Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
INTEGRATION OF ROMA, SINTI AND TRAVELLERS C...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
joint letter referring to the findings of t...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
All in all the research reached 99 unique r...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
regulations and administration hamper a sou...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
Roma as ‘closed’. The Monitor ends with the...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
and Science. The letter states in its intro...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
- ‘The Monitor shows that Roma and Sinti pa...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
Roma and Sinti communities are considered t...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
homework, preschool class, and mediating be...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
EMPLOYMENT
No specific measures have been i...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS & NON-DISCRIMINATION
The...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
discussed in four workshops with and among ...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
IV. Funding for Roma integration
Concerning...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
Meanwhile, in 2012, Nieuwegein redefined it...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
problems in all countries where they settle...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
The minister stated in his letter that insi...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
in cooperation with representatives of thes...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
• Through the year, several activities are ...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
2013Z05240, 15 March 2013; Netherlands, Hou...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
op het rapport 'De aanpak van multi-problee...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
Multiprobleemgezinnen met een Roma achtergr...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
Personal E-mail correspondence with the Dut...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
Tierolf, B., Hermens, L., Drost, L., and Me...
Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014)
Association Sinti, Roma and Travellers Neth...
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Roma Integration Netherlands, Developments in 2013

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Recent developments in the Netherlands relating Roma, Sinti and Travellers Issues: governmental policy measures within the EU Framework, Inclusion Monitor, municipal projects, anti-discrimination actions, and civil society activity.

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Roma Integration Netherlands, Developments in 2013

  1. 1. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) INTEGRATION OF ROMA, SINTI AND TRAVELLERS COMMUNITIES IN DUTCH SOCIETY 20131 I. Implementation of action plans, policies, and measures aimed at Roma integration After the gradual upgrading on the political agenda since 2009, Roma issues remained on the radar in the Netherlands. In 2013 , a number of relevant activities took place and several documents were published following up (in)directly on the Dutch contribution submitted to the European Commission in 2011 for the EU Framework National Roma Integration Strategies. First of all, a national conference took place on March 14, titled ‘Multi Problem Families with a Roma background, towards a switching between care, law enforcement and investigation’. The event brought 150 professionals together from all over the country and was organized by the Ministry of Security and Justice in cooperation with the Association of Dutch Municipalities (VNG), Police Academy and the Platform Roma Municipalities. On this occasion a book was presented to the minister, based on a research carried out by the Police Academy and commissioned by the ministry of Safety and Justice, titled ‘Multi-Problem approach for families with a Roma background’. The Police Academy started the programme in January 2011 after consultations between the ministry of Home Affairs and national chiefs of police. Goal of this study was to build on knowledge, knowhow and expertise of and for professionals working in this particular field, in order to improve an efficient cooperation between all partners involved on local as well as national level. Desk research has been carried out and relevant respondents were interviewed in four indicated experiments called ‘Proeftuingemeenten’ (the municipalities of Nieuwegein, Veldhoven, Ede, Lelystad). In addition 21 key persons were interviewed, selected from the police, educational and social institutions, ministries, Public Prosecution Service, Child Protection, Platform Roma Municipalities. The research is part of the programme developed by the ministry of Safety and Justice, titled ‘Combat of crime in general and exploitation of Roma children by members of the Roma community’, as referred to in the national set of general policy measures on Roma Inclusion. The programme follows three tracks: 1) Strengthen and safeguarding knowledge by collecting data and carrying out research in order to facilitate an individualised and comprehensive approach, 2) Implementation through four experiments (municipalities) based on the method of ‘Carrot and Stick’, 3) to combat the cross border aspects of child exploitation and criminality through European cooperation. Attention to this issue was also raised in parliament, when coalition parties questioned the minister after media exposure of the involvement of Roma children in criminal activities. The Ministers of Safety and Justice, and of Social Affairs and Employment responded by a 1 This document by Peter Jorna (Consultancy Social Inclusion, Roma & Sinti Issues) is based on his contribution to Dutch FRANET in function of the overall FRA Annual Report on Fundamental Rights 2013 (June 2014).
  2. 2. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) joint letter referring to the findings of the study. The minister referred to the evaluation of the programme, foreseen at the end of the year, and decided to extend the financial support (60.000 Euro) of the Platform Roma Municipalities for another year (2013). The Roma Strategy was conceived as a means to handle international exchange with other European countries as well as to tackle human trafficking including child abuse. Instrumental to this are, according to the government, the National Roma Contact Points of the European Commission and the monitoring study on the four main NSRI domains (education, employment, housing, public healthcare) added to the initial Dutch priority program. A corresponding initiative was taken by the Netherlands through the creation of a European working Group on Child Abuse, announced by the Dutch National Roma Contact Point on the occasion of the 8th EU Roma-Platform - dedicated to Children and Youth –. This European Working group chaired by the Netherlands had been joined so far by Poland, Czech Republic, Romania, Bulgaria and Croatia. Shortly after these initiatives are mentioned in a letter of the minister of Foreign Affairs to Parliament discussing the EC (draft) proposal of June 26 for a Council Recommendation on effective Roma integration measures in the Member States. In this letter the government expressed its appreciation for the fact that the European Commission explicitly mentions the combat of child abuse and protection of women in its communications (‘to the contrary of the earlier communication of 2011’). The minister reiterated the Dutch approach and its justifications, which is also reflected in budgetary terms. The government sees no cause to assign additional financial means to the set of policy measures, as it does not support direct budget allocation to any specific target groups in Dutch society. Sinti & Roma Inclusion Monitor At the advice of the European Commission the Netherlands decided to conduct a monitoring study on Roma inclusion, the minister of Foreign Affairs continued, to be implemented every two years, taking into account the four EC domains plus the Dutch priority on child abuse and early marriage. The government underlined that this will be a qualitative study, since the Roma are not registered as such in the municipal personal records database (Gemeentelijke Basisadministratie/GBA), which makes quantitative monitoring difficult. The Monitor, commissioned by the ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, was carried out in 2013 by Movisie, Netherlands Centre for social issues. This base line research started in January, its report being delivered in July 2013 and finally published at the end of the year. The researchers qualify the results as ‘indicative’ and not ‘representative’, as the Monitor only follows a qualitative methodology in which professionals and Sinti and Roma are asked to express their opinions about the social inclusion of Roma and Sinti on the domains education, work, housing, health and safety.
  3. 3. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) All in all the research reached 99 unique respondents, of which 68 took part in organized meetings (‘work sessions’): 60 professionals and 8 respondents from the category of ‘Roma / Sinti’. Additionally, in-depth interviews were held with 36 respondents, 14 of which were professionals and 22 ‘Roma / Sinti’. Furthermore, a questionnaire (‘a list of topics and statements’), including ‘expectations for the next five years’, was filled in by 68 out of the 99 respondents (13 Roma/Sinti, 55 professionals). In addition the researchers consulted relevant literature. The research was accompanied by an Advisory Committee in which central and local authorities were represented. Initially, one Roma representative was part of the Advisory Committee, but she left the Committee after two preparatory meetings because of ‘mixed feelings’. Compared to the initial Dutch EC contribution on policy measures relating Roma (December 2011), the Monitor defines the target group more inclusively, namely Roma as well as Sinti. However, Roma-newcomers such as the refugees in the nineties of the twentieth century and those immigrating since the EU enlargement period, have been largely left out. In addition to the indicated research fields (education, employment, housing and health/care) , the Monitor introduced the additional domain Safety, a common denominator referring to various forms of law offending behaviour. Criminality is treated (including child abuse and early marriage, but also discrimination (in relation to Dutch society as well as ‘intra group’, towards Romani women and children). The Monitor added a chapter too on contacts and relationship with public authorities. Main findings of the Dutch Roma and Sinti Inclusion baseline Monitor (not translated in English yet) are described in its Summary. Only Monitor observations taken over and provided with measures in the ministerial letter will be treated briefly here. As there is no mentioning of the existence of an English version of the Monitor, major findings will be briefed here, including – where relevant – the descriptions or qualifications used in the text of the Summary between quotation marks. The Monitor classifies Education as the domain ‘most extensively researched when it comes to social inclusion’. Primary education is judged by most respondents as proceeding ‘reasonably’ when it comes to enrolment, participation and finishing, Although participation in secondary education is ‘growing’, school dropout among youngsters of 15/16 years especially remains to give reason for concern. A variety of influencing factors are mentioned: a lack of perspective on the labour market (boys) and the focus on house holding (girls), scarcity of trainee posts, outright discrimination and ‘attitude’. Early childhood education leaves room for improvement too (participation in pre-school arrangements). Education and (perceived) discrimination is mentioned to have an impact on Work (perspectives). However, ‘more and more’ Sinti and Roma acquire a job, as is notified by the respondents. Undefined is the extense of this trend. Employed Sinti and Roma prefer to hide their identity avoiding discrimination. Preference, still, is given to self-employment but
  4. 4. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) regulations and administration hamper a sound start or are conducive to operating in the margins (‘grey circuits’ or ‘black markets’). Dependence on social benefits is mentioned as an alternative income and poverty occurs within ‘certain Sinti and Roma circles’. Poverty and debts are affecting (access to) Housing, states the Monitor, even more so when administrative obligations are intensifying. Residents might protest to ‘gypsies’ settling in, referring to expected or existing nuisance. Differing ‘style of living’ is mentioned, coming to the surface for example on special family occasions (extensive visits, from other places and abroad) and because of small, nuclear family based housings. ‘Living together’ is reported as an important factor, especially on a campsite and in a mobile home. Some municipalities participating in the Monitor continue maintaining one or more campsites, others discourage this life style. Increased poverty observed among Sinti and Roma has its impact on Health in its mental and physical aspects as well as in terms of healthcare, the Monitor states. Respondents refer to obesitas and depression, and a lower life expectancy among Sinti and Roma as compared to the Dutch population at large. Topics related to sexuality, disease and death are difficult to touch upon and occasionally tabooed. On the other hand, changes are reported as well, for instance relating teenage pregnancies (the age tends to rise gradually). Safety is the most extensively treated domain in the Monitor. Relating this domain, crucial changes in traditional patterns are reported (between men and women, between elder and younger generations). Generation- and role conflicts come to the surface, for instance when alternative options and available choices concerning mates and marriage partners occur. Other topics are treated such as the occurrence of (honour related) violence, variable forms of police performance, accessibility of housing and work (especially in case of statelessness), (underreporting of) discrimination and negative stereotyping of Roma and Sinti in Dutch society. Criminality is specified by respondents as petty crime, shoplifting, swindle and black market. Respondents consider human trafficking and forced prostitution (reported in literature) more of an ‘eastern European matter’ than occurring among Dutch Roma and Sinti. Involvement of children in petty crime ‘might occur among certain Roma-families indicated as multi problem families’. Finally, the Monitor introduced a separate chapter on Contacts and relations with public authorities. Considering the challenges that lie ahead of both Sinti, Roma and municipalities, the Monitor states that ‘there is an effort to be made’. Despite the progress made, contact is ‘sometimes stiff’. Relating the national government, the attitude of Sinti appears to be coloured by the process of World War Two compensation, specifically concerning the allocation of the remaining funds. On the local level, the situation in municipalities shows a large deal of variety. Generally Sinti and Roma don’t feel taken seriously or involved in policies to them concerned, while public authorities and professionals consider Sinti and
  5. 5. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) Roma as ‘closed’. The Monitor ends with the observation that ‘investment in a good contact between Roma and Sinti and (local) public authorities is very important on all domains – education, work, housing, healthcare and safety’. Examples of such investments in good contact are mentioned by the Monitor elsewhere in the report, for instance profiling Roma and Sinti role models , or employing mediators and facilitating organisations . These good practices, the Monitor states, appeared not sustainable, mainly due to lack of continued financing. In an Epilogue the Monitor refers to currently existing projects: the supralocal Platform Roma Municipalities and the related local experiments on multi problems in the four municipalities. As the Movisie project group stated already in its Memo to all persons interested, Sinti and Roma inclusively (February 2013), the Inclusion Monitor does not pretend to ‘provide solutions to the problems and bottlenecks experienced’, referring to the descriptive approach. However, in a paragraph titled ‘How could Roma and Sinti possibly benefit’, the project group defines explicitly a threefold answer to ‘how this information could contribute to an improvement of the position of the Roma and Sinti in the Netherlands’: • ‘Interest-organisations could use the description to address public authorities concerning their situation. They could use the information in a project proposal, for instance to be submitted to a private funds.’ • ‘National as well as local governments can use the description to make an effort in order to improve the position of the Roma and Sinti’. • ‘Movisie inquires people with a Roma and Sinti background as well as others involved about their wishes for the future’. Although the project group came up with several recommendations, in the end the Monitor has been ‘restricted to its descriptive assignment’. According to the project group, the main recommendation – the one already mentioned - shows up in the Summary: to ‘invest in the good contact between Roma and Sinti and the (local) public authority, on all domains: education, housing, health and safety’. In the Epilogue, when it finally comes to ‘Future challenges’, another recommendation might have been implicitly built in: ‘Changes seem to have a chance when Roma and Sinti are pivot in this process’. Publication of the Monitor was pending since Summer 2013, dependent on the accompanying interdepartmental letter. Although this letter - dated 11 October 2013 - remained unchanged, it took another timespan before the letter and the report were sent to Parliament (2 December 2013). Ministerial Letter to the Monitor (December 2013) The letter is a joint response to the Monitor by the minister of Social Affairs and Employment (National Roma Contact Point and coordinating the Dutch Integration Agenda in general), the minister of Safety and Justice, and the state secretary of Education, Culture
  6. 6. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) and Science. The letter states in its introduction that the Monitor is the result of the European Commission’s advice to measure every two years ‘the impact of Dutch mainstream policies on the situation of Roma and Sinti’. The ministry of Social Affairs and Employment commissioned Movisie to carry out the baseline Monitor as far as the qualitative methodological aspects are concerned. The decision to not include the quantitative aspect of monitoring is argued as ‘not really possible, among others because Roma and Sinti are not registered in the local administrations (Gemeentelijke Basis Administratie/GBA’). The implication of this decision is mentioned (‘the results of this Monitor are indicative, not representative’) and underlined is that the annexed report ‘provides insight how different people, professionals as well as Roma and Sinti, think about the situation of Roma and Sinti’. Finally, the letter states in its introduction that ‘Roma and Sinti don’t know of representative organisations’ and that the Monitor takes, ‘the diversity of Roma and Sinti in the Netherlands as much as possible into account’. In the next paragraph called ‘The position of Roma and Sinti in Dutch society’ the letter focuses on the findings of the Monitor. According to the government the Monitor shows in its essence ‘a large gap between some Roma and Sinti groups and other groups in the Netherlands, in terms of lifestyles and views, such as young people need to go to school and criminality is punishable as well as undesirable in society’. Key message is that ‘a large part of the Roma and Sinti population has not internalized the core values of Dutch society (yet)’, which ‘hampers a quickly making up the backlog’. The gap mentioned before is explained by a ‘cultural-historical background, partly due to the characteristic of the closed Roma and Sinti culture’. This presumed closed Roma and Sinti culture is ‘based also in the traumatic experiences from the past, such as the persecution of Roma and Sinti during World War Two, and the concomitant mistrust of some Roma and Sinti against public institutions’. The letter refers as well to ‘a number of positive developments’ pointed out in the report , but concludes that (the summarized) problems are predominating in the Monitor. The letter treats in its final paragraph, titled ‘Participation and setting boundaries’, measures tackling the problems considered. At forehand, the national government mentions the Platform Roma Municipalities to be key partner, generating ‘perspectives and sharing best practices regarding law enforcement and integration’. This governmental body of mayors and aldermen is linked to the overall Association of Dutch Municipalities (Vereniging van Nederlandse Gemeenten/VNG). Members of this Platform are Amsterdam Zuid-Oost, Capelle aan den IJssel, Ede, Enschede, Lelystad, Nieuwegein, Oldenzaal, ’s-Hertogenbosch, Utrecht, Nuenen and Veldhoven. In short, the government draws five conclusions from the Monitor and connects the following measures to the problems derived:
  7. 7. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) - ‘The Monitor shows that Roma and Sinti participation falls short in early childhood education (Voor- en vroegschoolse education / VVE)’. In 2013 all Dutch municipalities will have agreed upon a covenant with partners concerned (such as health centres and Inspection Healthcare), to trace targeted (‘vulnerable’) children, refer them to VVE institutions for participation in VVE (2015), as indicated by the state secretary of Education, Culture and Science. - ‘According to the Monitor, school dropout among adolescents from 15/16 years on is relatively high’. The minister of Education, Culture and Science is responsible for the Program Offensive to School dropout (2006), aiming to reduce the number of adolescents leaving school without start qualifications to 25.000 individuals (2016). Currently this program is halfway (35.000). Another Action plan (Youth Unemployment) aims to upgrade the number of Apprenticeships / Trainee posts in vocational training. About the combat of fraud (inclusively registering Roma and Sinti either in or leaving municipalities in order to escape compulsory education, youth care or social security supplements) a national approach will be published at the end of 2013. - ‘The experience of discrimination, especially on the labour market, appears to be one of the conclusions most often mentioned in the Monitor’. Local provisions and facilities are at place for reporting discrimination, the letter states, according to the Law Municipal Anti-discrimination Provisions (Wet Gemeentelijke Anti- discriminatievoorzieningen). - ‘Explicitly mentioned in the Monitor is the unsafety among Roma and Sinti themselves as well as the alleged forms of criminal behaviour’. The ministry of Justice is implementing (2011-2013) the Program Approach exploitation of Roma children together, with the police, public prosecutor, Councils of Child protection and Youth Care. Jurisprudence is generated: ‘theft in association’ and forced marriage relating minors, possibly indicated as human trafficking; cases of serious truancy are brought to court. Reference is made, too, towards another program called Multi-problem families with a Roma background, inclusively the book published in March 2013 under the same title. This publication is meant to be a tool for professionals (‘chain partners’) working on the local level. Four of the Roma municipalities are selected as experimental (‘proeftuingemeenten’) in this program, being Lelystad, Ede, Nieuwegein and Veldhoven. - ‘The Monitor ascertains among Roma and Sinti that forced marriages and cast off occurs, and the rights of self-determination are under pressure’.
  8. 8. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) Roma and Sinti communities are considered to be key in realising a change in mentality, by bringing these subjects to their agenda and communicate them. Capacity building is aimed at professionals in healthcare and education. Recently, the penal approach of forces marriage has been expanded. International cooperation is considered another important measure relating these five Monitor conclusions. To affirm this, the letter refers to the recently published Dutch research (2011-2013) carried out by cultural criminologist professor Diena Siegel on itinerant (mobile) bands from eastern- and central European origin operating in the Netherlands. The importance and membership of multilateral networks is stressed at this point: the European Multi-disciplinary Platform against Criminal Threats (EMPACT) in which the Netherlands is leading together with the UK (project Human Trafficking), the National Roma Contact Points Network and the Working group on Roma Child Abuse of which the Netherlands is chair. The letter ends by stating that the situation of the Roma in Romania and Bulgaria to be ‘reason for concern’ and ‘an important push factor’. II. National Roma integration Strategies In 2013, projects nor any earmarked funds are directly related to the NRIS. However, some activities explicitly related to Roma and Sinti do exist in some of the domains mentioned below (especially education). Justice will be briefly dealt with in the funding paragraph (7.4). Directly related to the NRIS (or: ‘Dutch set of general policy measures’) is the development and implementation in 2013 of the qualitative baseline Monitor Inclusion Roma and Sinti, budgeted by the national government at 120.000 Euro. EDUCATION No specific Roma related measures can be reported to improve access to early childhood education and care. The same goes for preventing segregation in education and for additional support measures for Roma in education (for example, teaching, and learning programmes in the Romani, language, mediation, after-school learning, parental education, second-chance classes, awareness raising, etc.), nor specific Roma related measures concerning tertiary education and/or vocational training (promotion, access, increase enrolment). However, regarding primary education there are measures ensuring Roma children to complete at least primary school education. Still in existence in 2013, for instance, is the phenomenon of ‘Class assistants’ on primary schools, recruited from the (Sinti) communities: usually called intermediairs (‘mediators’) because of the outreaching work (helping hands in classrooms and extracurricular activities,
  9. 9. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) homework, preschool class, and mediating between schools-pupils-parents). Of the several educative part-time mediators starting in 2002 (all Sinti cultural background and female) three are still employed and budgeted by both primary schools and municipalities (2013). Two positive examples in this respect can be reported, in the ‘Sinti- municipalities’ of Nuenen-Gerwen and Gemert. Whereas in Nuenen this part-time mediator function - implemented by the same Sinti-woman since 2002- is budgeted by the school since 2010. In Gemert the funding (12.000 Euro a year) is a three-way construction maintained by the school, the municipality and the then existing Netherlands Institute Sinti and Roma (NISR, extinct in 2012). In 2013 the latter part is even paid for by the mediator herself with her NISR-redundancy compensation (on her own decision), in order to continue the work she considers important. One searches for more structural solutions in 2014, expanding towards preschool and secondary education. A network exists of 10 education-counsellors for Sinti, Roma and Travellers, mediating between schools-pupils-parents and employed by education supporting services (facilities provided / maintained by municipalities). Besides, the Ministry of Education offers primary and secondary school boards the possibility (at a yearly base) to apply for extra state budgets relating pupils in need, to be allocated for purposes of personnel, pupils and material. Among the seven groups distinguished for targeted budgeting are ‘Zigeunerkinderen’ ('Gipsy children') (Art. 28), conditioned by: ‘a minimum of 4 pupils with a cultural background of Roma and Sinti, registered at that particular school’ at the beginning and the end of the year’. At request the ministry of Education, Culture and Science informed on the number of primary schools (32) benefitting from the measure in 2013 as well as about the amount of money involved (612.450 Euro). - In addition: a National Information and Support Point Specific Target groups (Landelijk Informatie- en Steunpunt Specifieke Doelgroepen / LISD) is safeguarding expertise, networks and monitoring, targeted to the following specified vulnerable groups: children of asylum seekers, scippers, Travellers, Roma and Sinti. This function is jointly carried out by KPCgroep (former Catholic Pedagogical Centre) and the expertise centre on Curricula Development (Stichting Leermiddelen Ontwikkeling / SLO). - Monitoring Travellers, Roma and Sinti: Monitor 2010 – 2011, KPCgroep (ten primary schools with education-counsellors). Next monitor is foreseen in 2015. The facility (in operation since 1985) was due to disappear in 2013 (budgetary cuts) but has been extended to 2013-2018. For the education monitoring study no specific governmental funds are involved. SLO will take over the website from KPCgroep, acquiring to this end 21.000 Euro per year from the national government.
  10. 10. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) EMPLOYMENT No specific measures have been implemented under the principle of equal treatment to reduce the employment gap between Roma and non-Roma. For instance measures to encourage Roma integration into the workplace (for example, mediation, tailored activation measures, access to open labour markets, social enterprises, etc.). Due to cuts in local and national budgets (2012), promising practices were reduced in 2013, e.g. the one good practice proven effective for a decade among Sinti and Roma, developed by integration consultancy company WSD Group in Brabant region and based on coaching towards (self) employment. Also no specific measures are to be found, providing/promoting financial inclusion of Roma through for example, micro-credit loans, and particularly for Roma entrepreneurs. Nor specific or explicit Roma-related measures to encourage employment of more qualified Roma civil servants in the public sector (public work). The same goes for specific measures to provide personalized employment services for Roma (for example, job search assistance, on-the-job training and life-long learning of Roma), as well as for measures to eliminate the barriers, including discrimination, to re-enter the labour market, especially for Roma women. HEALTH No specific measures have been implemented to increase access to quality healthcare, for example for Roma women and children (such as training health professionals to work with people from different socio-cultural backgrounds), nor to improve the access of Roma to basic emergency and specialized services, increase awareness among Roma of the importance of regular medical check-ups, pre- and post-natal care, family planning, and immunization; nor specific measures have been implemented to ensure that preventive healthcare measures reach out to Roma, or to prevent prejudiced behaviour of health professionals towards Roma. HOUSING No key specific measures implementing the NRIS with respect to housing are reported, for example relating the promotion of non-discriminatory access to housing for Roma, including social housing, desegregation, to facilitate local integrated housing approaches with special attention to public utility and social service. Concerning measures to improve the availability, affordability, and quality of social housing and halting sites: it is considered the responsibility of municipalities and housing corporations to providing and maintaining campsites / locations for mobile homes. Generally, little progress in this field is reported, also in 2013, due to budgetary cuts and ‘tug-off’ frictions between municipalities and housing corporations.
  11. 11. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS & NON-DISCRIMINATION The following measures and their implementation could be reported aimed at to step up the fight against discrimination and racism affecting also Roma people. 1. In the framework of the EC Progress Call for Proposals in the year 2013-2014 (JUST/2013/PROG/AG/AD, likewise for 2012-2013): by the Dutch government the Roma issue is classified among the priorities for a number of arguments: 1) the Dutch NSRI 2011, 2) EC-Assessment 2012, 3) Platform Roma Municipalities, 4) Roma themselves and 5) (expected) political interest for this issue. Available budget: 250.000 Euro for one or two projects (College/Institute Human Rights gained the grant). 2. Racism Monitor (Verwey Jonker Instituut, March 2013). Financed by the Anne Frank Foundation (not by government). Methodology differs from the first nine reports (University Leiden/Anne Frank Foundation): mainstreamed into reporting racial, religious, anti-Semitism and based on police data, for reasons of comparability. Roma used to be part in the earlier reports or reported specifically (See Roma and Sinti Cahier, Anne Frank Foundation, Amsterdam, 2005). See also chapter, 7.5, page 88. To step up the fight concerning anti-Gypsyism and/or hate crime against Roma, no specific measures can be reported, nor measures to raise awareness of the societal interest of Roma integration, for example opportunities for intercultural encounters that may support such awareness and facilitate de-stigmatization. III. Involvement of local authorities and civil society in the development, implementation, and monitoring of NRIS Since 2009, several of the Dutch municipalities dealing with Roma related policies operate together in what is called the ‘Platform Roma Municipalities’. This governmental body of mayors and aldermen, assisted by their officials, is linked to the overall Association of Dutch Municipalities (Vereniging van Nederlandse Gemeenten/VNG). Members of this Platform are the ‘Roma municipalities’: Amsterdam Zuid-Oost, Capelle aan den IJssel, Ede, Enschede, Lelystad, Nieuwegein, Oldenzaal, ’s-Hertogenbosch, Utrecht and Veldhoven. In 2013 one of the ‘Sinti-municipalities’ joined the Platform. The national government considers the Platform Roma Municipalities as key partner for cooperation, allocating 60.000 Euro a year since 2010, for developing perspectives and sharing best practices concerning law enforcement and integration. In 2013, the Platform Roma Municipalities was involved in the organization of the national conference (14 March) on Multi Problem Families with a Roma background. On that occasion the report of the Police Academy (mentioned under 7.1) was presented and
  12. 12. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) discussed in four workshops with and among 150 professionals from all over the country and from different institutions . The platform is involved in the implementation of both programs (on child abuse and multi- problem families), in which the ministry of Safety and Justice is leading. In these programs, four platform members are indicated as ‘experimental areas’: Nieuwegein, Lelystad, Veldhoven and Ede (see also 7.4). Moreover, the platform liaises directly and indirectly with the Council of Europe and the European Commission, for example through the Dutch representative in the Ad hoc Committee of Experts on Roma (Cahrom, Council of Europe). Municipalities and institutions are in the position to ‘call the ministry of Home Affairs and Kingdom relationships for support in terms of general knowledge and expertise in cases relating upbringing, safety, going to school, violence, debts, health problems, etcetera’. For this mainstream project titled Comprehensive Approach (Integrale Aanpak), aimed at ‘transformations and innovations in the social domain’, the ministry of Home Affairs and Kingdom relationships has an expert on Travellers issues at one’s disposal on an ad hoc consultancy base. Moreover, expert meetings are organized at local request, in which the ministries are participating (Safety and Justice, Social Affairs and Employment, Home Affairs), together with the Association of Dutch Municipalities, the Platform Roma Municipalities and the Police Academy. Involvement and consultation of Sinti, Roma and Travellers in the development, implementation and monitoring of NRIS do not take place at a structural and regular basis, nor on all levels and at all stages – as is also observed by European monitoring and assessments. Incidentally, for instance relating to the Police Academy research and its presentation on the national conference, one Rom professional – although not a member of the Roma group under investigation - can be reported to have been consulted relating the draft report and participating at the conference. More frequent and formalised consultations -on an individual base or in group sessions- took gradually place in the course of 2013. Already mentioned is the Monitor (Spring 2013) and its work sessions (8 Roma and Sinti participating), in-depth interviews (22 Roma and Sinti) and questionnaires (filled in by 13 Roma and Sinti). At the same time, in the (political) sensitive framework of the World War Two II Reparation Funds (Afwikkeling van het Naoorlogs Rechtsherstel voor Sinti en Roma), the ministry of Public Healthcare, Welfare and Sport intensified the dialogue - on a face to face basis and bilaterally – with Sinti and Roma key persons and professionals,. On 29 November this department officially invited 25 Roma and Sinti in person for a Round Table (12 December 2013), based on an agenda (goals and activities for remaining funds, next steps in 2014) and in attendance of the state secretary responsible for this issue.
  13. 13. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) IV. Funding for Roma integration Concerning the topic of funding for Roma inclusion, this overview is necessary restricted to policies, programs, projects or activities directly and explicitly related to Roma, Sinti and Travellers integration, in so far as relevant information could be gathered from accessible resources and from contact persons responsible during the short time span available to this end. So, generic funding’s which may be beneficiary to Roma populations too have not been elaborated at this place, such as early childhood programs for vulnerable groups, the Program Offensive to School dropout, the Action plan Youth Unemployment (ministry of Education), or the local Anti-discrimination provisions (ministry of Justice), and the ministry of Home Affairs program called Comprehensive Approach (Integrale Aanpak). As mentioned before, the research monitoring the Dutch general set of policy measures concerning Roma and Sinti (‘baseline Monitor’), advised by the European Commission, has been budgeted in 2013 to an amount of 120.000 Euro (see page Chapter, 7.1). Another 60.000 Euro –on a yearly base since 2010- was allocated by the same ministry (Social Affairs and Employment) to the Platform Roma Municipalities, in function of exchanging knowledge and expertise between the eleven members of this governmental supra local body. The ministry of Safety and Justice funded the research carried out by the Police Academy (2011-2013) resulting among others in a book for professionals, which was presented at the aforementioned conference in March 2013. Information on the funds allocated to the Police Academy project (2011-2013) could only partially be acquired, being the conference organisation (18.000 Euro) and 3.900 Euro for the editor of the book. Funding of the four local experiments (Proeftuingemeenten), however, can be estimated to be 300.000 Euro. The municipalities of Lelystad (250 Roma), Ede (170), Nieuwegein (400) and Veldhoven (335) are funded in the framework of Multi problem families with a Roma background and the Combat of exploitation of Roma children by Roma – both programs currently evaluated on its effects and possible continuation. Roughly, these four pilots were yearly funded with similar amounts to be locally allocated to similar coordinating functions. To this end, the municipality of Lelystad - known for its long term and locally funded approach on education, healthcare and law enforcement (since 2006) - attributed the acquired 75.000 Euro in 2013. The municipality of Veldhoven, was likewise boosted by this pilot (80.000 Euro in 2013) , managing to maintain its long term policy mixture of law enforcement and socio- educational projects. The social domain (‘Samenlevingsopbouw’) of Roma-policies in Veldhoven is funded locally and usually budgeted to an amount of 180.000 Euro per year (2010: municipality staff as well as of subsidized organisation Stimulans and its activities).
  14. 14. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) Meanwhile, in 2012, Nieuwegein redefined its Roma-focused project called Wisselgeld (‘loose’or exchange money) into the Multi problem project including families with a Roma background. Additionally, the municipality of Nieuwegein is leading in a transnational EU Labour Plus project funded by the European Commission (DG Regions, INTERREG IVC), in cooperation with the European Towns and Pilot cities Platform (ENTP, Brussels), and in partnership with nine other members from EU states. The project is dedicated towards exchange of knowledge and expertise on Roma and Participation (best practices, case studies). This project was submitted and approved in 2011 and is due to be finished in 2014. The total budget for Nieuwegein is 335.000 Euro, out of which 250.950 Euro from European funding (75%) and 84.000 local funding (25%). This year, the preparations for a local action plan are prepared for a next Labour Plus proposal on vocational training and employment for vulnerable youth, including Roma. Several cities with Roma and / or Sinti populations are listed as members of EU networks (Eurocities, EU) and Council of Europe alliances (European Alliance of cities and regions for Roma Inclusion, Council of Europe): Amsterdam, Brabant Stad, Eindhoven, Rotterdam , Utrecht respectively Capelle aan den IJssel, Nuenen, Lelystad, Nieuwegein, Veldhoven. Not for every city it remains clear, however, to which extend, stage of activity or European funding is involved. V. Discrimination, anti-Gypsyism, hate crime and the protection of fundamental rights The monitor on racism, anti-Semitism, extreme right violence and discrimination in the Netherlands mentions discrimination on racial grounds but made no reference to any Roma groups in particular. Of all local Anti-discrimination Offices, Art 1 Midden-Nederland is one of the few recording Roma-related complaints specifically since 2009. In 2013 four ‘Roma related’ complaints were filled, connected with assurances and housing issues, and reported by Roma themselves, The Dutch Complaints Bureau for Discrimination on the Internet (Magenta/Meldpunt Discriminatie Internet) notified that Roma, Sinti and Travellers themselves hardly report. In 2013, of all appearing expressions / statements relating Roma, Sinti or Travellers, 15 complaints were filed. Of these 15 reportings, Magenta/MDI considered 11 liable to punishment according to article 137, C up till G, Dutch criminal law. The 11 punishable statements on internet contains hate speech such as ‘All Roma are scum, to be thrown out of the country’, ‘Roma are liars, thieves and cheats, not having any good properties as these have been bred out’ (2 times), ‘dirty folk those gypsies, creating
  15. 15. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) problems in all countries where they settle; workshy criminal scum of the earth’, ‘Gypsies should be sterilized so they can’t have 20 ones’ (2); ‘Roma are gangsters, thieves and rapists’, ‘Roma destroy our culture, they’re all criminals’, ‘It’s an illusion to think of solutions for the structural problems of any European country with gypsies. They don’t give a shit about society, want to roam, like a plague of grasshoppers, and our ancestors already always chased and routed them away when they settled in their environment. That’s the only way to deal with gypsies’. ‘Roma and Sinti are disgusting, un-adapted, criminal scum’, ‘Roma are disgusting scum, when will they finally be exterminated’ and a radio broadcasted song about Gypsies and Travellers campsites (‘all unemployed, growing cannabis, criminal and dangerous’). When Magenta/MDI evaluates an expression as punishable, next step in the procedure is sending a request for removal to the website on which the expression is located (Art. 8). If the website complies with the request from MDI for removal, the complainer will be informed that the content is removed (Art. 9). If a website does not comply with the request for removal, this will not automatically lead to a criminal case. The MDI will only press charges if the MDI deems it necessary. Another point of concern is the access for people living in a mobile to assurances and mortgages due to their backgrounds. In 2013, an important judgement has been published by the Dutch Committee of Equal treatment / College Human Rights, stating that AEGON assurance and mortgage company has unrightfully denied a mortgage to a couple ‘on racial grounds’ (College Human Rights, 5 September 2013). VI. Any other significant developments in relation to Roma integration In 2013, in terms of media and political interest, criminality surpassed discrimination by far as an issue in the Netherlands in 2013. Significant in connection with Roma-related developments was the ongoing stream of news clippings on (the presupposed negative impact of) labour migration from Bulgaria and Romania, added by the media attention to a research on mobile banditry The research was carried out by the Centre for Information and Research on Organized Crime (CIROC, Utrecht University). This program, financed by the ministry of Safety and Justice, was launched in 2011 with an open-to-the-media seminar and ended likewise with the presentation of the results on 18 September 2013. The seminar was introduced by the head of the program, referring to three categories of perpetrators, one of which classified as ‘Romanian and Bulgarian criminal networks, many of whom are Roma’. Immediately the Minister for Safety and Justice was requested by Parliament to react on the findings of the research on mobile banditry , which request was met in the form of a letter accompanied by the draft research.
  16. 16. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) The minister stated in his letter that insights into ‘how family clans operate internationally, lead to an efficient approach in order to dismantle such an infrastructure’. He stressed that crimes committed by Roma get no more and no less attention than other crimes. Furthermore, child abuse was mentioned as an issue to be addressed by a programme jointly implemented with the Minister of Social Affairs and Employment in cooperation with the municipalities. Petty crime is expected to be combatted in a comprehensive Multi-Problem Approach towards families with a Roma background. The issue of begging was linked to the possibility of penalties imposed through its incorporation in local by-law (Algemeen Plaatselijke Verordening/APV) and soon -connected to human trafficking- and part of the Penal code. ECRI Shortly after, discrimination turned publicly an issue again, triggered by a Council of Europe report on Racism and Intolerance in the Netherlands (ECRI). Since the start in 1998, these monitoring cycles classify Roma, Sinti and Travellers communities among the several groups in the Netherlands identified as ‘vulnerable’. The ECRI report ‘welcomes activities carried out at local level and in the context of the Platform for Roma municipalities’. However, he Committee of independent experts added, five recommendations to improve the Dutch approach towards Roma integration. These recommendations included taking up central responsibility for Roma issues at national government level, the promotion of Roma role models, a needs assessment with regard to living in caravans and the unequivocal out ruling of Roma-related ethnic registers. Finally, settling the issue of statelessness –with special reference to (Roma) children - has been recommended to the Dutch government. In its communication to the parliament the Dutch government referred to the Roma stating that ECRI appreciated the creation of the ‘Roma Platform’ in which municipalities are able to compile their knowledge and expertise. The ECRI recommendations – including the five Roma related ones - were treated subsequently in an annex to the letter. In connection to the recommendation on central government responsibility the minister referred to the Platform Roma Municipalities and the ministry of Safety and Justice Programme on exploitation of Roma children. The recommendation on role models and affirmative action is considered not to comply with the Dutch (mainstreamed) integration approach, whereas the recommendation relating to halting sites for mobile homes is stated not to be in accordance to Dutch law after the repeal of the Caravan Act in 1999 and is a municipal responsibility since. The recommendation on separate ethnic registers is endorsed (prohibited by law), whereas in relation to a recommendation on statelessness, especially when transferred to children, reference is made to the current legal practice. Civil Society Several other, mostly one off, activities related to Roma, Sinti and Travellers are – although not linked to the NSRI - reported to have taken place in 2013, many of which organized by or
  17. 17. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) in cooperation with representatives of these communities. These include chronologically the following: • In the framework of the ROMED programme (Council of Europe and the European Union) the Netherlands was selected among five countries for the second round of training- of-trainers, resulting in the certification of two trainers at the closing ROMED Congress. A kick start for training (candidate) mediators recruited from Sinti, Roma and Travellers communities is not feasible yet, as the required Dutch letter of commitment to the Council of Europe and EU ‘will be taking a long time’. • Nevertheless, also in 2013, interest in participating in such a training programme in the Netherlands was shown by candidates and civil society. • Involvement and commitment to Roma issues was occasionally shown by civil society in letters to departments and members of the Dutch Parliament, for example asking the Dutch human rights approach abroad to be applied also to the Roma at home. • The CIROC-research on mobile banditry raised a lot of attention from the media, in particular referring the reported Roma involvement. Individual letters were written to the media and to the minister of Safety and Justice criticizing the research, its methods and its impacts on Roma in particular as well as on society in general. Other articles followed presenting a supposed causality between (Roma) culture, criminality and prostitution. A counterbalancing response was published again in newspaper. • A radio evening programme called Close to the Netherlands (Dichtbij Nederland), broadcasted a discussion between the chair of the Association of Sinti, Roma and Travellers / VSRWN) and a cultural criminologist. • Sinti, Roma and Travellers representatives participated in European events. The chair of the Platform Roma Netherlands, Kostana Jovanovic, participated at the 4th International Romani Women Conference (Helsinki, 16-17 September). The chair and two other representatives of the Association of Sinti, Roma and Travellers Netherlands / VSRWN participated at the Joint EP Meeting Committees Fundamental Rights and Gender relating Roma, 18 September in Brussels, presenting their organization and making interventions at the meeting advocating the lifestyle and corresponding need for sufficient campsites for mobile homes. Letters were sent subsequently (24 October 2013) to the European Commission of Justice, European Parliament and Fundamental rights Agency. • The association Vereniging Sinti, Roma en Woonwagenbewoners Nederland (VSRWN), created in 2012, advocates a continued way of life in mobile homes and tries to be a partner for dialogue with public authorities in the domain of housing, education and employment. This national initiative is connected to other grass roots initiatives by Sinti, Roma and Travellers in this respect.
  18. 18. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) • Through the year, several activities are reported concerning Roma and Sinti relating Second World War commemorations . Among others the Sinti and Roma Round Table on the occasion of the International Holocaust Memorial Day (27) January. Other related initiatives took place in the field of (holocaust) education. Royal appreciation (Princess Beatrix) was shown at the final performance of the Requiem for Auschwitz in presence of school teenagers (29 October 2013). RESOURCES Art.1 (2013), FRANET National Focal Point, Social Thematic Study, The situation of Roma, 2012, Chapter 7Active Citizenship / Rights Awareness, pp. 34-36, Rotterdam, Art. 1, Dutch knowledge center on discrimination, available at: http://fra.europa.eu/sites/default/files/situation-of-roma-2012-nl.pdf. Association of Dutch Municipalities (Vereniging van Nederlandse gemeenten) (2013), Landelijke kennisbijeenkomst Multiprobleemgezinnen met een Roma achtergrond. Schakelen tussen zorg, handhaving en opsporing, Lelystad, 14 Maart 2013, available at http://www.vng.nl/files/vng/nieuws_attachments/2013/20130405-congres-roma.pdf. European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) (2013), Fourth report on the Netherlands, Strasbourg; European Union, European Commission (2013) European Union, European Commission (2013), The European Union and Roma – Country Factsheet, The Netherlands, available at at : http://ec.europa.eu/justice/discrimination/files/roma_country_factsheets_2013/netherland s_en.pdf College Mensenrechten, First Annual Report (2012) available at https://mensenrechten.nl/berichten/minder-mensenrechten-als-je-afhankelijk-bent-niet- populair College Mensenrechten, Oordelen (Judgements). Acessed on 24-01-2014, available at: https://mensenrechten.nl/publicaties/oordelen/2013-111/detail/print Good practice catalogued by the Council of Europe (2011): ‘Implementation Report on CM Recommendation (REC 2001) 17 on improving the economic and employment situation of Roma/Gypsies and Travellers in Europe. CAHROM 20117 Strasbourg, Council of Europe, pp. 16-17. House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal) (2013), ‘Vragen van de leden Marcouch en Oosenbrug (beiden PvdA) aan de minister van Veiligheid en Justitie over de inzet van hun ouders van minderjarige kinderen voor het plegen van misdrijven’, No.
  19. 19. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) 2013Z05240, 15 March 2013; Netherlands, House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal) (2013), ‘Vragen van de leden Azmani en Dijkhoff (beiden VVD) aan de staatssecretaris van Veiligheid en Justitie over het bericht «Criminele Roma-families zetten eigen kinderen in»’, No. 2013Z05445, 19 March 2013. House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal) (2013), Report of general consultations with the minister (Verslag van een algemeen overleg), Parlamentary document (Kamerstuk) No. 28 684-396, available at: https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/kst-28684-396 Measure by the state secretary of Education,Culture and Science (23 March 2013, nr. PO/FenV/491620 for school year 2013-1014) and 26 September 2013, nr. PO/F&V/543292, adjustments for school year 2012–2013). Measure published in Staatscourant, Jaargang 2013, Nr. 9088, on 9 April, resp. Nr. 27624 , on 9 Oktober 2013. Minister of Foreign Affairs (Minister van Buitenlandse Zaken) (2013), ‘New Commission proposals and initiatives by the EU Memberstates’ (‘Nieuwe Commissievoorstellen en initiatieven van de lidstaten van de Europese Unie’), Letter to The House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal), 30 August 2013, Parliamentary document (Kamerstuk) 22 112-1675, available at https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/kst-22112- 1674.html. Minister of Security and Justice (Minister van Veiligheid en Justitie) (2013), ‘Mobiel banditisme, aanpak sinds 2012’, Letter to the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal), No. 43 6485 , 9 October 2013, available at www.rijksoverheid.nl/bestanden/documenten-en- publicaties/kamerstukken/2013/10/10/mobiel-bandtisme-aanpak-sinds-2012/lp-v-j- 0000004190.pdf. Minister of Social Affairs and Emplyment (Minister van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid), ‘Kabinetsreactie ECRI rapport Nederland’. Letter to the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal), No. 2013-0000152757 Annex, 18 November 2013. Ministry of Interior and Kingdom Relation, National Anti-discrimination Contact point (Ad hoc Interdepartmental Working Group, 1 juni 2012, 2 juli 2013). Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations (Minister van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties) (2011), Policy Measures in the Netherlands for the social inclusion of Roma, 16 December 2011, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/discrimination/files/roma_nl_strategy_en.pdf Minister for Security and Justice and Minister for social Affairs and Employmen (Minister van Veiligheid en Justitie and minister voor Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid), (2013) ’Reactie
  20. 20. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) op het rapport 'De aanpak van multi-probleemgezinnen met een Roma achtergrond', Letter to the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal), No. 398526, 4 July 2013, available www.rijksoverheid.nl/bestanden/documenten-en- publicaties/kamerstukken/2013/07/11/reactie-op-het-rapport-de-aanpak-van-multi- probleemgezinnen-met-een-roma-achtergrond/lp-v-j-0000003756.pdf. Minister of Social Affairs and Employment (Minister van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid) (2013), Letter to the House of Representatives (brief naar de Tweede Kamer van de Staten- Generaal), Parlementairy document 32 824, nr. 46 and Monitor in Annex nr. 269786 Movisie (2013), Memo to all persons involved, Movisie (Memo aan alle belangstellenden) Projectgroep Monitor Inclusie, 1 February 2013. Movisie (2013), Baseline measure. Experiences and opinions expressed by Roma, Sinti and professionals on the social inclusion of Roma and Sinti on the domains of education, work, housing, health and safety’ (Nulmeting. Ervaringen en meningen van Roma, Sinti en professionals over de sociale inclusie van Roma en Sinti in de domeinen van onderwijs, werk, wonen, gezondheid en veiligheid), Utrecht, Movisie, 2013 (put to the disposal under embargo by the ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, personal mail, 18 November 2013). Municipality of Veldhoven, Response to Technical Questions by the Municipality Council Veldhoven, concerning the Budget for 2014-2017’, 17 October 2013, page 17. Municipality of Veldhoven, Stimulans Welfare / Care Organisation, Roma section, available at http://www.stimulansveldhoven.nl/intermediair_roma ; See ass well the Yearreport 2012, Veldhoven, April 2013, pp. 9-20; A Romani-women activation project was mentioned in the national newspaper NRC, 10 December 2013. Municipality of Veldhoven, Program Budget 2012, Veldhoven, 2011, pp. 89-91, available at the municipality internet portal www.veldhoven.nl (‘Bestuurlijk Informatie Systeem’ / BIS) Municipality of Nieuwegein, Wisselgeld Project, see ‘Country the Netherlands, Carrot and Stick’, in the EC Newsroom sery ‘Roma stories from around the EU’, 2013, available at http://ec.europa.eu/justice/newsroom/discrimination/news/130626_en.htm Municipality Nieuwegein (Gemeente Nieuwegein) (2013), Removing Barriers, available at http://ris.nieuwegein.nl/Archief/2013/2013-333%20Brochure%20Labour%20Plus.pdf Municipality of Nieuwegein (Gemeente Nieuwegein), 2013, Voortgangsbrief naar de Gemeenteraad over het Labor Plus project, Progress Letter of the Mayor and Aldermen (Burgemeester en Wethouders) to the City Council, 18 September 2013. National knowledge meeting Multi problem families with a Roma background: linking care with law enforcement and investigation (Landelijke kennisbijeenkomst
  21. 21. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) Multiprobleemgezinnen met een Roma achtergrond. Schakelen tussen zorg, handhaving en opsporing), Lelystad, 14 maart 2013, report available at http://www.cs-vng.nl/onze- diensten/hand-outs/kennisbijeenkomst-multiprobleemgezinnen-met-een-roma- achtergrond.aspx Personal notitions by Peter Jorna on the announcement by the National Roma Contactpoint at the Roma Platform Meeting, July 27, Brussels. Personal information acquired at Roma Multi Problem Families conference 14 March 2013. Personal E-mail correspondence with the ministry of Home Affairs and Kingdom Relations, 6 January 2014 and 18 November 2013. Personal telephone conversation with the lead, that is the ministry of Safety and Justice, 8 January 2014. Personal E-mail correspondence Municipality of Lelystad, 8 November 2013 and 6 January 2014, with a document in addition titled ‘The Approach of multi problems among families with a Roma background in the municipality of Lelystad: looking back and forward’, municipality of Lelystad, Policy Department, May 2013, page 14; Telephone conversation 7 January 2014. Personal communications with the ministry Public Health, Welfare and Sports, and with Sinti and Roma (July 2013); also: Netherlands, State secretary for Health, Welfare and Sports (Staatssecretaris voor Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sports) (2012), Letter to The House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer der Staten Generaal), 18 December 2012, Paliamentary Document (kamerstuk) No. 33400 XVI- 123, available at https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/kst-33400-XVI-123.html Personal Conversation at Movisie office with staff and external consultant, Utrecht, 9 January 2014. Personal E-mail correspondence with the Integration department of the ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, National Roma Contact Point), 6 January 2014, 2 December 2013 and 31 October 2013. Personal Telephone conversation with the municipality of Gemert, 6 January 2014. Personal Telephone conversation with Art. 1 Midden Nederland, Utrecht, 7 January 2014. Personal communications with Sinti and Roma (December 2013). Personal E-mail correspondence with the Dutch Complaints Bureau for Discrimination on the Internet (Meldpunt Discriminatie Internet), 8 November 2013 and 6 January 2014.
  22. 22. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) Personal E-mail correspondence with the Dutch Complaints Bureau for Discrimination on the Internet (Meldpunt Discriminatie Internet), 6 January 2014 , in English translation available at http://www.meldpunt.nl/site/page.php?lang=1&pageID=33 Personal E-mail correspondence with the Dutch Complaints Bureau for Discrimination on the Internet (Meldpunt Discriminatie Internet), 6 January 2014, Procedure on handling complaints (in English), available at http://www.meldpunt.nl/site/page.php?pageID=38&lang=1 Personal E-mail correspondence with the ministry of Education, Culture and Science, 9 December 2013, source: Education Implementation Service (Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs / DUO). Personal E-mail correspondence with the ministry of Education, Culture and Science, 8 November 2013. Personal information by telephone (Magenta, 6 November 2013). Roma stories around the EU, Country the Netherlands: Carrot and Stick, available at http://ec.europa.eu/justice/discrimination/files/roma_stories_2013/netherlands_en.pdf ROMED Congres, Brussels, January 17-18, 2013, available at http://coe- romed.org/node?page=1 ROMED, personal E-mails requesting Dutch commitment, to the National Roma Contact Point (20 December 2012; 29 May 2013), informal talks with the ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports (15 July 2013) and e-mail to the Roma-Team of Council of Europe (11 June 2013). Siegel, D, (2013), ‘Mobile banditry: East and Central -European itinerant criminal bands in the Netherlands’, PPT presentation, slide 11, 18 September 2013, Utrecht, available at http://www.ciroc.nl/presentaties/presentatie_siegel130918.pdf. Complete report in Dutch (Mobiel banditisme: Oost- en Centraal-Europese rondtrekkende criminele groepen in Nederland Politie & Wetenschap, Juni 2013), on line available since 14 October 2013, Parlementairy document (Kamerstuk) annex (nr. 255775) to the letter of the minister of Safety and Justice to the House of Representatives (Tweede Kamer der Staten Generaal) on the Combat of Organised Crime (Bestrijding georganiseerde criminaliteit), 9 October 2013, 29 911 Nr. 85 Sollie, H., Wijkhuijs, V., Hilhorst, W., Van der Wal, R. and Kop, N. (2013), Aanpak multi- problematiek bij gezinnen met een Roma-achtergrond. Een kennisfundament voor professionals, The Hague, Boom / Lemma.
  23. 23. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) Tierolf, B., Hermens, L., Drost, L., and Mein, A. (2013), Monitor racisme, anti-Semitisme, extreem rechts geweld and discriminatie in Nederland), Verwey Jonker Instituut, Utrecht. See also chapter 6.4, page 62. Urbiscope Project (Benelux-countries) relating labourmigration from eastern and central European memberstates, see Flemish Action Plan MOE/Roma migrants (Vlaams Actieplan MOE- (Roma) migranten), 2012, Website including four portals related to the specified groups including Roma/Sinti/ Travellers , available at http://www.kpcgroep.nl/kpc-groep/overheidsopdrachten/overige- opdrachten/lisd.aspx; OWRS portal available at http://www.owrs.nl/ Media & Public, Scientific discourse and Civil Society actions Letter ERGO network (22 September 2013, not available on website http://www.ergonetwork.org) reacting on Netherlands, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministerie van Buitenlandse Zaken) (2013), Respect en recht voor ieder mens, Notition, 4 July 2013. Lensink, H. (2013), ‘Het Zigeunertaboe’, Vrij Nederland, 18 September 2013 ; Graanoogst, A. (2013), ‘Dutch underestimate dangers Roma gangs’, NL Times, 19 September 2013. Müller, H. (2013), Roma are the hated outsiders likewise the jews used to be (‘Roma zijn de gehate buitenstaanders zoals de joden ooit’), De Volkskrant, 10 October 2013 Ramesar, P. and Roessingh, M. (2013), Roma culture makes victims (‘Roma cultuur maakt slachtoffers’), Trouw, 18 October 2013. ; Netherlands, Van der Laan, S. (2013), Prostitution and human trafficking part of Roma culture (‘Prostitutie en mensenhandel onderdeel van Roma cultuur’), Elsevier, 18 October 2013. Van Baar, H. (2013), Researchers a bad lot (‘Onderzoeken deugen niet’), Trouw, 26 October 2013, Causes human trafficking in Roma community (‘Oorzaken mensenhandel in Roma- gemeenschap’), NTR (2013), Topic: ‘Causes human trafficking in Roma-community’ (‘Oorzaken mensenhandel in Roma-gemeenschap’), Dichtbij Nederland, 18 October 2013. Contribution titled ‘Roma in the Netherlands’, written by another Roma Platform member to inform the conference on the Roma in the Netherlands and send to the Council of Europe (Michelle van Burik, 12 September 2013, not published). Actions reported by the Association Sinti, Roma and Travellers Netherlands (Vereniging Sinti, Roma en Woonwagenbewoners Nederland), available at its website http://vsrwn.weebly.com/nieuws.html
  24. 24. Peter Jorna, Consultancy Social inclusion – Roma & Sinti Issues (26 June 2014) Association Sinti, Roma and Travellers Netherlands (Vereniging Sinti, Roma en Woonwagenbewoners Nederland) presented itself as well to ministries, Parliament and municipalities (Letter 7th of June 2013, not available on internet) National Committee for 4 and 5 May ( Nationaal Comité 4 en 5 mei) (2013), ‘Holocaust Memorial Day op de Vrije Universiteit op 23 Januari’, Press release, 17 January 2013, available at: www.4en5mei.nl/nieuws/nieuwsbericht/54 Sinti Music (2013), ‘In honour of Mariet Verberkt and our Sinti/Roma children from Venlo, victims of World War Two’, Web page, available at: www.sintimusic.nl/projects/Margaretha_105 Alfa Foundation / International Gipsy Festival in the Netherlands Stichting Alfa (2013), ‘My own Gypsyfestival at school’, (‘Mijn Eigen Gipsyfestival op School’), Webpage, available at: http://www.gipsyfestival.nl/educatie2.html Alfa Foundation / International Gipsy Festival in the Netherlands Stichting Alfa (2013),Tilburg, ‘Requiem for Auschwitz’, Website available at : www.requiemforauschwitz.eu/index.html

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