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# Digital Photography I

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Presentation on digital photography I gave in 2005 at the Saratoga Library.

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• The Beginner's Photography Guide --- http://amzn.to/1UIiDoP

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• Inverse Square Law – When a surface is illuminated by a source of light, the intensity of the light at the surface is inversely proportional to the square of its distance from the light source. Fluorescent – Tubes radiate light after absorbing ultraviolet light from mercury vapor emission, resulting in a green cast not visible to the naked eye.
• Inverse Square Law – When a surface is illuminated by a source of light, the intensity of the light a the surface is inversely proportional to the square of its distance from the light source. Fluorescent – Tubes radiate light after absorbing ultraviolet light from mercury vapor emission, resulting in a green cast not visible to the naked eye.
• ### Digital Photography I

1. 2. Digital Photography I The Basics Peter Liu Photography kaiscapes .com
2. 3. Photography <ul><li>From two Greek words meaning “drawing with light”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>φως phos (&quot;light&quot;) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>γραφις graphis (&quot;stylus&quot;, &quot;paintbrush&quot;) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Merriam-Webster: </li></ul><ul><li>“ The art or process of producing images on a sensitized surface (as a film) by the action of radiant energy and especially light.” </li></ul>
3. 4. Photography <ul><li> “ The art of capturing light as it falls on a subject or scene, and rendering it so that your viewer is moved by the result.” </li></ul>
4. 5. Capturing Light <ul><li>Hard Light – high contrast, well-defined shadows </li></ul>
5. 6. Capturing Light <ul><li>Soft Light – diffused, rich colors </li></ul>
7. 8. Capturing Light <ul><li>Front Light – flat, lacks dimension </li></ul>
8. 9. Capturing Light <ul><li>Side Light – evokes mood, accentuates shapes </li></ul>
9. 10. Capturing Light <ul><li>Back Light – may need to fill, makes silhouettes </li></ul>
10. 11. Capturing Light <ul><li>Overcast Light – low contrast, muted shadows, good for detail </li></ul>
11. 12. Characteristics Of Light <ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The smaller the light source, the harder the light appears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The larger the light source, the softer the light appears </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines where shadows fall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference between the lightest and darkest tones of the subject or image </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source </li></ul><ul><li>Ambient – daylight, tungsten, flourescent, firelight </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial – flash, tungsten </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Reflectance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflectivity of the subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity of the light source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angle of view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance of light source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fall-off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase distance, decrease light level (Inverse Square Law) </li></ul></ul>
12. 13. Characteristics Of Light <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture of primary colors: Red, Green and Blue – varies according to source </li></ul><ul><li>“ Warm” – predominantly red </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cool” – predominantly blue </li></ul><ul><li>Expressed in Kelvin (K): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incandescent ~ 3000K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluorescent ~ 4100K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash ~ 5400K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daylight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Sunlight ~ 5200K </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cloudy ~ 6000K </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shade ~ 8000K </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Referred to as “White Balance” in digital photography. </li></ul>
13. 14. White Balance 4100K ( Fluorescent ) 3000K ( Incandescent ) 5200K ( Sunlight ) 8000K ( Shade ) 5400K ( Flash ) 6000K ( Cloudy )
14. 15. Why Are You Telling Us All This?? <ul><li>Because good photography depends on being able to execute two things well: </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul>
15. 16. Exposure <ul><li>A combination of three factors sometimes known as the “Photographic Triangle”: </li></ul><ul><li>Shutter Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Aperture </li></ul><ul><li>ISO </li></ul><ul><li>Or… </li></ul><ul><li>how quickly light is being captured through how big an opening onto how sensitive a surface </li></ul>
16. 17. Shutter <ul><li>A camera’s shutter covers the hole through which light enters to expose the sensor or film. </li></ul>The shutter release button causes the shutter to open for a certain amount of time, then close again. Image source: www. howstuffworks .com Image source: VisibleDust
17. 18. Shutter Speed – Fast <ul><li>1/1600 sec., stops action </li></ul>
18. 19. Shutter Speed – Slow <ul><li>Silky, cool, edgy effects </li></ul>1 sec. 3 sec. 1/3 sec.
19. 20. Shutter Speeds <ul><li>Open too long, photos are washed out (overexposed) </li></ul><ul><li>Not long enough, photos are too dark (underexposed) </li></ul><ul><li>Expressed in seconds: 1/8000, 1/4000, 1/2000 1/1000, 1/500, 1/250, 1/60, 1/30, 1/15, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 1 second, 2 seconds, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Each setting is half or double the speed of its neighbor. </li></ul><ul><li>As the amount of available light decreases by half, the shutter speed needs to slow by double. </li></ul><ul><li>As the amount of available light increases, the shutter speed needs to increase </li></ul>
20. 21. Aperture <ul><li>The opening through which light enters the camera. </li></ul>Sometimes called an iris because it imitates the opening in the human eye. Image source: www.howstuffworks.com
21. 22. Aperture <ul><li>The size of the opening is expressed as an f-stop number : 1.4    2.0    2.8    4    5.6    8    11    16    22 </li></ul><ul><li>Each number represents an opening size that is half or double its neighbor </li></ul><ul><li>The larger the number, the smaller the opening </li></ul><ul><li>For all the science types: the f-stop is actually a ratio between the diameter of the aperture in the lens and the focal length of the lens: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. f/2 on a 50mm lens says the aperture is 25mm. 50/25 = 2. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Source: “ A Tedious Explanation of the f/stop” by Matthew Cole) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For the rest of us: the size of the opening controls the depth of field in the photograph. </li></ul>
22. 23. Aperture And Depth Of Field <ul><li>f/5.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow depth of field </li></ul>f/22 Deep depth of field
23. 24. Aperture And Depth Of Field <ul><li>Caused by refraction of the light hitting the edge of the opening </li></ul><ul><li>Rays scatter and overlap instead of going straight on its way to the sensor or film </li></ul><ul><li>The camera “sees” multiple images, resulting in blur. </li></ul><ul><li>The smaller the opening, the less surface available to scatter the light, resulting in less blur. </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom line: the aperture is used to control how much of the scene is in focus. </li></ul>
24. 25. Aperture And Shutter Speed <ul><li>The following reciprocals will yield the same exposure: </li></ul><ul><li>What changes is how much is sharp and in focus. </li></ul>1/8 sec. f/22 1/15 sec. f/16 1/30 sec. f/11 1/60 sec. f/8 1/125 sec. f/5.6 1/250 sec. f/4 1/500 sec. f/2.8
25. 26. The Light Meter <ul><li>A device that assesses a scene and figures out the correct exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Modern cameras have them built-in </li></ul><ul><li>External handheld models also available </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged when shutter is pressed halfway </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix/Evaluative, Center-weighted, Spot metering </li></ul><ul><li>Looks for “18% Grey” or “Middle Grey” </li></ul><ul><li>Easily fooled! </li></ul>
26. 27. Tricky Metering Situations
27. 28. Exposure Compensation <ul><li>Used when the light meter is unable to evaluate the exposure as desired, or when correcting by whole stops is too much </li></ul><ul><li>Usually +/- 2 EV (Exposure Value) in steps of 0.3 EV </li></ul><ul><li>Available on most cameras </li></ul>
28. 29. ISO <ul><li>Sensitivity of the sensor or film to light </li></ul><ul><li>Represented by a number assigned by the International Standards Organization (hence, ISO) – 100, 200, 400, 800, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Again, each number represents double or half the sensitivity of its neighbor (Ain’t it wonderful!) </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the number, the more sensitive to light </li></ul><ul><li>Digital photography is cool because you can change the ISO from shot to shot!  </li></ul>
29. 30. Higher ISO = More Noise!  <ul><li>ISO 3200 </li></ul>
30. 31. So… <ul><li>Exposure depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>Shutter Speed – how fast </li></ul><ul><li>Aperture – how much </li></ul><ul><li>ISO – how sensitive </li></ul><ul><li>And color is a function of: </li></ul><ul><li>White Balance – how hot </li></ul>
31. 32. And… <ul><li>Which camera you choose is a function of how much you want control those factors! </li></ul>
32. 33. Cameras <ul><li>Two popular types of cameras on the market for the consumer </li></ul>Point-and-shoot SLR (Single-lens Reflex)
33. 34. Cameras <ul><li>Point-and-shoot </li></ul><ul><li>Viewfinder separate from lens </li></ul><ul><li>Small and compact </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed lens </li></ul><ul><li>Shutter delay </li></ul><ul><li>Usually fully automatic (some exceptions, like Olympus C-series) </li></ul><ul><li>SLR (Single-lens Reflex) </li></ul><ul><li>Based on 35mm design </li></ul><ul><li>Actual image seen in viewfinder </li></ul><ul><li>Interchangeable lenses (more flexible composition) </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to use filters </li></ul><ul><li>More advanced metering and shutter system </li></ul><ul><li>Little to no shutter delay </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic, Program (“Scene”), Shutter Priority, Aperture Priority and Manual modes </li></ul><ul><li>Flash hot shoe </li></ul><ul><li>Pro models may not have pop-up flash or Program (“scene”) modes </li></ul>
34. 35. Point-and-shoot Anatomy <ul><li>Viewfinder separate from lens (better to use LCD on digital) </li></ul><ul><li>Actual image (as exposed) is not quite the same as in the viewfinder </li></ul><ul><li>Much simpler design than SLRs. </li></ul>Light Path Lens Camera Body Viewfinder (front) Shutter Sensor or Film Viewfinder Focal Length LCD Screen (Digital)
35. 36. SLR Anatomy <ul><li>Through-the-lens (TTL) viewing (works like a periscope) </li></ul><ul><li>Actual image (as exposed) is shown in the viewfinder </li></ul><ul><li>Mirror flips up when the shutter release is pressed, exposing the sensor (and blacking out the viewfinder) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Reflex” comes from the use of the mirrors in the viewfinder system. </li></ul>Light Path Lens Camera Body Focusing Screen Mirror (Pentaprism) Mirror (flips up) Shutter Sensor or Film Viewfinder Focal Length LCD Screen (Digital)
36. 37. Advantages Of Digital <ul><li>Instant gratification (big fun factor) – see your images right away </li></ul><ul><li>No film cost – shoot as many as you want, erase and shoot again (heck, it’s just pixels!) </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience – print, email, web, slide shows; no waiting around for the photos to come back from the store </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to make copies – no need to send (or lose) originals </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to manipulate – no scanning required (you did that when you pressed the shutter) </li></ul><ul><li>No need to spend hours in the darkroom </li></ul><ul><li>Black-and-white – just shades of grey colors </li></ul><ul><li>No worries about film fading over time; digital images last for as long as your storage media doesn’t die on you </li></ul><ul><li>Less storage space – no physical shelves to keep stacking </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata information available for indexing and cataloging. </li></ul>
37. 38. Disadvantages Of Digital <ul><li>Image quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As good or better than 35mm in the right hands , but cannot compete with medium or large format film (yet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.5x “cropping factor” or “focal length multiplier” in SLRs due to smaller sensor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure much more critical – 1/3 stop subtle in Velvia, but blatant in digital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blown highlights – no information means no information; film is better at rendering overexposed areas more naturally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great shadow detail, but clipped highlights -- traded highlight detail for lower noise; most likely need to underexpose and correct in post </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled user needed to extract the image quality equivalent to that of good film </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very different workflow – requires skill with computers and software, knowledge of color management and printing, web, email, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>You are the photo lab – you’ve traded darkroom chemicals for a digital darkroom </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to lose images – memory cards can become corrupted in-camera; photos are scattered all over your computer; hard drives die </li></ul><ul><li>Slow – camera is locked up once the buffer is filled until the images are completely written to the card </li></ul><ul><li>Shutter delay (point-and-shoot) </li></ul><ul><li>Digicams are much more expensive than film cameras and become obsolete sooner </li></ul><ul><li>Slide shows – projectors designed for business graphics render poor photographic quality and awful color. </li></ul><ul><li>More megapixels = bigger files = more storage + faster computers </li></ul>
38. 39. Which Is Better? <ul><li>The apple or the orange? </li></ul><ul><li>Each has their respective strengths and weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>It all depends on what you’re trying to accomplish. </li></ul><ul><li>Everything in photography is a trade-off. </li></ul>
39. 40. Choosing A Digital Camera <ul><li>The number of megapixels isn’t everything! </li></ul><ul><li>More is not necessarily better, </li></ul><ul><li>But more can be an advantage when cropping or printing big. </li></ul>
41. 42. How Many Pixels Do You Need? <ul><li>Assume 300 dpi (dots per inch) for a good quality print on a desktop printer </li></ul><ul><li>Break down megapixels to length and width, then divide by 300 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. 6MP ~ 3008 x 2000 pixels (Nikon D70) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> 3008/300 = 10.027 in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> 2000/300 = 6.667 in. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT, different printers have different requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Software can help upsize or downsize with varying results </li></ul><ul><li>Large fudge factor, depending on chosen application and printer technology. </li></ul>
42. 43. Digital Camera Resolution Chart (Source: B&H Photo-Video-Pro Audio )
43. 44. So, How Do I Choose A Camera? <ul><li>Ergonomics – how does it feel in your hands? </li></ul><ul><li>Size and weight of the camera </li></ul><ul><li>Size and quality of the LCD </li></ul><ul><li>Lens quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharpness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoom capability (optical vs. digital) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital zoom is evil!  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Metering capability </li></ul><ul><li>Built-in flash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red-eye reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you control it? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manual capability vs. automatic or program modes </li></ul><ul><li>Battery life </li></ul><ul><li>Media type </li></ul><ul><li>Decide what’s important to you based on how you’ll be using it! </li></ul>
44. 45. About The Cards <ul><li>Pick One </li></ul>Compact Flash SD MiniSD xD MultiMediaCard RS-MMC (Reduced-Size MultiMediaCard) SmartMedia Memory Stick Image source: Lexar
45. 46. I Bought A Camera… Now What? <ul><li>Charge the battery </li></ul><ul><li>Format the card </li></ul><ul><li>Set up the camera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Date and time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bells and whistles (literally!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital zoom – if you can turn it off, do it! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode: Auto, Program, Aperture Priority, Shutter Priority, Manual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color space (Never mind!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image quality and file type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>JPEG (Joint Photo Experts Group) – in-camera processing, lossy (small, medium, large), 8-bits (256 shades of color) per channel (16.7 million colors) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) – in-camera processing, uncompressed, lossless, 8-bits per channel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RAW – direct output from the sensor, little to no in-camera processing, 12-bit (4096 shades of color) per channel (68.7 billion colors) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What are you waiting for?? Go shoot pictures! </li></ul>
46. 47. Recall… <ul><li>Good photography depends on being able to execute two things well: </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul>
47. 48. Composition <ul><li>“ The art of including the essence of what moves you about the scene in your photograph, while excluding any non-essential, distracting elements.” </li></ul>
48. 49. Composition <ul><li>There are established “guidelines”, but ultimately, it’s about your artistic vision </li></ul><ul><li>Very subjective </li></ul><ul><li>Not always a conscious thing – listen to your heart! </li></ul><ul><li>Simplify, Simplify, Simplify! </li></ul>
49. 50. Simplify
50. 51. Simplify
51. 52. Simplify
52. 53. Simplify
53. 54. Simplify
54. 55. Simplify
55. 56. Composition <ul><li>“ You take the picture, but you make the photograph.” </li></ul><ul><li>It’s about seeing the photograph in front of you. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s about design – arranging all the elements of the scene in your viewfinder so they become something compelling to look at. </li></ul><ul><li>Hold the viewers’ attention as their eyes travel around the frame. </li></ul><ul><li>Check your corners! Move your eye around the frame in the viewfinder looking for anything that might distract attention away from your subject(s) – a stray branch, somebody’s toe, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Our eyes are naturally drawn to brighter, “hotter” elements. If those aren’t your subject(s), exclude them! </li></ul>
56. 57. Composition <ul><li>Do in in the viewfinder, not in Photoshop! It’s always best to start with a good image. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Photoshop doesn’t make a bad photograph good, it makes a bad photograph big.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You’re rendering a 3-D scene as a 2-D print. Frame it carefully! </li></ul><ul><li>Try not to “bullseye” your subject in the frame. Dead center is deadly! </li></ul><ul><li>Use the “Rule Of Thirds” – the oldest trick in the book for composing a visually balanced and pleasing image. </li></ul>
57. 58. Rule Of Thirds <ul><li>Divide your scene into an imaginary “tic-tac-toe” grid, then place your subject(s) near any of the four intersections </li></ul>
58. 59. Use Those Lines! <ul><li>Diagonal lines are especially dynamic. Use them to lead the viewer to the subject, guide the viewer across the frame or create “vanishing points”. </li></ul>
59. 60. Find Grace <ul><li>The S-curve is a classic compositional device to create a sense of grace. </li></ul>Give moving subjects space to go. Don’t place them so they are about to run off the frame.
60. 61. Tips For Better Composition <ul><li>Try not to cut off any body parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t have trees or telephone poles growing out of your subjects’ heads. </li></ul>
61. 62. Tips For Better Composition <ul><li>Tell a story with your photographs </li></ul>
62. 63. Learn, Practice, Then Forget <ul><li>Remember, these are just guidelines, not hard and fast rules. </li></ul>Don’t be afraid to experiment! Look for different viewpoints. Try tilting the camera. Try it blurry! You are only limited by your own creativity!
63. 64. Now That You Have Your Pictures <ul><li>Time for the workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you need a workflow? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because your photos are trapped in your card and somebody has to liberate them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because it’s too expensive not to get them out and print/email/put-them-on-the-web yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because you want artistic control over how your photos are displayed </li></ul></ul>
64. 65. Now That You Have Your Pictures <ul><li>Typical Post-capture Workflow: </li></ul>Download And Store File naming Storage Metadata Edit Crop/Straighten Tone Contrast Color correction Sharpening Cataloging Output Printer Email Web Image source: Epson
66. 67. Backups! Backups! Backups! <ul><li>Copy your newly downloaded images first thing before you do anything else! </li></ul>
67. 68. The Browser <ul><li>Allows you to look at all the photos on your computer </li></ul><ul><li>Thumbnails and previews </li></ul><ul><li>Sorting, ranking </li></ul><ul><li>Batch renaming </li></ul><ul><li>Manage metadata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXIF (Exchangeable Image File Format) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IPTC (The International Press Telecommunications Council) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Popular software packages have them built-in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adobe Photoshop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo Mechanic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iPhoto </li></ul></ul>
68. 69. The Organizer <ul><li>Builds databases of information about your photos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXIF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IPTC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File names </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folder names </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allows searching of your photos regardless of where they are </li></ul><ul><li>Popular software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adobe Photoshop Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensis Portfolio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iView MediaPro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canto Cumulus </li></ul></ul>
69. 70. Time To Edit <ul><li>Crop and straighten </li></ul><ul><li>Tone and contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Color correction </li></ul><ul><li>Creative sharpening </li></ul><ul><li>Many software packages available: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ulead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JASC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nova </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free/share-ware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
70. 71. Why Adobe Photoshop? <ul><li>Because it’s the best! </li></ul><ul><li>Because the camera is good, but you might be able to do better in post </li></ul><ul><li>Because your in-camera technique is good, but you might be able to do better in post </li></ul><ul><li>Because you might have been forced to do something like underexpose on purpose, and only you know how to deal with that </li></ul>
71. 72. Why Adobe Photoshop? <ul><li>Because you may want to create a piece of art out of your photos… </li></ul>
72. 73. Adobe Photoshop Family <ul><li>Adobe Photoshop Album 2.0 – casual snapshooters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adobe Photoshop Album Starter Edition 3.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adobe Photoshop Elements 3.0 – photo enthusiasts and most amateur photographers (This is probably all you need!) </li></ul><ul><li>Adobe Photoshop CS2 – professional gold standard </li></ul>
73. 74. Sharing Your Photos <ul><li>Print </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial printing services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shutterfly, Ofoto, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Costco </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shutterfly, Ofoto, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages (72 dpi) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for small files only! (72 dpi) </li></ul></ul>
74. 75. Printing Tips <ul><li>Set the print size </li></ul><ul><li>Set the correct printer and paper (including size, orientation, fit on paper) </li></ul><ul><li>Your software gives you options, then your printer gives you options – can be confusing </li></ul><ul><li>Color management – either let your software manage the colors, or let the printer do it, but not both! </li></ul><ul><li>Set the color profile of the paper you’re using </li></ul><ul><li>Do a nozzle check beforehand. (Keep scrap plain paper around!) </li></ul><ul><li>Clean the nozzles often. </li></ul><ul><li>Use third-party inks and paper at your own peril! </li></ul>
75. 76. Email Tips <ul><li>If you don’t have to, don’t! </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t email big files! Anything ~1M or more is too big! </li></ul><ul><li>Use software emailing features, or manually reduce the file size (72 dpi, 640 pixels is usually sufficient). </li></ul><ul><li>Package up your images if you have many – zip, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better yet – use the Web! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attach the images – avoid placing them in the body of your email (in-line). </li></ul>
76. 77. Web Tips <ul><li>If you have already enhanced your photos, make sure your service (Shutterfly, Ofoto, etc.) doesn’t enhance them again! </li></ul><ul><li>If you manage your own web pages, use small files (72 dpi) </li></ul><ul><li>Software available to create galleries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adobe Photoshop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CompuPic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ThumbsPlus </li></ul></ul>
77. 78. Sharpening <ul><li>In digital terms, adding adjacent light and dark pixels to enhance contrast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount – how much (gas pedal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halo (Radius) – how many pixels affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threshold – how many surrounding pixels considered “edge” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print: inkjet, laser, offset, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web/email (screen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After resizing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schools of thought </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For output only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workflow (artistic) sharpening </li></ul></ul>
78. 79. Live Editing Session…
79. 80. Parting Thoughts <ul><li>“ Good art comes of good craftspersonship.” </li></ul>
80. 81. If It Moves You, Shoot It! Often! <ul><li>Practice! Practice! Practice! </li></ul>Anything and everything!