quizzesworksheetssimulationsdiscussionsvideosstudent-centered instruction
Archimedes’ PrincipleSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu7In today’s Physics class, we’re going to study buoyancyand Archimedes’ Principle.http://tinyurl.com/TCCdemo(Paul Hewitt video)(Image: Wikimedia Commons – public domain)
Videos in classSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu8In your opinion, the Paul Hewitt videoA) is engagingB) is entertainingC) is interactiveD) stimulates deep thinking
Unlike you, the students do not select the video check it contains key events anticipate key events recognize key events interpret key events relate key events toclass conceptsVideos in classSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu9instructor does thisbefore classinstructor does this unconsciously,the “curse” of expertiseThis is what you want to discussin class! Anticipate & recognizeare pre-requisites.
Videos: implications for instructorsSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu10 Coach the students how to watch the video like anexpert:As you watch this video, try to…watch for when the A starts to B.count how often the C does D.watch the needles on the scales as water drains. Don’t “give away” the key event (Notice the buoyantforce is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.)That’s what the follow-up discussion is for: help thestudents get prepared for that discussion.
Try it, yourself…SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu11Get into pairs (“instructor”) one person with video they might showtheir class (“student”) one person to watch itInstructor, play (critical few min of) video, thinking aloud.Student, take notes.Together, debrief and write your introduction to thevideo where you coach your students.
Alternatives to LectureSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu12peer instruction with clickersinteractive demonstrationssurveys of opinionsreading quizzesworksheetssimulationsdiscussionsvideosstudent-centered instruction
In-class demonstrations131. Instructor (meticulously) sets up the equipment, flicksa switch, “Taa-daaah!2. Students don’t know where to look don’t know when to look, miss “the moment” don’t recognize the significance of the event amongsttoo many distractionsSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu
Interactive Lecture Demos (ILD) 14To engage students and focus their attention on the keyevent, get students to make a prediction (using clickers,for example)SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu
Clicker question15A ball is rolling aroundthe inside of a circulartrack. The ballleaves the trackat point P.Which pathdoes the ballfollow?PABCDE(Mazur)SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu
Interactive Lecture Demos (ILD) 16After the prediction, each student cares about the outcome (“Did I get it right?”) knows where to look (can anticipate phenomenon) knows when to look (sees phenomenon occur) gets immediate feedback about his/herunderstanding of the concept is prepared for your explanation (don’t be afraid to mess with their heads – inclinedtable example)SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu
Alternatives to LectureSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu17peer instruction with clickersinteractive demonstrationssurveys of opinionsreading quizzesworksheetssimulationsdiscussionsvideosstudent-centered instruction
In-class worksheetsSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu18Before beginning an in-class worksheet, be sure thestudents are properly prepared:Looking at Distant ObjectsRecall that a light-year (ly) is adistance, the distance light travelsin one year (about 9.5 trillion km.)In groups of 2 or 3, work on the worksheet. Try toensure everyone in your group agrees on the answer toeach question before you write it down.(Wikimedia Commons CC)
SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu19
SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu20
SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu21
In-class worksheets22 carefully-designed sequence of questions guidestudents through the exploration of a concept first few questions may be trivial – checks studentsread intro paragraph, gives them confidence give formative feedback along the way most effective when done collaboratively (groupreaches consensus before answering) long, evidence-based history via “WashingtonTutorials” and “Lecture Tutorials for introductoryastronomy” (interactive activities in Prather et al. is primarily lecture-tutorials + peer instruction)SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu
In-class worksheet assessment23 don’t “go over” the worksheet that only encourages students tosit and wait for your solutions don’t post solutions later again, encourages non-participation students bring last year’s sol’ns to classSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu good alternative: ask a clicker question(s) if students get the question right, they can beconfident they successfully completed the worksheetforce studentsto self-assesstheir answers:metacognition
Clicker questionSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu24Imagine that you simultaneously receive two pictures oftwo people that live on planets orbiting two differentstars. Each picture shows the people at their 21st birthdayparties. Which of the following do you think is the mostplausible interpretation?A) Both people are the same age but at different distances fromyou.B) The people are different ages but at the same distance from you.C) The person that is closer to you is the older of the two people.D) The person that is farther from you is the older of the two people.(Prather et. al )
Alternatives to LectureSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu25peer instruction with clickersinteractive demonstrationssurveys of opinionsreading quizzesworksheetssimulationsdiscussionsvideosstudent-centered instruction
Student-centered instruction takes timeSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu26Five minutes of peer instruction every 15 minutes means25% of class time is spent on interactive, students-centered instruction.Where does that time come from?
Traditional classroomSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu271. Transfer: first exposure to material is in class, contentis transmitted from instructor to student2. Assimilate: learning occurs later when studentstruggles alone to complete homework, essay, project1. learn easystuff together2. learn hardstuff alone(Mazur )
Flipped classroomSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu281. Transfer: student learns easy content at home:definitions, basis skills, simple examples.2. Assimilate: students come to class prepared to tacklechallenging concepts in class, with immediatefeedback from peers, instructor.2. learn hardstuff together1. learn easystuff alone(Mazur )
Flipped Classroom requires…SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu291. Clear description of what students need to do toprepare for class. “Read Chapter 3” “Read pages 107 – 116, paying attention to the rolesof A and B / the definitions of X, Y, Z. Look carefullyat Figure 2.3 and find C and D / noticing the scalingof the axes. Work through Example 2.7. Followfootnote .Give students “guided practice” at reading the material like an expert does.
Reading QuizzesSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu30If you ask students to do work before class, you shouldreward their effort. Reading quizzes: questions which are answers in the pre-reading,without requiring higher-order Bloom’s effort (that’swhat you’ll do in class) [Matthew’s red questions] can be in-class (with clickers) or online ahead of time(especially good if you look at results before class, toguide your presentation: Just-in-time Teaching (JITT) ensures students come prepared to engage: takeadvantage of the precious, in-person contact
Alternatives to LectureSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu31peer instruction with clickersinteractive demonstrationssurveys of opinionsreading quizzesworksheetssimulationsdiscussionsvideosstudent-centered instruction
Is there a skill they need to practice?SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu32pro’s con’shomework time for more in-depth practice untimely feedbackchart paper immediate, in-class practice andfeedbackstudents hesitant to mess uppaper with mistakesconversation goes on beforeanything is writtencost of equipmentwhiteboards immediate, in-class practice andfeedbackconversation goes on whilestudents scribble, erase, re-write(one pen per student)cost of equipmenthard to scale to large classes
ReferencesSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu331. National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind,Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R.Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.2. Prather, E.E, Rudolph, A.L., Brissenden, G., & Schlingman, W.M. (2009). Anational study assessing the teaching and learning of introductoryastronomy. Part I. The effect of interactive instruction. Am. J. Phys. 77, 4,320-330.3. Get the full story of ILDs atserc.carleton.edu/introgeo/demonstrations/index.html4. Prather, E.E., Slater, T.F., Adams, J.P., & Brissenden, G. (2007). LectureTutorials for Introductory Astronomy. (2e). San Francisco, CA: PearsonAddison-Wesley.5. Talbert, R. (13 March 2013) Inside the inverted proofs class: GuidedPractice holds it together [blog post]. Retrieved fromhttp://chronicle.com/blognetwork/castingoutnines/2013/03/13/inside-the-inverted-proofs-class-guided-practice-holds-it-together/