HOW PEOPLE LEARN
Peter Newbury, Ph.D.
Center for Teaching Development,
University of California, San Diego
pnewbury@ucsd.e...
Peter
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)2
 PhD (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada) 1998
...
3
how
people
learn
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
(Image: Sunset in Antartica by
Christopher.Mic...
Survey
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)4
Which of these do you associate
with a typical university...
Survey
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)5
Which of these do you think students associate
with a typ...
The traditional lecture is based on the
transmissionist learning model
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruc...
Let’s have a learning experience…
7 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
Here is an important new number
system. Please learn it.
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)8
1 = 4 =...
Test
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)9
What is this number?
Scientifically Outdated, a Known Failure
10 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
We must abandon the t...
New Number System
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)11
Here’s the structure of the “tic-tac-toe” cod...
Test
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)12
What is this number?
Constructivist Theory of Learning
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)13
New learning is built on and ...
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)14
What are the patterns
of how people learn?
(And how do we use them?)
(Image: entropy memory creativity by jef_safi on flic...
How People Learn
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)16
National Research Council (2000).
How People L...
Key Finding 1
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)17
Students come to the classroom with preconception...
Key Finding 2
18
To develop competence in an area, students must:
a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge,
b) under...
Key Finding 3
19
A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help
students learn to take control of their own learning b...
Aside: metacognition
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)20
Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge co...
Key Finding 3
21
A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help
students learn to take control of their own learning b...
Please break into groups of 3-4...
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)22
Each set of cards has
 3 Ke...
23
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
Key Finding 1
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)24
Students come to the classroom with preconception...
Implications for Teaching 1
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)25
Teachers must draw out and work wit...
New Coding System
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)26
Please memorize this code:
1 = 4 = 7 =
2 = 5 ...
Classroom Environments 1
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)27
Schools and classrooms must be learner...
Learning requires interaction [4]
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)28
Learning requires interaction [4]
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)29
% of class time
NOT lecturing...
Learning requires interaction [4]
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)30
1 2
3 4
Key Finding 2
31
To develop competence in an area, students must:
a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge,
b) under...
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
32
Implications for Teaching 2
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)33
Teachers must teach some subject ma...
Development of Mastery [5]
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)34
conscious
unconscious
incompetent co...
Development of Mastery [5]
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)35
incompetent competent
Level of Exper...
Development of Mastery [5]
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)36
conscious
unconscious
adikko.deviant...
Development of Mastery [5]
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)37
conscious
unconscious
incompetent co...
Development of Mastery [5]
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)38
conscious
unconscious
incompetent co...
Development of Mastery [5]
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)39
conscious
unconscious
incompetent co...
Development of Mastery [5]
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)40
conscious
unconscious
incompetent co...
Development of Mastery [5]
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)41
conscious
unconscious
incompetent co...
Why Your Students Don’t Understand You
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)42
Expert brains differ fro...
Key Finding 3
43
A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help
students learn to take control of their own learning b...
Implications for Teaching 3
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)44
The teaching of metacognitive skill...
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)45
student-centered instructiontraditional lecture
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)46
peer instruction with clickers
interactive demonstrations
surve...
Clicker question
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)47
Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the choco...
Typical episode of peer instruction
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)48
Alternating with 10-15 minu...
Typical “choreography”
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)49
1. Students think and answer on their ow...
In effective peer instruction
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)50
 students teach each other while...
Clicker Question
51
The molecules making up the dry mass of wood that
forms during the growth of a tree largely come from
...
52
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
Lunch Task #1: Find a partner
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)53
Find a partner or two in your dis...
Lunch Task #2: Watch this video
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)54
Veritasium (Derek Muller)
http:...
Student-centered instruction takes time
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)55
Five minutes of student...
Traditional classroom
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)56
1. Transfer: first exposure to material i...
Flipped classroom
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)57
1. Transfer: student learns easy content at h...
References
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)58
1. National Research Council (2000). How People Lear...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)

3,540 views
3,394 views

Published on

How people learn and how peer instruction with clickers supports it. Presented at CSULA STEM Summer Institute on Active Learning in the STEM classroom.

Peter Newbury
September 2013

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,540
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2,640
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • The how is most important… and it also applies to teaching any course.
  • The pix are not located on the axes to indicate I can “make good KD even if I’m unconscious”. Just to remind audience what these 4 words mean…
  • The pix are not located on the axes to indicate I can “make good KD even if I’m unconscious”. Just to remind audience what these 4 words mean…
  • Where undergrads start off.
  • As they start to study discipline – and maybe even throughout it
  • PhD Students
  • Expertise
  • How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)

    1. 1. HOW PEOPLE LEARN Peter Newbury, Ph.D. Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu slides and resources: tinyurl.com/PI-CSULA September 11, 2013 CSULA Unless otherwise noted, content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommericial 3.0 License.
    2. 2. Peter How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)2  PhD (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada) 1998 in applied math  taught math and astronomy 1998 – 2007  Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative in Dept. of Physics and Astronomy at UBC, 2008 – 2012  Center for Teaching Development, UCSD since August, 2012 Teaching and learning interests:  how people learn science, technology, engineering, arts, math (STEAM)  how to coax instructors to transform the way they teach and then providing effective “coaching”  finding the most effective ways to implement peer instruction (clickers)  establishing and maintaining an online personal learning network @polarisdotca peternewbury.org
    3. 3. 3 how people learn How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) (Image: Sunset in Antartica by Christopher.Michel on flickr CC)
    4. 4. Survey How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)4 Which of these do you associate with a typical university lecture? A) listening B) absorbing C) note-taking D) learning E) other
    5. 5. Survey How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)5 Which of these do you think students associate with a typical university lecture? A) listening B) absorbing C) note-taking D) learning E) other
    6. 6. The traditional lecture is based on the transmissionist learning model How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)6 (Image by um.dentistry on flickr CC)
    7. 7. Let’s have a learning experience… 7 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
    8. 8. Here is an important new number system. Please learn it. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)8 1 = 4 = 7 = 2 = 5 = 8 = 3 = 6 = 9 =
    9. 9. Test How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)9 What is this number?
    10. 10. Scientifically Outdated, a Known Failure 10 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) We must abandon the tabula rasa “blank slate” and “students as empty vessels” models of teaching and learning.
    11. 11. New Number System How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)11 Here’s the structure of the “tic-tac-toe” code: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
    12. 12. Test How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)12 What is this number?
    13. 13. Constructivist Theory of Learning How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)13 New learning is built on and from existing knowledge. You store things in long term memory through a set of connections that are made with previous existing memories. (Images by Rebecca-Lee on flickr CC) Creating memories (aka learning) involves having neurons fire and neurons link up in networks or patterns.
    14. 14. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)14
    15. 15. What are the patterns of how people learn? (And how do we use them?) (Image: entropy memory creativity by jef_safi on flickr CC)How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) 15
    16. 16. How People Learn How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)16 National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.), Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available for free as PDF www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=9853
    17. 17. Key Finding 1 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)17 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn, p 14.)
    18. 18. Key Finding 2 18 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn, p 16.) How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
    19. 19. Key Finding 3 19 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
    20. 20. Aside: metacognition How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)20 Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them. For example, I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B. ([2], [3])
    21. 21. Key Finding 3 21 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
    22. 22. Please break into groups of 3-4... How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)22 Each set of cards has  3 Key Findings  3 Implications for Teaching  3 Designing Classroom Environments TASK: Sort your cards into 3 groups of 3 cards each by matching the Implication for Teaching and Classroom Environments to the Key Finding: Implication for Teaching
    23. 23. 23 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
    24. 24. Key Finding 1 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)24 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn, p 14.)
    25. 25. Implications for Teaching 1 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)25 Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that their students bring with them. (How People Learn, p 19.)
    26. 26. New Coding System How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)26 Please memorize this code: 1 = 4 = 7 = 2 = 5 = 8 = 3 = 6 = 9 = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 unsupported, unfamiliar content built on pre-existing knowledge (tic-tac-toe board)
    27. 27. Classroom Environments 1 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)27 Schools and classrooms must be learner centered. (How People Learn, p 23.)
    28. 28. Learning requires interaction [4] How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)28
    29. 29. Learning requires interaction [4] How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)29 % of class time NOT lecturing Learning gain: pre-test 0 100% post-test 0.50
    30. 30. Learning requires interaction [4] How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)30 1 2 3 4
    31. 31. Key Finding 2 31 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) (How People Learn, p 16.)
    32. 32. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) 32
    33. 33. Implications for Teaching 2 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)33 Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many examples in which the same concept is at work and providing a firm foundation of factual knowledge. Classroom Environments 2 To provide a knowledge-centered environment, attention must be given to what is taught (information, subject matter), why it is taught (understanding), and what competence or mastery looks like. (How People Learn, p 20.) (How People Learn, p 24.)
    34. 34. Development of Mastery [5] How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)34 conscious unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertise Behavior
    35. 35. Development of Mastery [5] How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)35 incompetent competent Level of Expertise
    36. 36. Development of Mastery [5] How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)36 conscious unconscious adikko.deviantart.com Behavior
    37. 37. Development of Mastery [5] How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)37 conscious unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertise Behavior
    38. 38. Development of Mastery [5] How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)38 conscious unconscious incompetent competent 1 Level of Expertise Behavior
    39. 39. Development of Mastery [5] How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)39 conscious unconscious incompetent competent 1 2 Level of Expertise Behavior
    40. 40. Development of Mastery [5] How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)40 conscious unconscious incompetent competent 1 2 3 Level of Expertise Behavior
    41. 41. Development of Mastery [5] How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)41 conscious unconscious incompetent competent 1 2 3 4 Level of Expertise Behavior
    42. 42. Why Your Students Don’t Understand You How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)42 Expert brains differ from novice brains because novices:  lack rich, networked connections, cannot make inferences, cannot reliably retrieve information  have preconceptions that distract or confuse  lack automization, resulting in cognitive overload
    43. 43. Key Finding 3 43 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
    44. 44. Implications for Teaching 3 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)44 The teaching of metacognitive skills should be integrated into the curriculum in a variety of subject areas. Classroom Environments 3 Formative assessments — ongoing assessments designed to make students’ thinking visible to both teachers and students — are essential. Instructors need to provide opportunities for students to practice being metacognitive: an internal dialogue about their own thinking (How People Learn, p 21.) (How People Learn, p 24.)
    45. 45. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)45 student-centered instructiontraditional lecture
    46. 46. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)46 peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction
    47. 47. Clicker question How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)47 Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the chocolate from the heat. What will happen to the chocolate? A) It will condense. B) It will evaporate. C) It will freeze. (Question: Sujatha Raghu from Braincandy via LearningCatalytics) (Image: CIM9926 by number657 on flickr CC)
    48. 48. Typical episode of peer instruction How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)48 Alternating with 10-15 minute mini-lectures, 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging, multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own. 3. Students vote for an answer using clickers, smart phones, colored/ABCD voting cards, Poll Everywhere,… 4. The instructor reacts, based on the distribution of votes.
    49. 49. Typical “choreography” How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)49 1. Students think and answer on their own (“solo vote”) 2. Instructor says, “Interesting! Please turn to your neighbors and convince them you’re right.” Walks around the classroom, eavesdropping on conversations. 3. Students discuss question. As things quiet down, instructor says, “I’ve heard some great discussions. Please vote again.” (“group vote”) 4. Class-wide discussion, concluding with why the right answer(s) is right and the wrong answers are wrong. Depending on the solo vote distribution, agile instructors can try other variations on 2 – 4.
    50. 50. In effective peer instruction How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)50  students teach each other while they may still hold or remember their novice preconceptions  students discuss the concepts in their own (novice) language  the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reacts, building on their initial understanding and preconceptions. students learn and practice how to think, communicate like experts
    51. 51. Clicker Question 51 The molecules making up the dry mass of wood that forms during the growth of a tree largely come from A) sunlight. B) the air. C) the seed. D) the soil. Question credit: Bill WoodHow (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
    52. 52. 52 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
    53. 53. Lunch Task #1: Find a partner How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)53 Find a partner or two in your discipline – this afternoon, you’ll be writing a peer instruction question together. It’s important to have  content knowledge (the concepts)  pedagogical content knowledge (how to teach and learn the concepts) Sit together when you get back from lunch.
    54. 54. Lunch Task #2: Watch this video How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)54 Veritasium (Derek Muller) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KZb2_vcNTg
    55. 55. Student-centered instruction takes time How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)55 Five minutes of student-centered instruction every 15 minutes means 25% of class time is not lecturing. But you (already) have lecture material to fill 100% of the time! Where does that time come from?
    56. 56. Traditional classroom How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)56 1. Transfer: first exposure to material is in class, content is transmitted from instructor to student 2. Assimilate: learning occurs later when student struggles alone to complete homework, essay, project 1. learn easy stuff together 2. learn hard stuff alone (Mazur [6])
    57. 57. Flipped classroom How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)57 1. Transfer: student learns easy content at home: definitions, basis skills, simple examples. Frees up class time for... 2. Assimilate: students come to class prepared to tackle challenging concepts in class, with immediate feedback from peers, instructor 2. learn hard stuff together 1. learn easy stuff alone (Mazur [6])
    58. 58. References How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)58 1. National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2. Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 3. Brame, C. (2013). Thinking about metacognition. [blog] January, 2013, Available at: http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/2013/01/thinking-about- metacognition/ [Accessed: 14 Jan 2013]. 4. Prather, E.E, Rudolph, A.L., Brissenden, G., & Schlingman, W.M. (2009). A national study assessing the teaching and learning of introductory astronomy. Part I. The effect of interactive instruction. Am. J. Phys. 77, 4, 320-330. 5. Sprague, J., & Stuart, D. (2000). The speaker’s handbook. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers. 6. Mazur, E. (2009). Farewell, Lecture? Science, 323, 5910, 50-51.

    ×