College Classroom - Week 2

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The College Classroom
Week 2: How People Learn

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College Classroom - Week 2

  1. 1. Week 2: How People Learn The College Classroom January 16, 2013 Please form 4 islands of 6 people by the color on the index card you received.
  2. 2. 2collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  3. 3. Evidence-based teaching 3 We know How People Learn.1 There is research that informs us. Let’s exploit the patterns of learning to make instruction more effective. 1. National Research Council. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2000.collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  4. 4. “…exploit the patterns…” 4 Put up your hand when you know what this means: recognize what this is: NBCFBIOMGUSAIRScollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  5. 5. How People Learn, Chapter 1 matrix 5collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  6. 6. Key Finding – 1 6 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside the classroom. (How People Learn, p. 14)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  7. 7. Discussion 7 1. Introduce yourself. 2. Tell the others in your group about how, in the class you observed, the instructor successfully engaged the students’ preconceptions and initial understanding. (5 minutes)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  8. 8. Discussion 8 1. Introduce yourself. 2. Tell the others in your group about how, in the class you observed, the instructor successfully engaged the students’ preconceptions and initial understanding. (5 minutes) 3. Tell your group about a time when the instructor failed to engage the students’ pre-existing knowledge. How did you know? (5 minutes)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  9. 9. Implications for Teaching – 1 9 Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that their students bring with them. (How People Learn, p. 19)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  10. 10. New Coding System 10 Please memorize this code: 1= 4= 7= 1 2 3 2= 5= 8= 4 5 6 3= 6= 9= 7 8 9 unsupported, unfamiliar content built on pre-existing knowledge (tic-tac-toe board)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  11. 11. Designing Classroom Environments – 1 11 Schools and classrooms must be learner centered. (How People Learn, p. 23)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  12. 12. Key Findings – 2 12 To develop competence in an area of inquiry, students must: (a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, (b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and (c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn, p. 16)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  13. 13. Implications for Teaching – 2 13 Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many examples in which the same concept is at work and providing a firm foundation of factual knowledge. (How People Learn, p. 20)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  14. 14. Discussion 14 1. Introduce yourself. 2. Tell the others in your group about how, in the class you observed, the instructor talked about the framework of concept and organization/retrieval of the concepts. (5 minutes) 3. Tell your group about a time when the instructor failed at [see 2]. How did you know? (5 minutes)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  15. 15. Designing Classroom Environments – 2 15 To provide a knowledge-centered classroom environment, attention must be given to what is taught (information, subject matter), why it is taught (understanding), and what competence or mastery looks like. (How People Learn, p. 24) development learning of expertise outcomes (Week 3) (Week 4)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  16. 16. Key Findings – 3 16 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p. 18)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  17. 17. Aside: metacognition 17 Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them, e.g., the learning-relevant properties of information or data. For example, I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B; if it strikes me that I should double check C before accepting it as fact. (Flavell1,2, 1976, p. 232) 1. Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 2. Brame, C. (2013) Thinking about metacognition. [blog] January, 2013, Available at: http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/2013/01/thinking-about-metacognition/ [Accessed: 14 Jan 2013].collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  18. 18. Aside: metacognition 18 I wonder why I wonder why? I wonder why I wonder? I wonder why I wonder why I wonder why I wonder? Richard Feynman Image: Wikimedia Commons http://www.fnal.gov/pub/news/feynman.jpgcollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  19. 19. Key Findings – 3 19 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p. 18)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  20. 20. Implications for Teaching – 3 20 The teaching of metacognitive skills should be integrated into the curriculum in a variety of subject areas. (How People Learn, p. 21)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  21. 21. Designing Classroom Environments – 3 21 Formative assessments — ongoing assessments designed to make students’ thinking visible to both teachers and students — are essential. They permit the teacher to grasp the students’ preconceptions, understand where the students are in the “developmental corridor” from informal to formal thinking, and design instruction accordingly. In the assessment-centered classroom environment, formative assessments help both teachers and students monitor progress. assessment (How People Learn, p. 24) (Week 5)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  22. 22. Evolution of the Solar System 22 Today, we’ve been learning about the formation of the Solar System. Just like a geologist studies the exposed layers on a cliff-face, we study landforms on other planets and moons to find the chronology (sequence) of processes.collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  23. 23. Clicker question X 23 Are features X and Y ridges or valleys? A) X=ridge, Y=valley B) X=valley, Y=ridge C) both are ridges Y D) both are valleyscollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  24. 24. Typical Peer Instruction Episode 24 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own. 3. Students vote for an answer using clickers, colored/ABCD voting cards,... 4. The instructor reacts, based on the distribution of votes.collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  25. 25. Peer Instruction and How People Learn 25collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  26. 26. In effective peer instruction 26  students teach each other while they students learn may still hold or remember their novice and practice misconceptions how to think,  students discuss the concepts in their communicate own language like experts  the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reactscollegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  27. 27. Effective peer instruction requires 27 1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions before 2. creating multiple-choice questions that class require deeper thinking and learning 3. facilitating peer instruction episodes that during spark student discussion class 4. resolving the misconceptions Teacher C (HPL p. 12)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  28. 28. Week 3: Development of Expertise The College Classroom January 23, 2013 Watch the blog for the Week 3 homework collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu

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