Clickers 1: Peer Instruction with Clickers

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Spring 2013 Teaching and Learning Workshops: …

Spring 2013 Teaching and Learning Workshops:
Clickers 1: Peer Instruction with Clickers

April 30, 2013
Peter Newbury
ctd.ucsd.edu

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  • 1. CTD WEEKLY WORKSHOPS:CLICKERS 1:INTRODUCTION TO PEERINSTRUCTION WITH CLICKERSPeter NewburyCenter for Teaching Development,University of California, San Diegopnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotcactd.ucsd.edu #ctducsdresources: http://tinyurl.com/Clickers1Sp2013Tuesday, April 30, 2013 11:00 am – 12:00 pmCenter Hall, Room 316
  • 2. We know How People LearnClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers2…and what that means for teaching [1]:1. Teachers must draw out and work with the pre-existing understanding that their students bring withthem. Classrooms must be learner centered.2. Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth,providing many examples in which the same conceptis at work and providing a firm foundation offactual knowledge.3. The teaching of metacognitive (“thinking aboutthinking”) skills should be integrated into thecurriculum in a variety of subject areas.
  • 3. Clickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers3student-centered instructiontraditional lecture
  • 4. Clickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers4peer instruction with clickersinteractive demonstrationssurveys of opinionsreading quizzesworksheetsdiscussionsvideosstudent-centered instruction
  • 5. Typical episode of peer instructionClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers5Alternating with 10-15 minute mini-lectures,1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging,multiple-choice question.2. Students think about question on their own.3. Students vote for an answer using clickers,smart phones, colored/ABCD voting cards,Poll Everywhere,…4. The instructor reacts, based on thedistribution of votes.
  • 6. Let’s try it…Clickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers6 Don’t get (too) distracted by the content of thequestions: this is not a test of your knowledge! Try to be aware of how the peer instruction is“choreographed” – we’ll talk lots about itafterwards
  • 7. Astronomy classClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers7We’re in an astronomy service course. We’ve justfinished a worksheet on the phases of the Moon.
  • 8. Clicker questionClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers8This is the phase of the Moon when it rises:What is the phase of the Moon 12 hours later?(Adapted from Ed Prather)A BDCE
  • 9. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with ClickersTo be effective, the instructor needs to run the peerinstruction in a way that gives students sufficient time tothink about, discuss and resolve the concepts.We want students to focus all of their precious cognitiveload on the concept. We don’t want them wasting anyof it wondering, “What am I supposed to do now?”9
  • 10. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers1. Present the question. Don’t read it aloud.Reasons for not reading the question aloud:• your voice may give away key features or eventhe answer• you might read the question you hoped to ask, notthe words that are actually there• the students are not listening anyway – they’retrying to read it themselves and your voice may, infact, distract them10
  • 11. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers2. “Please answer this on your own.”Goals of the first, solo vote:• get the students to commit to a choice in their own minds• get the students to commit to a choice so they’ll becurious about the answer• get the students prepared to have a discussion with theirpeersIf they discuss the question right away:• students are making choices based on someone else’sreasoning• those students cannot contribute to the peer instruction asthey have no ideas of their own11
  • 12. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers2. “Please answer this on your own.”Students may be reluctant to quietly think on theirown. After all, they have a better chance of pickingthe right choice after talking to their friends.If you’re going to impose a certain behaviour on thestudents, getting their “buy-in” is critical. Explain tothem why the solo vote is so important. Explain it tothem early in the term and remind them when theystart drifting to immediate discussions.www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/SEI_video.html12
  • 13. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers3. Don’t start the i>clicker poll. Instead give thestudents sufficient time to make a choice. What issufficient?• Turn to the screen, read and answer the question as ifyou are one of your students.• Another possibility: keep facing the class, watchingfor confused stares and/or and satisfied smiles.• Another possibility: model how to think about thequestion by “acting it out.”• When you notice students picking up their clickers andgetting restless, they are prepared to vote.13
  • 14. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers4. When you have made a choice or when you see theclass getting restless, ask the students, “Do you needmore time?”5. “Yes!” Give them a few more seconds.“[silence]” Ask them to prepare to vote.If many students are not ready to vote, they will nothave committed to a choice and will be unprepared todiscuss the question.Some students may be uncomfortable asking for moretime. Make it clear, from the first class, that you’llhonour the request with no repercussions.14
  • 15. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers6a. Open the poll, “Please vote.”If you’ve given them sufficient time to commit to achoice, the voting should take very little time.15
  • 16. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers6b. Prepare to close the pollWhen almost all the votes are in, say, “Final votes,please, in 5…4…3…2…1…Thank-you!” and closethe poll.Don’t wait for every last student to vote. Some maybe choosing not to vote.16
  • 17. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers7. Initiate small group discussions: “Please turn to yourneighbors and convince them you’re right.”Don’t display the histogram: if the students see it, theytend to pick the popular choice on the 2nd vote even ifit’s not the answer they feel is correct: “lemming effect”Students may not know how to “discuss” the question sogive them direction: “…convince them you’re right.”17
  • 18. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers8. Wander around the room, listening to theconversations.o Avoid joining conversations – this is their time totalk, not yours.o Listen for misconceptions, places where students getstuck – these nuggets of student thinking are yoursource for improving the questions, clarifying thequestions, etc.18
  • 19. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers9. When it starts to get quiet and/or you noticestudents starting to disengage or talk about otherthings, collect the 2nd vote:“Group vote, please!” Start the poll.“Last call on the group vote [pause 10 seconds] in5…4…3…2…1…thank-you!” Stop the poll.19
  • 20. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers10a. Now you can display the histogram – this is thesignal to the students that a discussion is about tobegin.Depending on their votes, you have severalchoices for sparking the discussion…20
  • 21. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers10b. Correct answer is the clearwinner.Ok, well done, B is correct but… why might A be tempting? why might someone think it could be E? could someone explain why D is wrong? (possible follow-up question)How would be change the question so that A is right?21
  • 22. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers10b. No clear winner.Ok, this was a harder one, weneed to look at all the options… what reasoning would someone use for A (repeat forall popular choices) if you changed your vote, what did you discuss in yourgroup?22
  • 23. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers10b. If you’re not sure what to do, you’re never wrongasking,What did your group talk about?23
  • 24. Clicker choreographyClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers11. At the end, confirm the answer(s) and continue withthe class.Even if more than 80–90% of the students havepicked the correct choice, some students may still notsure why that choice is correct.Briefly confirm the correct choice:• explain why the right answer is right• explain why wrong answers are wrong• allows students who chose the right answer tomake sure they had the correct reasoning24
  • 25. In effective peer instructionClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers students teach each other whilethey may still hold or remembertheir novice preconceptions students discuss the concepts in theirown (novice) language the instructor finds out what the students know (anddon’t know) and reacts, building on their initialunderstanding and preconceptions.students learnand practicehow to think,communicatelike experts25
  • 26. Effective peer instruction requiresClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers261. identifying key concepts, misconceptions2. creating multiple-choice questions thatrequire deeper thinking and learning3. facilitating peer instruction episodes thatspark student discussion4. resolving the misconceptionsbeforeclassduringclasslast weektoday
  • 27. ResourcesClickers 1: Introduction to Peer Instruction with Clickers271. National Research Council. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, andSchool: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking(Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2000.http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9853&page=12. Peer instruction resources from the Carl Wieman Science EducationInitiative at the Univ. of British Columbia :http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/clickers.htm3. Videos by the Science Education Initiative at the Univ. of Colorado(Boulder) provide excellent background for using clickers:http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/SEI_video.html4. Peer Instruction network blog.peerinstruction.net
  • 28. CTD WEEKLY WORKSHOPS:CLICKERS 1:INTRODUCTION TO PEERINSTRUCTION WITH CLICKERSPeter NewburyCenter for Teaching Development,University of California, San Diegopnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotcactd.ucsd.edu #ctducsdresources: http://tinyurl.com/Clickers1Sp2013Tuesday, April 30, 2013 11:00 am – 12:00 pmCenter Hall, Room 316