CTD Sp14 Weekly Workshop: Alternatives to Lecture

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Stephanie Carmac
Center for Teaching Development, UCSD
ctd.ucsd.edu
April 23, 2014

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CTD Sp14 Weekly Workshop: Alternatives to Lecture

  1. 1. Alternatives to Lecture1 What do you notice? What do you wonder? impaled by Yersinia on flickr CC-BY-NC-SA CTD Weekly Workshop: Alternatives to Lecture
  2. 2. Stephanie Carmac Ph.D. candidate, Psychology resources: ctd.ucsd.edu/programs/weekly-workshops-spring-2014/ April 23, 2014 12:00 – 12:50 pm Center Hall, Rm 316 Unless otherwise noted, content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 3.0 License. CTD WEEKLY WORKSHOP: ALTERNATIVES TO LECTURE please sign in
  3. 3. Scholarly approach to teaching: Learning Outcomes3 Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative cwsei.ubc.ca What should students learn? What are students learning? What instructional approaches help students learn? learning outcomes (Apr 16) assessment (Apr 30) alt to lecture (Apr 23) peer instruction, (May 7, 14)
  4. 4. Key Finding 1 Alternatives to Lecture4 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn [1], p. 14) Instructors must draw out students’ pre-existing understandings. Instruction must be student-centered.
  5. 5. Key Finding 2 Alternatives to Lecture5 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn [1], p. 16) These are characteristics of expertize Instructors need to give students opportunities to be more expert-like.
  6. 6. Key Finding 3 Alternatives to Lecture6 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn [1], p. 18) Instructors need to provide opportunities for students to practice being metacognitive Metacognition: that voice in your head that checks if you understand
  7. 7. Constructivist theory of learning Alternatives to Lecture7 Students need to construct their own understanding of the concepts, where  each student assimilates new material into his/her own framework of initial understanding and preconception  each student confronts his/her (mis)understanding of the concepts A traditional, one-way lecture doesn’t give students an opportunity to “try, fail, receive feedback and try again, before facing a summative evaluation.” [2]
  8. 8. Alternatives to Lecture8 student-centered instructiontraditional lecture
  9. 9. Alternatives to Lecture Alternatives to Lecture9 peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos What do you notice? What do you wonder? student-centered instruction
  10. 10. Clicker Question 10 The molecules making up the dry mass of wood that forms during the growth of a tree largely come from A) sunlight. B) the air. C) the seed. D) the soil. Question credit: Bill Wood Alternatives to Lecture
  11. 11. Typical Episode of Peer Instruction Alternatives to Lecture11 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own and vote using clickers, colored ABCD cards, smartphones,… 3. The instructor asks students to turn to their neighbors and “convince them you’re right.” 4. After that “peer instruction”, the students vote again and the instructor leads a class-wide discussion concluding with why the right answer(s) is right and the wrong answers are wrong.
  12. 12. In effective peer instruction Alternatives to Lecture12  students teach each other while they may still hold or remember their novice preconceptions  students discuss the concepts in their own (novice) language  each student finds out what s/he does(n’t) know  the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reacts, building on their initial understanding and preconceptions. students learn and practice how to think, communicate like experts
  13. 13. Effective peer instruction requires How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)13 1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions 2. creating multiple-choice questions that require deeper thinking and learning 3. facilitating peer instruction episodes that spark and support student discussion 4. leading a class-wide discussion to clarify the concept, resolve the misconception 5. reflecting on the question: note how they voted, curious conversations you overheard so next year’s question will be better before class during class after class
  14. 14. Effective peer instruction requires Alternatives to Lecture 1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions 2. creating multiple-choice questions that require deeper thinking and learning 3. facilitating peer instruction episodes that spark student discussion 4. resolving the misconceptions before class during class 14
  15. 15. Upcoming Weekly Workshops at the CTD: To register, look for the Teaching and Learning Weekly Workshops at ctd.ucsd.edu To learn more about peer instruction Alternatives to Lecture15 May 7 Peer Instruction 1: Writing Good Peer Instruction (“Clicker”) Questions A good episode of peer instruction requires a good question. In this session, we’ll see a variety of questions and contrast good vs bad questions, that you can adapt to your discipline May 14 Peer Instruction 2: Best Practices for Running Peer Instruction with Clickers In this session, we’ll discuss best practices for choreographing an episode of peer instruction in your class including how to pose the question, when to open and close the poll, how many votes, and how to get the most out of the class-wide discussion.
  16. 16. Alternatives to Lecture Alternatives to Lecture16 peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos What do you notice? What do you wonder? student-centered instruction
  17. 17. Alternatives to Lecture17 Chemistry Day 4 by pennstatenews on flickr CC-BY-NC
  18. 18. In-class demonstrations Alternatives to Lecture18 1. Instructor (meticulously) sets up the equipment, flicks a switch, “Taa-daaah! 2. Students  don’t know where to look  don’t know when to look, miss “the moment”  don’t recognize the significance of the event amongst too many distractions To engage students and focus their attention on the key event, get students to make a prediction (using clickers, for example)
  19. 19. Clicker question Alternatives to Lecture19 A ball is rolling around the inside of a circular track. The ball leaves the track at point P. Which path does the ball follow? P A B C D E (Mazur)
  20. 20. Interactive Lecture Demos (ILD) [3] Alternatives to Lecture20 By making a prediction, each student  cares about the outcome (“Did I get it right?”)  knows when to look (can anticipate phenomenon)  knows where to look (sees phenomenon occur)  gets immediate feedback about his/her understanding of the concept  is prepared for your explanation
  21. 21. Alternatives to Lecture Alternatives to Lecture21 peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos What do you notice? What do you wonder? student-centered instruction
  22. 22. Alternatives to Lecture22 What do you notice? What do you wonder? impaled by Yersinia on flickr CC-BY-NC-SA
  23. 23. Start teaching before the bell rings Alternatives to Lecture23 Students arrive, ready to engage with you, your content:  Project a picture related to today’s lesson  Add prompts: “What do you notice? What do you wonder?” [4]  Spend first few minutes leading a discussion:  every student can contribute  you learn their pre-existing knowledge  activates concepts in their memories  Don’t let their enthusiasm slip away!
  24. 24. Alternatives to Lecture Alternatives to Lecture24 peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos What do you notice? What do you wonder? student-centered instruction
  25. 25. What do you see? Alternatives to Lecture25 A) old lady B) young woman  If you’re studying human behavior, let your students generate authentic data  Clickers can be set to “anonymous”
  26. 26. Alternatives to Lecture Alternatives to Lecture26 peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos What do you notice? What do you wonder? student-centered instruction
  27. 27. Showing video in class Alternatives to Lecture27 There are times when a video is the perfect resource. Archimedes’ Principle In today’s Physics class, we’re going to study buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle. http://tinyurl.com/TCCdemo (Paul Hewitt video) (Image: Wikimedia Commons – public domain)
  28. 28. Videos in class Alternatives to Lecture28 Unlike you, the students do not  select the video  check it contains key events  anticipate key events  recognize key events  interpret key events  relate key events to class concepts instructor does this before class instructor does this unconsciously, the “curse” of expertise This is what you want to do in class! Anticipate & recognize are pre-requisites.
  29. 29. Videos: implications for instructors Alternatives to Lecture29  Coach the students how to watch the video like an expert: As you watch this video, try to… watch for when the A starts to B. count how often the C does D. watch the needles on the scales as water drains.  Don’t “give away” the key event (Notice the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.) That’s what the follow-up discussion is for: help the students get prepared for that discussion.
  30. 30. Is Lecture Dead? Alternatives to Lecture30 No! There is still a time and place for lecture. You can lecture (for 10-15 minutes) when the students are prepared to learn:  the alt-to-lecture activities have activated the concepts in their memories  they’ve tried, failed, received feedback, tried again and are waiting for confirmation  they’re prepared to intellectually appreciate the expertise you’re about to share with them
  31. 31. Alternatives to Lecture Alternatives to Lecture31 peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos What do you notice? What do you wonder? To enhance students learning and retention, some instruction must be interactive and student-centered. That’s how people learn.
  32. 32. Scholarly approach to teaching: Learning Outcomes32 Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative cwsei.ubc.ca What should students learn? What are students learning? What instructional approaches help students learn? learning outcomes (Apr 16) assessment (Apr 30) this room alt to lecture (Apr 23) peer instruction, (May 7, 14)
  33. 33. References Alternatives to Lecture33 1. National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2. Bain, K (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 3. Get the full story of interactive lecture demos (ILDs) at serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/demonstrations/index.html 4. Read more about “What do you notice? What do you wonder” at ctd.ucsd.edu/2013/08/you-dont-have-to-wait- for-the-clock-to-strike-to-start-teaching/

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