Alternatives to Lecture

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Spring 2013 Teaching and Learning Workshops:
Alternatives to Lecture
April 9, 2013
Peter Newbury
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Alternatives to Lecture

  1. 1. slides and resources: http://tinyurl.com/Alt2LecSp2013 CTD WEEKLY WORKSHOPS: ALTERNATIVES TO LECTURE Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd Tuesday, April 16, 2013 11:00 am – 12:00 pm Center Hall, Room 316
  2. 2. Key Finding 1 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn [1], p. 14) Instructors must draw out students’ Instruction must be pre-existing student-centered. understandings.2 Alternatives to Lecture
  3. 3. Key Finding 2 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn [1], p. 16) These are Instructors need to characteristics of give students opportunities to be expertize more expert-like.3 Alternatives to Lecture
  4. 4. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn [1], p. 18) Instructors need to provide opportunities for students to practice being metacognitive – thinking about their own thinking4 Alternatives to Lecture
  5. 5. Constructivist theory of learning Students need to construct their own understanding of the concepts, where  each student assimilates new material into his/her own framework of initial understanding and preconception  each student confronts their understanding of the concepts (metacognition) A traditional, one-way lecture doesn’t give students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge, practice a skill or receive formative feedback.5 Alternatives to Lecture
  6. 6. traditional lecture student-centered instruction6 Alternatives to Lecture
  7. 7. Alternatives to Lecture peer instruction w clickers worksheets interactive demonstrations videos surveys of opinions reading quizzes discussions7 Alternatives to Lecture
  8. 8. In-class worksheets Before beginning an in-class worksheet, be sure the students are properly prepared: Looking at Distant Objects Recall that a light-year (ly) is a distance, the distance light travels in one year (about 9.5 trillion km.) (Wikimedia Commons CC) In groups of 2 or 3, work on the worksheet. Try to ensure everyone in your group agrees on the answer to each question before you write it down.8 Alternatives to Lecture
  9. 9. Clicker question Imagine that you simultaneously receive two pictures of two people that live on planets orbiting two different stars. Each picture shows the people at their 21st birthday parties. Which of the following do you think is the most plausible interpretation? A) Both people are the same age but at different distances from you. B) The people are actually different ages but at the same distance from you. C) The person that is closer to you is actually the older of the two people. D) The person that is farther from you is actually the older of the two people. (Prather et. al [4])9 Alternatives to Lecture
  10. 10. In-class worksheets  Worksheets guide students through a concept  students can learn from the worksheet, not just practice a skill  Do not “go over” the worksheet afterwards  encourages students to not do the work and just wait for the answers  Assess their work by, for example, asking a follow-up clicker question  successful on worksheet successful on clicker question (not successful on clicker q not successful on worksheet)10 Alternatives to Lecture
  11. 11. In-class worksheets: structure  Worksheet is “stand-alone” and complete.  students can complete it later, do it again when studying  easier to integrate into lessons  First questions are “trivial”  check that student read intro, understands context  gives them confidence to proceed  Last question is the “zinger”  questions build towards the deep question, each one building the skill needed to answer next question  Plenty of opportunity for formative feedback11 Alternatives to Lecture
  12. 12. In-class worksheet: resources Washington Tutorials (physics) www.phys.washington.edu/groups/peg/tut.html Lecture-Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy astronomy101.jpl.nasa.gov/teachingstrategies/teachingdetails/?StrategyID=9 Format and structure can be adapted to other fields: (use the astronomy Lecture-Tutorials as a template)12 Alternatives to Lecture
  13. 13. Alternatives to Lecture peer instruction w clickers worksheets interactive demonstrations videos surveys of opinions reading quizzes discussions13 Alternatives to Lecture
  14. 14. Showing video in class There are times when a video is the perfect resource. Archimedes’ Principle In today’s Physics class, we’re going to study buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle. http://tinyurl.com/TCCdemo (Paul Hewitt video) (Image: Wikimedia Commons – public domain)14 Alternatives to Lecture
  15. 15. Opinion: Videos in class In your opinion, the Paul Hewitt video  is engaging?  is entertaining?  is interactive?  stimulates deep thinking?15 Alternatives to Lecture
  16. 16. Videos in class Unlike you, the students do not  select the video instructor does this  check it contains key events before class  anticipate key events instructor does this unconsciously,  recognize key events the “curse” of expertise  interpret key events This is what you want to do in class!  relate key events to Anticipate & recognize are class concepts pre-requisites.16 Alternatives to Lecture
  17. 17. Videos: implications for instructors  Coach the students how to watch the video like an expert: As you watch this video, try to… watch for when the A starts to B. count how often the C does D. watch the needles on the scales as water drains.  Don’t “give away” the key event (Notice the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.) That’s what the follow-up discussion is for: help the students get prepared for that discussion.17 Alternatives to Lecture
  18. 18. Alternatives to Lecture peer instruction w clickers worksheets interactive demonstrations videos surveys of opinions reading quizzes discussions18 Alternatives to Lecture
  19. 19. In-class demonstrations 1. Instructor (meticulously) sets up the equipment, flicks a switch, “Taa-daaah! 2. Students  don’t know where to look  don’t know when to look, miss “the moment”  don’t recognize the significance of the event amongst too many distractions To engage students and focus their attention on the key event, get students to make a prediction (using clickers, for example)19 Alternatives to Lecture
  20. 20. Clicker question C A ball is rolling around B D the inside of a circular A E track. The ball leaves the track at point P. P Which path does the ball follow? (Mazur)20 Alternatives to Lecture
  21. 21. Interactive Lecture Demos (ILD) [3] By making a prediction, each student  cares about the outcome (“Did I get it right?”)  knows where to look (can anticipate phenomenon)  knows when to look (sees phenomenon occur)  gets immediate feedback about his/her understanding of the concept  is prepared for your explanation  (don’t be afraid to mess with their heads – inclined table example)21 Alternatives to Lecture
  22. 22. Alternatives to Lecture peer instruction w clickers worksheets interactive demonstrations videos surveys of opinions reading quizzes discussions22 Alternatives to Lecture
  23. 23. Clicker question Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the chocolate from the heat. What will happen to the chocolate? A) It will condense. B) It will evaporate. C) It will freeze. (Question: Sujatha Raghu from Braincandy via LearningCatalytics) (Image: CIM9926 by number657 on flickr CC)23 Alternatives to Lecture
  24. 24. Typical peer instruction episode 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own. 3. Students vote for an answer using clickers, coloured cards, ABCD voting cards,... 4. The instructor reacts, based on the distribution of votes.24 Alternatives to Lecture
  25. 25. In effective peer instruction  students teach each other while students learn they may still hold or remember and practice their novice misconceptions how to think,  students discuss the concepts in their communicate own language like experts  the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reacts25 Alternatives to Lecture
  26. 26. Effective peer instruction requires 1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions before 2. creating multiple-choice questions that class require deeper thinking and learning 3. facilitating peer instruction episodes that spark student discussion during class 4. resolving the misconceptions Watch for our peer instruction workshops: April 23: Intro to peer instruction with clickers April 30: Writing good clicker questions26 Alternatives to Lecture
  27. 27. Alternatives to Lecture To increase learning and retention, some instruction must be interactive and student-centered: peer instruction w clickers worksheets interactive demonstrations videos surveys of opinions reading quizzes discussions27 Alternatives to Lecture
  28. 28. References 1. National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2. Hake, R.R. (1998). Interactive-engagement versus traditional methods: A six-thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory physics courses. Am. J. Phys. 66, 64-74. 3. Get the full story of interactive lecture demos (ILDs) at serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/demonstrations/index.html 4. Prather, E.E., Slater, T.F., Adams, J.P., & Brissenden, G. (2007). Lecture Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy. (2e). San Francisco, CA: Pearson Addison-Wesley.28 Alternatives to Lecture
  29. 29. slides and resources: http://tinyurl.com/Alt2LecSp2013 CTD WEEKLY WORKSHOPS: ALTERNATIVES TO LECTURE Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd Tuesday, April 16, 2013 11:00 am – 12:00 pm Center Hall, Room 316

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