CTD Wi14 Weekly Workshop: How People Learn

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Peter Newbury
Center for Teaching Development, UCSD
ctd.ucsd.edu

15 January 2014

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CTD Wi14 Weekly Workshop: How People Learn

  1. 1. Resources: ctd.ucsd.edu/programs/weekly-workshops-winter-2014 CTD WEEKLY WORKSHOP: HOW PEOPLE LEARN Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd Wednesday, January 15, 2014 12:00 – 12:50 pm NSB Auditorium
  2. 2. 2 How People Learn
  3. 3. Survey Which of these do you associate with a typical university lecture? A) listening B) absorbing C) note-taking D) learning 3 How People Learn
  4. 4. The traditional lecture is based on the transmissionist learning model (Image by um.dentistry on flickr CC) 4 How People Learn
  5. 5. Let’s have a learning experience… 5 How People Learn
  6. 6. Here is an important number system. Please learn it. 1= 7= 2= 5= 8= 3= 6 4= 6= 9= How People Learn
  7. 7. Test What is this number? 7 How People Learn
  8. 8. Scientifically Outdated, a Known Failure We must abandon the tabula rasa “blank slate” and “students as empty vessels” models of teaching and learning. 8 How People Learn
  9. 9. New Number System: tic-tac-toe code 1 5 6 7 How People Learn 3 4 9 2 8 9
  10. 10. What is this number? 10 How People Learn
  11. 11. Constructivist Theory of Learning New learning is based on knowledge you already have. You store things in long term memory through a set of connections that are learning is done made with your existing memories. by individuals Creating memories (aka learning) involves having neurons fire and link up in networks or patterns. (fMRI is allowing us to observe learning as it happens.) 11 How People Learn (Images by Rebecca-Lee on flickr CC)
  12. 12. How People Learn National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.), Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available for free as PDF www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=9853 12 How People Learn
  13. 13. Key Finding 1 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn, p 14.) 13 How People Learn
  14. 14. Key Finding 2 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn, p 16.) 14 How People Learn
  15. 15. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) 15 How People Learn
  16. 16. Aside: metacognition Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them. For example, I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B. ([2], [3]) meta cognition 16 How People Learn
  17. 17. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) 17 How People Learn
  18. 18. Please gather into groups of 3-4 Each set of colored cards has  3 Key Findings  3 Implications for Teaching  3 Designing Classroom Environments TASK: Match the cards into Key Finding 3 sets of 3 cards 2 Key Finding 3 18 How People Learn Designing Classroom Environment Implications for Teaching
  19. 19. 19 How People Learn
  20. 20. Key Finding 1 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn, p 14.) 20 How People Learn
  21. 21. Implications for Teaching 1 Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that their students bring with them. (How People Learn, p 19.) 21 How People Learn
  22. 22. Transmissionist Constructivist 1= 4= 7= 1 2 3 2= 5= 8= 4 5 6 3= 6= 9= 7 8 9 unsupported, unfamiliar content 22 How People Learn built on pre-existing knowledge (tic-tac-toe board)
  23. 23. Classroom Environments 1 Schools and classrooms must be learner centered. (How People Learn, p. 23) Students need to encounter safe yet challenging conditions in which they can try, fail, receive feedback, and try again without facing summative evaluation. (What the best college teachers do, p.108) 23 How People Learn
  24. 24. Learning requires interaction 24 How People Learn [5]
  25. 25. Learning requires interaction Learning gain: 100% 0.50 % of class time NOT lecturing 0 25 How People Learn pre-test post-test [5]
  26. 26. Learning requires interaction [5] 52 classes in sizes 25 to >100 students, at 2- and 4-yr colleges and research universities across US, wrote an astronomy test. Each point shows a class’ learning gain. 26 How People Learn
  27. 27. Learning requires interaction [5] 1 3 27 2 4 How People Learn
  28. 28. Key Finding 2 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn, p 16.) 28 How People Learn
  29. 29. 29 How People Learn
  30. 30. Implications for Teaching 2 Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many examples in which the same concept is at work and providing a firm foundation of factual knowledge. (How People Learn, p 20.) Classroom Environments 2 To provide a knowledge-centered environment, attention must be given to what is taught (information, subject matter), why it is taught (understanding), and what competence or mastery looks like. (How People Learn, p 24.) 30 How People Learn
  31. 31. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) 31 How People Learn
  32. 32. Implications for Teaching 3 The teaching of metacognitive skills should be integrated into the curriculum in a variety of subject areas. (How People Learn, p 21.) Classroom Environments 3 Formative assessments — ongoing assessments designed to make students’ thinking visible to both teachers and students — are essential. (How People Learn, p 24.) 32 How People Learn
  33. 33. Putting How People Learn theory into practice
  34. 34. traditional lecture 34 How People Learn student-centered instruction
  35. 35. peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction 35 How People Learn
  36. 36. Introductory Chemistry Today, we’ll be learning about changes of state. Remember, there are 3 states (also called “phases”) of matter:  solid  liquid  gas 36 How People Learn
  37. 37. Clicker question Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the chocolate from the heat. What will happen to the chocolate? A) It will condense. B) It will evaporate. C) It will freeze. (Question: Sujatha Raghu from Braincandy via LearningCatalytics) (Image: CIM9926 by number657 on flickr CC) 37 How People Learn
  38. 38. Typical Episode of Peer Instruction (PI) 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own and vote using clickers, colored ABCD cards, smartphones,… 3. The instructor asks students to turn to their neighbors and “convince them you’re right.” 4. After that “peer instruction”, the students vote again and the instructor leads a class-wide discussion concluding with why the right answer(s) is right and the wrong answers are wrong. 38 How People Learn
  39. 39. In effective peer instruction  students teach each other while they may still hold or remember their novice preconceptions  students discuss the concepts in their own (novice) language students learn and practice how to think, communicate like experts  each student finds out what s/he does(n’t) know  the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reacts, building on their initial understanding and preconceptions. 39 How People Learn
  40. 40. To learn more about peer instruction Upcoming Weekly Workshops at the CTD: Feb 12 Peer Instruction I: Writing Good Peer Instruction (“Clicker”) Questions A good episode of peer instruction requires a good question. In this session, we’ll see a variety of questions and contrast good vs bad questions, that you can adapt to your discipline Feb 19 Peer Instruction II: Best Practices for Running Peer Instruction with Clickers In this session, we’ll discuss best practices for choreographing an episode of peer instruction in your class including how to pose the question, when to open and close the poll, how many votes, and how to get the most out of the class-wide discussion. To register, look for the Teaching and Learning Weekly Workshops at ctd.ucsd.edu 40 How People Learn
  41. 41. How People Learn Learning is not about what the instructor does. It’s about what students do for themselves. 41 How People Learn
  42. 42. How People Learn Learning is not about what the instructor does. It’s about what students do for themselves. Students will not learn (just) by listening to the instructor explain. 42 How People Learn
  43. 43. How People Learn Learning is not about what the instructor does. It’s about what students do for themselves. Students will not learn (just) by listening to the instructor explain. BE LESS HELPFUL 43 How People Learn
  44. 44. If in doubt, ask yourself… Who is doing the work, you or the students? 44 How People Learn
  45. 45. Resources: ctd.ucsd.edu/programs/weekly-workshops-winter-2014 CTD WEEKLY WORKSHOP: HOW PEOPLE LEARN Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd Wednesday, January 15, 2014 12:00 – 12:50 pm NSB Auditorium
  46. 46. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 46 National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Brame, C. (2013) Thinking about metacognition. [blog] January, 2013, Available at: http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/2013/01/thinkingabout-metacognition/ [Accessed: 14 Jan 2013]. Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Prather, E.E, Rudolph, A.L., Brissenden, G., & Schlingman, W.M. (2009). A national study assessing the teaching and learning of introductory astronomy. Part I. The effect of interactive instruction. Am. J. Phys. 77, 4, 320-330. How People Learn

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