Week 8:Alternatives to Lecture       The College Classroom         February 27, 2013
2           traditional lecture         student-centered instructioncollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu   #tccucsd
Key Finding 3 3       A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help       students learn to take control of their own...
Key Finding 2 4       To develop competence in an area, students must:           a) have a deep foundation of factual     ...
Key Finding 1 5       Students come to the classroom with       preconceptions about how the world works. If their       i...
Learning requires interaction [2] 6collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu   #tccucsd
Learning requires interaction [2] 7                              Learning gain:                              100%         ...
Learning requires interaction [2] 8                    1                  2                    3                  4college...
9        student-centered instruction       peer instruction w clickers       worksheets       interactive demonstrations ...
Archimedes’ Principle 10       In today’s Physics class, we’re going to study       buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle.   ...
Opinion: Videos in class 11       In your opinion, the Paul Hewitt video       A) is engaging       B) is entertaining    ...
Videos in class 12       Unlike you, the students do not        select the video             instructor does this       ...
Videos: implications for 13       instructors        Coach the students how to watch the video like         an expert:   ...
14        student-centered instruction       peer instruction w clickers       worksheets       interactive demonstrations...
In-class demonstrations 15       1. Instructor (meticulously) sets up the          equipment, flicks a switch, “Taa-daaah!...
Interactive Lecture Demos (ILD) 16       [3]       To engage students and focus their attention on       the key event, ge...
Clicker question 17       A ball is rolling around            C       the inside of a circular        B       D       trac...
Interactive Lecture Demos (ILD) 18       [3]       After the prediction, each student        cares about the outcome (“Di...
19        student-centered instruction       peer instruction w clickers       worksheets       interactive demonstrations...
Gen-Ed astronomy class 20       Before beginning an in-class worksheet, be sure       the students are properly prepared: ...
21       In class, we did a worksheet about cooking       spaghetti and then, by analogy, the temperature,       size and ...
In-class worksheets 22        carefully-designed sequence of questions         guide students through the exploration of ...
In-class worksheet assessment 23        don’t “go over” the worksheet               that only encourages students to  fo...
Clicker question 24       You observe two stars with the same luminosity       and determine that one is larger than the o...
25        student-centered instruction       peer instruction w clickers       worksheets       interactive demonstrations...
Clicker question 26       Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the       chocolate from the heat. What will happen to the ...
Typical episode of peer27     instruction     Alternating with 10-15 minute mini-lectures,      1. Instructor poses a conc...
In effective peer instruction 28        students teach each other while                                             stude...
Effective peer instruction 29       requires       1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions       2. creating multiple-...
Clickers help students learn... 30         the                learning                              cycle          BEFORE ...
Clickers help students learn... 31         the                learning                              cycle          BEFORE ...
assess prior knowledge       Clicker question 32       Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the       chocolate from the h...
motivate       Clicker question 33       In your opinion, which had the most positive       impact on the modern world?   ...
provoke thinking      Clicker question34      A leopard goes into a deep cave      where there is no light. After an      ...
predict       Clicker question 35       A ball is rolling around            C       the inside of a circular        B     ...
Clickers help students learn... 36         the                learning                              cycle          BEFORE ...
probe misconception       Clicker question 37       How many of these are reasons for the seasons?          the height of...
analysis       Clicker question 38                                       A   Fast rode the knight       Select the line th...
evaluation       Clicker question 39       Which of the following is an incorrect step when       using the substitution m...
exercise skill       Clicker question 40       Susan throws a ball straight up into the air. It goes       up and then fal...
Which one is the closest match to your graph?                                             exercise skill velocity         ...
Clickers help students learn... 42         the                learning                              cycle          BEFORE ...
demonstrate success       Clicker question 43       Which point on the phylogenetic tree represents       the closest rela...
review / recap       Clicker question 44       For the data set displayed in the following       histogram, which would be...
“big picture”       Clicker question 45       In your opinion, which had the most positive       impact on the modern worl...
Clickers help teachers teach... 46         the                learning                cycle          BEFORE               ...
Clickers help teachers teach... 47       Are they ready for the next topic?       What do they already know?       Do they...
Clickers help teachers teach... 48                        Where are they in the activity?                                 ...
Clickers help teachers teach... 49                                                            Did they get it?            ...
What makes a good clicker 50      question?       YES                             NO          starts a conversation      ...
Week 9:First Day of Class       The College Classroom           March 6, 2013
References52        1. National Research Council (2000). How People Learn:              Brain, Mind, Experience, and Schoo...
53        student-centered instruction       peer instruction w clickers       worksheets       interactive demonstrations...
Discussions 54        students share their understanding, opinions,         ideas        students hear other students’ i...
Discussions: Implications for 55       instructors        ensure students come to class prepared to         contribute to...
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The College Classroom Week 8 - Alternatives to Lecture

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College Classroom Week 8
February 27, 2013

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The College Classroom Week 8 - Alternatives to Lecture

  1. 1. Week 8:Alternatives to Lecture The College Classroom February 27, 2013
  2. 2. 2 traditional lecture student-centered instructioncollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  3. 3. Key Finding 3 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn [1], p. 18) Instructors need to provide opportunities for students to practice being metacognitive – thinking about their own thinkingcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  4. 4. Key Finding 2 4 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate (How People Learn [1], p. 16) retrieval and application. These are characteristics of expertize (together with metacognition)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  5. 5. Key Finding 1 5 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert Learn [1], their (How People to p. 14) preconceptions outside of the classroom. Instructors must draw out Instruction must students’ pre- be student- existing centered. understandings.collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  6. 6. Learning requires interaction [2] 6collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  7. 7. Learning requires interaction [2] 7 Learning gain: 100% 0.50 % of class time NOT 0 lecturing pre-test post-testcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  8. 8. Learning requires interaction [2] 8 1 2 3 4collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  9. 9. 9 student-centered instruction peer instruction w clickers worksheets interactive demonstrations videos surveys of opinions reading quizzes discussionscollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  10. 10. Archimedes’ Principle 10 In today’s Physics class, we’re going to study buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle. http://tinyurl.com/TCCdemo (Paul Hewitt video) (Image: Wikimedia Commons – public domain)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  11. 11. Opinion: Videos in class 11 In your opinion, the Paul Hewitt video A) is engaging B) is entertaining C) is interactive D) stimulates deep thinkingcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  12. 12. Videos in class 12 Unlike you, the students do not  select the video instructor does this  check it contains key events before class  anticipate key events instructor does this  recognize key events unconsciously, the “curse” of expertise  interpret key events This is what you want to  relate key events to discuss in class! Anticipate & class concepts recognize are pre-requisites.collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  13. 13. Videos: implications for 13 instructors  Coach the students how to watch the video like an expert: As you watch this video, try to… watch for when the A starts to B. count how often the C does D. watch the needles on the scales as water drains.  Don’t “give away” the key event (Notice the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.) That’s what the follow-up discussion is for: help the students getcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  14. 14. 14 student-centered instruction peer instruction w clickers worksheets interactive demonstrations videos surveys of opinions reading quizzes discussionscollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  15. 15. In-class demonstrations 15 1. Instructor (meticulously) sets up the equipment, flicks a switch, “Taa-daaah! 2. Students  don’t know where to look  don’t know when to look, miss “the moment”  don’t recognize the significance of the event amongst too many distractionscollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  16. 16. Interactive Lecture Demos (ILD) 16 [3] To engage students and focus their attention on the key event, get students to make a prediction (using clickers, for example)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  17. 17. Clicker question 17 A ball is rolling around C the inside of a circular B D track. The ball A E leaves the track at point P. P Which path does the ball follow?collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd (Mazur)
  18. 18. Interactive Lecture Demos (ILD) 18 [3] After the prediction, each student  cares about the outcome (“Did I get it right?”)  knows where to look (can anticipate phenomenon)  knows when to look (sees phenomenon occur)  gets immediate feedback about his/her understanding of the concept  is prepared for your explanation  (don’t be afraid to mess with their heads –collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  19. 19. 19 student-centered instruction peer instruction w clickers worksheets interactive demonstrations videos surveys of opinions reading quizzes discussionscollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  20. 20. Gen-Ed astronomy class 20 Before beginning an in-class worksheet, be sure the students are properly prepared: Stars have various  diameters and surface areas  temperatures (hot stars are blue, cooler stars are red) A star’s luminosity is the rate at which it emits energy. Orion by John Gauvreau APOD 2008 October 15collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  21. 21. 21 In class, we did a worksheet about cooking spaghetti and then, by analogy, the temperature, size and luminosity of stars. The worksheet is removed from this slide deck because it is copyrighted.collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  22. 22. In-class worksheets 22  carefully-designed sequence of questions guide students through the exploration of a concept  first few questions may be trivial – checks students read intro paragraph, gives them confidence  give formative feedback along the way  most effective when done collaboratively (group reaches consensus before answering)  long, evidence-based history via “Washington Tutorials” and “Lecture Tutorials for introductory astronomy” (interactive activities in Prather etcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  23. 23. In-class worksheet assessment 23  don’t “go over” the worksheet  that only encourages students to force sit and wait for your solutions students to  don’t post solutions later self-assess  again, encourages non-participation their answers:  students bring last year’s sol’ns to class metacogniti  good alternative: ask a clicker question(s) on  if students get the question right, they can be confident they successfully completed the worksheetcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  24. 24. Clicker question 24 You observe two stars with the same luminosity and determine that one is larger than the other. Which star has the greater temperature? A) the smaller star B) the larger star C) the temperatures are the same D) there is insufficient information to answer this questioncollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd (Prather et al., [4])
  25. 25. 25 student-centered instruction peer instruction w clickers worksheets interactive demonstrations videos surveys of opinions reading quizzes discussionscollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  26. 26. Clicker question 26 Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the chocolate from the heat. What will happen to the chocolate? A) It will condense. B) It will evaporate. C) It will freeze. (Question: Sujatha Raghu from Braincandy via LearningCatalytics) (Image: CIM9926 by number657 on flickr CC)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  27. 27. Typical episode of peer27 instruction Alternating with 10-15 minute mini-lectures, 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own. 3. Students vote for an answer using clickers, colored/ABCD voting cards,... 4. The instructor reacts, based on the distribution of votes. Typically 1. “turn to your neighbor, convince them you’re right” 2. 2nd vote 3. Instructor orchestrates class discussion, concluding with explanation of solution (plus whycollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd wrong?) wrongs are
  28. 28. In effective peer instruction 28  students teach each other while students they may still hold or remember learn and their preconceptions practice  students discuss the concepts in their to how own (novice) language think, communicat  the instructor finds out what the students know e like (and don’t know) and reacts expertscollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  29. 29. Effective peer instruction 29 requires 1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions 2. creating multiple-choice questions that before require deeper thinking and learning class 3. facilitating peer instruction episodes that spark student discussion during 4. resolving the misconceptions classcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  30. 30. Clickers help students learn... 30 the learning cycle BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learning Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteencollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  31. 31. Clickers help students learn... 31 the learning cycle BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learning Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteencollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  32. 32. assess prior knowledge Clicker question 32 Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the chocolate from the heat. What will happen to the chocolate? A) It will condense. B) It will evaporate. C) It will freeze. (Question: Sujatha Raghu from Braincandy via LearningCatalytics) (Image: CIM9926 by number657 on flickr CC)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  33. 33. motivate Clicker question 33 In your opinion, which had the most positive impact on the modern world? A) coffee B) tea C) chocolate D) spice E) sugar (Herbst, UCSD)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  34. 34. provoke thinking Clicker question34 A leopard goes into a deep cave where there is no light. After an hour, can it see in the dark? A) No because there is no light. B) No because its eyes have not had enough time to adjust. C) Yes because its eyes have adjusted to the darkness. D) Yes because leopards can see in the LearningCatalytics) (Question: Paul Simeon from Braincandy via dark. (Image: Villy at the “door” of his cave by Tambako the Jaguar on flickrcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd CC)
  35. 35. predict Clicker question 35 A ball is rolling around C the inside of a circular B D track. The ball A E leaves the track at point P. P Which path does the ball follow? (Mazur)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  36. 36. Clickers help students learn... 36 the learning cycle BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learning Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteencollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  37. 37. probe misconception Clicker question 37 How many of these are reasons for the seasons?  the height of the Sun in the sky during the day  Earth’s distance from the Sun  how many hours the Sun is up each day A) none of them B) one C) two D) all threecollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  38. 38. analysis Clicker question 38 A Fast rode the knight Select the line that B With spurs, hot and reeking, you feel has the C Ever waving an eager sword, D "To save my lady!" strongest imagery E Fast rode the knight, in “Fast rode the F And leaped from saddle to war. knight” by Stephen G Men of steel flickered and gleamed H Like riot of silver lights, Crane (1905). I And the gold of the knights good J banner K Still waved on a castle wall. L ..... M A horse, N Blowing, staggering, bloody thing, O Forgotten at foot of castle wall. P A horsecollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd Dead at foot of castle wall. (David Kurtz, via LearningCatalytics)
  39. 39. evaluation Clicker question 39 Which of the following is an incorrect step when using the substitution method to evaluate the definite integral 4 2 3 x 1 x dx 0 3 1 4 u 1 x C. u du A) 3 0 du 2 x dx D. none of the above B) 3 (adapted from Bruff (2009))collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  40. 40. exercise skill Clicker question 40 Susan throws a ball straight up into the air. It goes up and then falls back into her hand 2 seconds later. Draw a graph showing the velocity of the ball from the moment it leaves her hand until she catches it velocity again. time 0 2 sec (CWSEI UBC)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  41. 41. Which one is the closest match to your graph? exercise skill velocity velocity A B time time 0 2 sec 0 2 sec velocity velocity C D time time 0 2 sec 0 2 sec E) some other graph 41 (CWSEI UBC)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  42. 42. Clickers help students learn... 42 the learning cycle BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learning Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteencollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  43. 43. demonstrate success Clicker question 43 Which point on the phylogenetic tree represents the closest relative of the frog? A B E D C (UBC CWSEI)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  44. 44. review / recap Clicker question 44 For the data set displayed in the following histogram, which would be larger, the mean or the median? A) mean B) median C) can’t tell from the givenmathquest.carroll.edu/resources.html) (Peck, histogramcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  45. 45. “big picture” Clicker question 45 In your opinion, which had the most positive impact on the modern world? A) coffee B) tea C) chocolate D) spice E) sugar (Herbst, UCSD)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  46. 46. Clickers help teachers teach... 46 the learning cycle BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learningcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  47. 47. Clickers help teachers teach... 47 Are they ready for the next topic? What do they already know? Do they care about this? the learning What DO they care about, anyway? cycle BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learningcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  48. 48. Clickers help teachers teach... 48 Where are they in the activity? Are they getting it? Do I need to intervene? the learning Did they notice key idea X? cycle BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learningcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  49. 49. Clickers help teachers teach... 49 Did they get it? Can I move to the next topic? Did that activity work? the learning c Howcdid Ie y l do? BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learningcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  50. 50. What makes a good clicker 50 question? YES NO  starts a conversation  exam question with between students exactly 1 correct  “lays bare” the heart of answer a juicy problem  memorization question  prepares student to (you either remember grasp expert’s or you don’t) explanation  part of discouraging  doesn’t answer the Lots of practice writing, lecture-quiz-lecture- problem: that’s what peer discussions AND running peer instruction quiz-lecture... cycle YOU are for in SGTS Practicalcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd wkshps
  51. 51. Week 9:First Day of Class The College Classroom March 6, 2013
  52. 52. References52 1. National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2. Prather, E.E, Rudolph, A.L., Brissenden, G., & Schlingman, W.M. (2009). A national study assessing the teaching and learning of introductory astronomy. Part I. The effect of interactive instruction. Am. J. Phys. 66, 64-74. 3. Get the full story of ILDs at serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/demonstrations/index.html 4. Prather, E.E., Slater, T.F., Adams, J.P., & Brissenden, G. (2007). Lecture Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy. (2e). San Francisco, CA: Pearson Addison-Wesley.collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  53. 53. 53 student-centered instruction peer instruction w clickers worksheets interactive demonstrations videos surveys of opinions reading quizzes discussionscollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  54. 54. Discussions 54  students share their understanding, opinions, ideas  students hear other students’ ideas, viewpoints  students practice communicating like experts  students get timely feedback from peers and instructorcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  55. 55. Discussions: Implications for 55 instructors  ensure students come to class prepared to contribute to the discussion  pre-readings that students want to complete (marks?)  must orchestrate activity so EVERY student speaks (no just enthusiastic volunteers)  “talking stick”, wiffle balls, pass the duck, popsicle sticks  build in time/tasks for listening, getting feedback from peers and instructorcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
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