Enabling Technology to Lightweight Automobiles - SPE ACCE presentation
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Presentation delivered at the 10th Annual Society of Plastics Engineers, Automotive Conference and Exhibition - Troy MIAcrolab - SPE ACCE -- The ISOMANDREL - An Enabling Technology to Lightweight ...

Presentation delivered at the 10th Annual Society of Plastics Engineers, Automotive Conference and Exhibition - Troy MIAcrolab - SPE ACCE -- The ISOMANDREL - An Enabling Technology to Lightweight Automobiles

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Enabling Technology to Lightweight Automobiles - SPE ACCE presentation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. New Methodology Heat Pipe Thermally Enhanced (HPTE) Mandrels In Filament Winding Applications
  • 2. Heat pipes Well Established in Automotive Tooling 1
  • 3. Heat pipes What value does heatpipe technology bring to mandrel design and filament winding process optimization? 1
  • 4. Heatpipe Operating Principles 2
  • 5. Heatpipe Features & Benefits  Heatpipes transfer large amounts of thermal energy rapidly.  Heatpipes are intrinsically Isothermal.  Heatpipes redistribute localized energy inputs.  Heatpipes have an Intuitive, remediating response to locally generated energy deficit and surplus transients. (sinks and exotherms)  Heatpipes require no electrical power or mechanical connections.  Heatpipes are sealed systems. 4
  • 6. HPTE Mandrels “In Oven” Convection Oven Curing of Filament Wound Tube Sections 3
  • 7. Current “In Oven” Cure Challenges and Limitations  The cure sequence usually occurs in a heated convection oven or radiant energy environment.  Energy is provided to the surface of the resin/filament composite through the heated oven atmosphere at low watt density.  A large percentage of energy produced by the oven is vented and not efficiently utilized. 3
  • 8. Current “In Oven" Filament Winding Cure Challenges and Limitations  The mandrel is not directly heated.  The mandrel is the last component to be heated.  The cure is initiated at the outside surface of the winding, sealing the outer surface of the tube section, trapping gasses and vapour liberated during the cure cycle.  Trapped gasses and vapours contribute to delamination and porosity. 3
  • 9. HPTE Mandrel Testing Cell 5
  • 10. Traditional Mandrel Test Results Transient Temperature Curves for the Hollow Mandrel 140 Top (2") Mid (33") 120 Bottom(60") Delta T (bottom-top) 100 Surface Temp. (deg.F) 80 60 40 Date: Jan. 9, 09 Sand Bath Temp. 350 Deg. F Heat Transfer Rate: ~12W. 20 Mandrel OD. 1.875". Mandrel Length: 72". TC location is the distance from the top. 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Time (Min.) 6
  • 11. HPTE Mandrel Test Results Transient Temperature Curves for the Mandrel-Isobar 260 240 220 200 180 Surface Temperature (deg. F) 160 140 Top (2") 120 Date: Jan. 8, 09 100 Mid (33") Sand Bath Temp. 350 Deg. F 80 Bottom (62") Heat Transfer Rate: ~210W. Mandrel OD. 2". 60 Delta T (bottom-top) Mandrel Length: 74". 40 TC location is the distance from the top. 20 0 -20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Time (Min.) 7
  • 12. HPTE mandrels thermodynamic features in conventional oven curing applications  Exposed surfaces of the HPTE mandrel absorb thermal energy from the oven and transfer it directly to the mandrel.  This absorbed thermal energy is immediately redistributed throughout the HPTE mandrel.  The redistributed thermal energy results in a dynamically isothermal mandrel.  The heated isothermal mandrel provides an optimum uniform cure platform providing thermal energy from I.D. to O.D. of the tube section. 8
  • 13. HPTE mandrels in convection oven curing applications thermodynamic benefits  The mandrel is now thermally uniform. (isothermal) and super thermally conductive and reactive to the ambient temperatures within the oven.  Resident energy within the oven is absorbed through the exposed ends of the mandrel, heating the mandrel directly and efficiently.  Because both the I.D. and O.D. surfaces of the winding are now actively heated, the cure cycle time is reduced.  The heated mandrel draws resin to the I.D. of the winding resulting in a tube section with a homogeneous, resin rich, nonporous surface on the tube inner diameter. 9
  • 14. HPTE Mandrels “Out of Oven” Induction Curing of Filament Wound Tube Sections After Winding 3
  • 15. Induction cure sequence using a HPTE Mandrel winding and curing a 3” I.D. Tube section with ½” wall using carbon fiber epoxy prepreg 14
  • 16. HPTE mandrels in induction heated “out of oven”curing applications  The induction heating coil is situated proximate to the mandrel permitting unimpeded mandrel rotation.  Induction heating is relatively instantaneous and intense.  RF energy is invisible to the uncured resin and filament but fully sensed by the metal mandrel.  Significant thermal energy per unit time can be provided to the mandrel which then intimately transfers that energy to the uncured composite resulting in significant energy efficiencies. 10
  • 17. Testing Cell for Induction heating of both a HPTE Mandrel and a Traditional Mandrel 11
  • 18. 3” Standard hollow mandrel: Thermographic study with induction heat 187.70 ºF 12
  • 19. 3” HTPE mandrel: Thermographic study with induction heat 183.02 ºF 13
  • 20. Traditional hollow mandrel vs. HTPE mandrel 64” X 3” rotating at 100 RPM and heated by an induction coil providing 850 Watts Time lapse video sequences
  • 21. HPTE Mandrels “Out of Oven” Induction Curing of Filament Wound Tube Sections While Winding 3
  • 22. Video of a cure while winding sequence using a HPTE Mandrel winding and curing a 3” I.D. tube section wound of carbon fiber epoxy prepreg 15
  • 23. HPTE mandrels in induction heated “out of oven” curing applications  The mandrel now provides the uncured composite with 100% of the thermal energy requirement. The cure begins at the mandrel surface and continues through to the tube section outside diameter.  Curing from the inside diameter to the outside surface allows volatile vapours generated during the cure sequence to be liberated to atmosphere reducing porosity.  Resin is drawn to the hottest surface during the cure resulting in a resin rich non porous I.D. 10
  • 24. SAMPLE A Induction Cure vs. SAMPLE B Oven Cure CT Scan Defect Analysis
  • 25. A: Induction Cure Marker
  • 26. B: Oven Cure
  • 27. A: Induction Cure B: Oven Cure
  • 28. Sample A: Induction Cure Volume: 1288.8789 mm3 Defects: 2.7777 mm3 Porosity: 0.21505 % Defect Volume Distribution vs. Defect Count
  • 29. Sample B: Oven Cure Volume: 1452.3339 mm3 Defects: 2.7764 mm3 Porosity: 0.19080 % Defect Volume Distribution vs. Defect Count
  • 30. Sample A: Induction Cure Volume: 1288.8789 mm3 Defects: 2.7777 mm3 Porosity: 0.21505 % Volume: 1452.3339 mm3 Sample B: Oven Cure Defects: 2.7764 mm3 Porosity: 0.19080 % Defect Volume Distribution vs. Defect Count
  • 31. Technology providers for this project  Ameritherm Div of Ambrel Corp, Springfield NY Induction power supply and coil  Chino Works America, Chicago Illinois Infrared sensor and process controller  McClean Anderson, Schofield Wisconsin Filament winding machine and laboratory  TCR Composites, Ogden Utah Prepreg epoxy filament materials  Acrolab Ltd, Windsor Ontario, Canada HPTE mandrel 16
  • 32. Thank you Joseph Ouellette Director, Advanced Research & Development Acrolab Ltd. Advanced Thermal Engineering /Research and Development Windsor, Ontario, CANADA www.acrolab.com