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College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
College Classroom - Week 3
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College Classroom - Week 3

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Development of expertise, deliberate practice (and how to teach it) …

Development of expertise, deliberate practice (and how to teach it)

collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu

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  • People construct new learningrest
  • The pix are not located on the axes to indicate I can “make good KD even if I’m unconscious”. Just to remind audience what these 4 words mean…
  • The pix are not located on the axes to indicate I can “make good KD even if I’m unconscious”. Just to remind audience what these 4 words mean…
  • Where undergrads start off.
  • As they start to study discipline – and maybe even throughout it
  • PhD Students
  • Expertise
  • Experts can have great difficulty communicating with (that is, teaching) novices.
  • <<This is good to use sometime in the 4th – 5th class meeting. Although many of your students may love PI, it’s still not what they are used to form the past 12+ years of their educational experience. Especially for those very grade focused or concerned, they may be worried that their techniques for succeeding in a class won’t work in your “new” format>>Today, I did want to briefly address some concerns that some of you might be having about the design of our learning experience in this class. I’ve mentioned before that I chose to utilize Peer Instruction as the technique to use to support your learning because RESEARCH shows that it will increase your learning. However, this is a very different learning approach than most of you are used to. You’ve been involved in the educational system for a long time, and to have gotten where you are here today, you’ve been very successful! But the techniques you use to study, monitor your progress, etc. in traditionally formatted classes are hard to use here. Specifically, it is common for some students in peer instruction classes to say “I just wish the professor would just EXPLAIN IT TO ME” or “Well, clickers were fun, but the professor made me learn it on my own! It would have been easier if he’d just lectured!”These are not unreasonable thoughts to have.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Week 3: Developing Expertise The College Classroom January 23, 2013
    • 2. Connecting 2 Week 2: How People Lean Week 3: Expertise Engage preconceptions in Expertise developed student-centered ways through extended, deliberate practice Teach in depth, context, appropriate mastery goals Impact of effortful learning on neurons Support metacognition formative assessments to Supporting deliberate benefit teachers and students practicecollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 3. Plan for today… 3 requires Development of Expertise necessary deliberate for practice results in biological causes changes in braincollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 4. Plan for today… 4 requires Development of Expertise necessary deliberate for practice results in how do we? biological causes changes in brain supporting learningcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 5. 5 Tiger Woods (Image: Wikimedia Commons)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu 10,000 hours#tccucsd Serena Williams (Image by Carine06 on flickr CC) 4 hours/day Expertise Development deliberate practice Wayne Gretzy (Image: Wikimedia Commons CC)
    • 6. Deliberate practice [1] 6  activity that’s explicitly intended to improve performance  that reaches for objectives just beyond one’s level of competence  provides feedback on results  involves high levels of repetition  builds on natural (often physical) abilitycollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 7. Clicker question 7 With 10,000 hours of deliberate practice, a 5-ft tall Wait! How star in thestimulate man can be a basketball can I NBA. conversation for everyone in A) true the classroom? B) false How can I build on existing knowledge and preconceptions?collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 8. Clicker question 8 With 10,000 hours of deliberate practice, a 5-ft tall man can be a basketball star in the NBA. A) totally true – I’m so sure about this, I could stand up in class and convince everyone B) maybe true – I think it’s true but I’m not exactly sure why C) maybe false – I think it’s false but I’m not exactly sure why D) absolutely false – I’m so sure about this, I could stand up in class and convince everyonecollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 9. 9 Certainly some important traits are partly inherited, such as physical size and particular measures of intelligence, but those influence what a person doesn’t do more than what he does; a five-footer will never be an NFL lineman, and a seven-footer will never be an Olympic gymnast. Geoffrey Colvin [1]collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 10. Tip Sheet: Perfect Practice [1] 10 Approach each critical task with an explicit 1 goal of getting much better at it. As you do the task, focus on what’s happening and 2 why you’re doing it the way your are. After the task, get feedback on your performance from 3 multiple sources. Make changes in your behavior as necessary. Continually build mental models of your situation – 4 your industry, your company, your career. Enlarge the models to encompass more factors. Do these steps regularly, not sporadically. Occasional 5 practice does not workcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 11. Gather in groups of three – three 1’s, three 2’s, etc. Introduce yourselves. In your field, in which you’re becoming an expert, describe the component of deliberate practice matching your group’s number. 11 Approach each critical task with an explicit 1’s goal of getting much better at it. As you do the task, focus on what’s happening and 2’s why you’re doing it the way your are. After the task, get feedback on your performance from 3’s multiple sources. Make changes in your behavior as necessary. Continually build mental models of your situation – 4’s your industry, your company, your career. Enlarge the models to encompass more factors. Do these steps regularly, not sporadically. Occasional 5’s practice does not workcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 12. What do experts in your discipline do? 12  analysis using prior knowledge (features in images)  read the literature  critical analysis of others’ work in your field  look for new technologies to enable your work  plan several steps ahead  reflect upon mistakes  getting AND giving feedback  presenting your work  communicate outside your field to broaden your work’s applicability  discuss professional problems socially/casually/drunkcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 13. What do experts in your discipline do? 13  Identify appropriate sources  Identify appropriate models (equations…)  Compare and contrast  Critique/Argue/Prove  Solve/Create  Analyze  Interpret collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 14. Intelligence is grown 14 Dr. Carol Dweck – Stanford Shown that convincing people to adopt a “growth mindset” (not “fixed mindset”) leads to higher GPAs, higher graduation rates. [See Week 5: Assessment] Dr. Anders Ericcson – Florida State Univ. Studies development of expertise (sports figures, pianists, chess players). Expertise is not an innate trait, it is developed through  Long (10,000 hours)  Daily (4 hours a day)  Deliberate Practicecollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 15. Learning requires effort: you grow your brain [2] 15 When you learn a cognitively challenging concept, you are changing the brain:  Growing neurons  Building protein Two key efforts: Tracey J. Shors [2]  Generating understanding  Retrieving learned informationcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 16. Part 2:Teaching the development of expertise
    • 17. Development of Mastery [3] 17 conscious Behavior Wait! How to introduce a graph for the first time… unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertisecollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 18. Development of Mastery [3] 18 incompetent competent Level of Expertisecollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 19. Development of Mastery [3] 19 conscious Behavior unconscious adikko.deviantart.comcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 20. Development of Mastery [3] 20 conscious Behavior unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertisecollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 21. Development of Mastery [3] 21 conscious Behavior unconscious 1 incompetent competent Level of Expertisecollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 22. Development of Mastery [3] 22 conscious 2 Behavior unconscious 1 incompetent competent Level of Expertisecollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 23. Development of Mastery [3] 23 conscious 2 3 Behavior unconscious 1 incompetent competent Level of Expertisecollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 24. Development of Mastery [3] 24 conscious 2 3 Behavior unconscious 1 4 incompetent competent Level of Expertisecollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 25. Why Students Don’t Understand Your Lectures 25 Expert brains differ from novice brains because novices:  Lack rich, networked connections, cannot make inferences  Have preconceptions that distract or confuse (“You do not grow new brain cells.”)  Lack automization, resulting in cognitive overload  “Comparing Students’ and Experts’ Understanding of the Content of a Lecture” [4]  “Why should I use peer instruction in my class?” [5]collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 26. Development of Mastery [3] 26 conscious 2 3 Behavior unconscious 1 4 incompetent competent Level of Expertisecollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 27. An Example: 27 The House You Grew Up In Constructivism says of course it’s hard for the professor to say it so you can understand it because he has different pre-existing knowledgecollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 28. The next time you teach a course, what will you do to get your students to do these things? 28 Approach each critical task with an explicit 1’s goal of getting much better at it. As you do the task, focus on what’s happening and 2’s why you’re doing it the way your are. After the task, get feedback on your performance from 3’s multiple sources. Make changes in your behavior as necessary. Continually build mental models of your situation – 4’s your industry, your company, your career. Enlarge the models to encompass more factors. Do these steps regularly, not sporadically. Occasional 5’s practice does not workcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 29. Based on Biology and Expertise: How do we support learning? 29  Spaced engagement (time to rest between sessions)  Repeated, effortful testing (not passive studying)  Appropriate-level tasks  Expert, detailed, frequent feedbackcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 30. Students in Beth’s CSE course (heavy use of peer instruction with clickers) 30 Couldn’t you PLEASE just tell it to me? I know how to learn from lecture! Can’t you just explain it? Well, clickers were fun, but the professor made me learn it myself! It would have been easier if she’d just lectured!collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 31. Deliberate Practice Findings: for you 31  Reach for objectives JUST beyond where you are:  Work on incrementally harder problems.  Try variations on ones from class, homework, quizzes.  Practice consistently (every day)  And practice a LOT  Get FEEDBACK on your practice  Or at least self-analyze “continuously observing results, making appropriate adjustments” [1]  What to practice?  Maybe harder, but exam questions (if they are understandable)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 32. your Deliberate Practice Findings: for you students 32  Reach for objectives JUST beyond where you are: Set  Work on incrementally harder problems.  Try variations on ones from class, homework, quizzes.  Practice consistently (every day)  And practice a LOT Give  Get FEEDBACK on your practice  helpat least self-analyze “continuously observing results, making Or them to appropriate adjustments”  What to practice?  Maybe harder, but exam questions (if they are understandable)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 33. References 33 1. Colvin, G. (2006, October 19). What it takes to be great. Fortune, 88- 96. Available at money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2006/10/30/8391794 /index.htm 2. Shors, T.J. (2009, March). Saving new brain cells. Scientific American, 47 - 54. (PDF available at 66.96.218.117/~rcirutge/wp- content/uploads/2011/08/Saving New-Brain-Cells-Scientific-American- 2009.pdf ) 3. Sprague, J., & Stuart, D. (2000). The speaker’s handbook. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers. 4. Hrepic, Z., Zollman, D.A., & Rebello, N.S. (2007) Comparing Students’ and Experts’ Understanding of the Content of a Lecture. Journal of Science Education and Technology 16, 213-224. Available at http://ksuperg.blogspot.com/2009/06/hrepic-zollman-rebello- journal-of.html 5. Newbury, P. (2011, June 15) Why should I use peer instruction in my class? Available at www.peternewbury.org/2011/06/why-should-i-use-peer- instruction-in-my-class/collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • 34. 34 Next week: Learning Outcomes Watch the blog for next week’s readings and assignments See you Wednesday, January 30!collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd

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