Scholarly approach to teaching:SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu2Carl WiemanScience Education InitiativeWhat shouldstudentslearn?What arestudentslearning?What instructionalapproacheshelp studentslearn?learningoutcomes(goals, objectives)assessment
(Image: NASA)SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu3
Introductory “Astro 101”This course covers Chapters1. Mercury2. Venus…8. Neptune9. other objects10. Formation of the SolarSystem deduce from patterns in theproperties of the planets,moons, asteroids and otherbodies that the SolarSystem had singleformation event. provide notable examplesof how comets influencedhistory, art and science4SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.eduTraditional Course Syllabus Course with Learning Outcomes
Learning outcomesSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu5 completes the sentence, “By this end of thislesson/unit/course, you will be able to…” begins with an action verb (more below…) clarifies what it means to “understand” the concept deduce from patterns in theproperties of the planets,moons, asteroids and otherbodies that the SolarSystem had singleformation event.
What is the Value of Course-SpecificLearning GoalsSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu6What was the most interesting thing you learned fromSimon & Taylor?  thisOutcomes
SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu7Simon & Taylor (2009)
Learning outcomes are valuable to theinstructor, too.SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu8 crystallizes what prof actually cares about helped prof choose clicker questions for class write the final exam
…choose clicker questions for classSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu9ClassAction http://astro.unl.edu/classaction/
…write the final examSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu10(10 marks) List 3 patterns of the Solar System as awhole. Then, outline in some detail the current model forthe formation of the Solar System. In particular, makesure you explain how the observed patterns andregularities are related to this theory of formation.
Writing LOs – The Easy WaySGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu11Astro 101 Learning Outcomes learn about SaturnAssess your LOs: “learn”? Learn what? how does a student demonstrate to you s/he has“learned about Saturn?” how does a student check that s/he has mastered theSaturn part of the course?
Writing LOs – More Effective WaySGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu12Astro 101 Learning Outcomes describe in detail the size and structure of Saturn’srings step through the gravitational feedback cycle thatkeeps Saturn’s rings so thinAssess your LOs:1. Is this really what I want them to know?2. Are they capable of that?3. How do I assess their ability to demonstrate this LO?
Deciding on the level of a LOSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu13Writing learning outcomes is hard because you have to recognize declare (admit)what you want your students to be capable of doing.A good start is picking the verb describing the actionthe students will perform to demonstrate their masteryof the concept:
Bloom’s Taxonomy [2,3]SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu14RememberUnderstandApplyAnalyzeEvaluateCreatethink critically about and defend a positiontransform or combine ideas to createsomething newbreak down concepts into partsapply comprehension to unfamiliar situationsdemonstrate understanding of ideas andconceptsremember and recall factual information
Bloom’s Taxonomy [2,3]SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu15RememberUnderstandApplyAnalyzeEvaluateCreatehigher order thinkinglower order thinking
Driver’s Ed 101: How to Drive in CASGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu17The whiteboards on the tables are numbered. Yourgroup will concentrate on the question on the CaliforniaDMV Test  matching your board’s number.Task: Write a learning outcomethat your group’s question assesses.(Refer to Wieman handoutfor Bloom’s levels and corresponding verbs)
Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy 18SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu
Vocabulary check: assessmentis that which gives a finaljudgment of evaluation ofproficiency, such as grades orscores.(How Learning Works, p. 139)explicitly communicates tostudents about some specificaspects of their performancerelative to specific targetcriteria, and … providesinformation that helps studentsprogress toward meeting thosecriteria…[It] informs students’subsequent learning.(How Learning Works, p. 139)19SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edusummative assessment formative assessment
Feedback and Practice that EnhanceLearning (How Learning Works )20Writing – public policy coursePresentations on research – medical anthropologySGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.eduInstructors’ expertiseand bias not clear tostudents (or themselves)
Feedback and Practice that EnhanceLearning (How Learning Works )21Solution: Goal-directed practice coupled with targetedfeedback are critical to learning.SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.eduImages:Excellent Shot by Varsity Life on flickr CCMusic by Piulet on flickr CC
Feedback and Practice that EnhanceLearning (How Learning Works )22Solution: Goal-directed practice coupled with targetedfeedback are critical to learning.[G]oals can direct the nature of focused practice, providethe basis for evaluating observed performance, and shapethe targeted feedback that guides students’ future efforts.(p. 127)[T]argeted feedback gives students prioritized informationabout how their performance does or does not meet thecriteria so they can understand how to improve their futureperformance.(p. 141)SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu
ScenariosSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu23feedback atappropriate levelfeedback not atappropriate levelproductive practice unproductive practicepractice is goal-directed practice not goal-directedtimely feedback untimely feedbackFind the person with the samecolored sheet as you. Fill outthe sheet together.
Feedback at Appropriate Level Feedback not at Appropriate Levelsport/hobby________________education__________________
Productive Practice Unproductive Practicesport/hobby________________education__________________
Practice Goal-directed Practice not Goal-directedsport/hobby________________education__________________
Instructional Scaffolding28 Needs to be given BEFORE and BUILT INTO assignment Outlines what it takes to improve Supports Zone of Proximal Development SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu
Appropriate Level of Challenge29Glued to Games : Psychologicalexploration (and comparison witheducational practices) of characteristicsof games that drive people to spend timeand succeed.James Paul Gee  “What video gameshave to teach us about learning andliteracy”SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.eduangrybirds.com
SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu30
Clicker question31Does this rubric foster aA) fixed/performance mindsetB) growth/mastery mindsetC) neitherD) bothSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu
SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.eduRobert Talberttinyurl.com/RobertTalbertRubric
Instructional Scaffolding33 Rubrics support growth mindsets path to improvement goal-directed[G]oals can direct the nature of focused practice, providethe basis for evaluating observed performance, and shapethe targeted feedback that guides students’ future efforts. targeted feedback[T]argeted feedback gives students prioritized informationabout how their performance does or does not meet thecriteria so they can understand how to improve their futureperformance.SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu
Assessment Strategies…SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu34 addressing the need for goal-directed practice addressing the need for targeted feedbackWork on the hand-out,thinking about what you’veexperienced or what youaspire to do in your field.
Executive Summary:SGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu35Plan your courseby synchronizing andaligning your learningoutcomes, activities andassessments.What shouldstudentslearn?What arestudentslearning?What instructionalapproacheshelp studentslearn?
ReferencesSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu361. Simon, B., & Taylor, J. (2009). What is the Value of Course-Specific LearningGoals? Journal of College Science Teaching, 39, 2, 52-57. PDF available atwww.cwsei.ubc.ca/SEI_research/files/LifeSci/Simon_Taylor_ValueOfCourseSpecificLG.pdf2. Bloom B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: TheCognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc.Adapted from Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (2001). A Taxonomy forLearning. Teaching, and assessing: A revision of blooms taxonomy of educationalobjectives.Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching/RevisedBlooms1.html3. Excerpt from Wieman, C. (2007). Slides from the Wieman Learning GoalsWorkshop. www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/learn_goals.htm4. California DMV Sample Class C Written Test 5www.dmv.ca.gov/pubs/interactive/tdrive/clc6written.htm
References, continuedSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu375. Ambrose, S.A., Bridges, M.W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M.C., & Norman, M.K. (2010).How Learning Works. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass.6. Glued to Games: How Video Games Draw Us In and Hold Us Spellboundhttp://www.gluedtogames.com/7. Gee, J.P. (2005). Learning by Design: good video games as learning machines. E-Learning 2, 1, 5-16.8. Wertsch, J.V. (1984). The zone of proximal development: Some conceptual issues.New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 1984, 23, 7–18.
Bloom’s Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain(Levels of Learning) [Wieman, 2007]386. Synthesis: transform and combine ideas to create something newdevelop, create, propose, formulate, design, invent5. Evaluation: think critically about and defend a positionjudge, appraise, recommend, justify, defend, criticize, evaluate4. Analysis: break down concepts into partscompare, contrast, categorize, distinguish, identify, infer3. Application: apply comprehension to unfamiliar situationsapply, demonstrate, use, compute, solve, predict, construct, modify2. Comprehension: demonstrate understanding of ideas, conceptsdescribe, explain, summarize, interpret, illustrate1. Factual Knowledge: remember and recall factual knowledgedefine, list, state, label, name, describeSGTS Theory Stream - collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu