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Transforming Contexts: UC DAAP talk, May 8, 2009

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Design Research - Techniques for Transforming the Context. …

Design Research - Techniques for Transforming the Context.

While the processes and perspectives collectively referred to as “design thinking” have evolved progressively in the last 10 years, research methodology has not demonstrably changed in the same period. Design research has continued to add new methods to its roster of adopted tools, but do methods and tools collectively contribute to a new whole greater than the sum of the methods?
We can observe a movement toward design contexts for organizational and social setting, which have been framed as Design 3.0 and now Design 4.0, by NextD. One way to understand the difference in design applications is by reconsidering the way we understand and make sense of design opportunities in this perspective. What are the appropriate research methodologies that account for observations about the targets of Design 3.0? These might include the larger system within which a service is conceived, the organizational context, social systems with multiple stakeholders, large-scale information ecologies with multiple emergent participants. We continue to study pieces of the problem, with user research, ethnography, participatory design research, smart sampling, trend analysis. But why have we not adopted methods from other disciplines that also contribute within the systems we intend to transform? Peter will present models and perspectives relating research methods and sensemaking approaches that bring the power of contextual understanding and collaborative problem solving to these organizational and social frames of design.

Published in Design , Business , Technology
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  • Peter, Your presentation captures all that I have been thinking about for the last couple of years. I had not yet found a unifying way of expressing it - you have done it so phenomenally. Thanks for sharing.

    cheers
    Sudhir
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Transcript

  • 1. Design Research
 for large-scale sensemaking Transforming the Context. Peter Jones, PH.D. Redesign Research designdialogues.com
  • 2. DESIGN THINKING HAS EVOLVED IN JUST 10 YEARS FROM things TO experiences TO transformations
  • 3. DESIGN RESEARCH has largely been missing from DESIGN THINKING
  • 4. OBJECT OF DESIGN RESEARCH Understand the human, social, activity, technological & cognitive factors in a domain we intend to design for.
  • 5. WE ARE TALKING IN NEW WAYS CREATING A NEW LANGUAGE FOR DESIGN &
 TRANSFORMATION.
  • 6. We
Write
about
….

  • 7. We
Journal
about
…

  • 8. We
Tweet
about
….

  • 9. YET
WE
NEED
A
COMMON
 DESIGN
LANGUAGE
 FOR

TRANSFORMATION
 SUFFICIENT
TO
THE
CONTEXT.

  • 10. WHAT DO WE REALLY MEAN BY transformation ?
  • 11. Is this what we mean?
  • 12. Is this what we mean? Greeks & Turks in Cyprus healing their 50 year old dividing line
  • 13. Is this what we mean? Obama campaign’s radically effective social media strategy
  • 14. Bottom-up urban makeover?
  • 15. TRANSFORMATION Transforma*on
occurs
in
the
world
as
an
outcome
of
 projects
we
can
control
and
events
we
cannot.

 We
only
set
the
stage
and
hope
the
play
takes
over.
 &
 “MATTERS OF CONCERN” Philosopher Bruno Latour suggests a change of design focus from “matters of fact” to “matters of concern.”
  • 16. MATTERS OF CONCERN Transforma*on
addresses
the
need
for
profound
inten*onal
 change
created
by
and
for:
 Organiza*ons


 &
their
workforces
 Social
problems

 &
the
communi*es
impacted
by
them
 Infrastructures

 &
communi*es
 Systems
 
 &
ci*zens
concerned
with
them
 Environments


 &
ecosystems

  • 17. HOW
DO
WE
 DESIGN
&
RESEARCH
 FOR
 
 transforma)on
?

  • 18. DESIGN
RESEARCH
LAGS
DESIGN.
 It
always
does.

Yes,
but
what
about
…
 
 
 
 The
rise
of
ethnography
in
design
?
 Mixed
methods
in
user
experience?
 Blending
of
field
&
lab
methods?
 IDEO,
Maya,
nForm
–
Method
cards?

  • 19. Topography
of
Design
Research.
Liz
Sanders,
Design
Research
in
2006.
Design
Research
Quarterly.

  • 20. THESE
METHODS
ALL
STILL
ADDRESS
 
 
 FROM

 things
 
 
 TO

 
 experiences.
 
 
 NOT

 transforma)ons

  • 21. WHY
IS
CONTEXT
CRITICAL?
 In
transformaSon,
the
risks
are
 extremely
high
if
we
intervene
 (DESIGN)
without
understanding
the
 domain,
the
situaSon,
the
world
being
 designed
for.


 Sensemaking
 Making
 differences

  • 22. Where is context? INSTRUMENTAL CONTEXT 22
  • 23. What we “see,” What we decide, How we validate knowledge, Almost entirely dependent on contexts.

  • 24. Questions by context How
do
I
make
sense
of
this
field?
 Where
are
the
next
opportuni*es?
 What
are
the
unexpected
challenges?
 Who
is
emerging
as
new
compe**on?
 How
do
I
make
sense
of
this
organizaSon?
 How
do
we
enhance
performance?
 Are
we
aligned
to
strategy
—
or
not?
 What
can
we
do
MUCH
beSer
here?
How?
 How
do
I
make
sense
of
this
process?
 What
new
ideas
are
innova*ve?
 What
can
we
learn
from
the
whole
ac*vity?
 How
do
people
collaborate
here?
 How
do
I
make
sense
of
this
project?
 How
can
you
help
me
achieve?
 How
are
my
aspira*ons
met
in
life?
 What
are
the
gaps
and
bridges
to
my
goals?
 How
do
I
make
sense
of
this
thing?
 How
do
I
interact
with
this
thing?
 What
other
tools
do
I
need?
 How
much
*me
do
I
have
before
I
leave?
 24
  • 25. How Where
 When
 &
Why
 Do
we
ask
these
quesSons?
 Can
we
make
sense
before
we
 make
things?

  • 26. Complexity by context. TransformaSonal
Change
 MulS‐organizaSonal
complexity
 Strategic
CooperaSon
 Methods
must
 Months
–
Years
duraSon
 suffice
the
variety
in
 a
context
to
afford
 Leading
and
Belonging
 understanding.
 Complexity
NavigaSon

 MulSdisciplinary
CollaboraSon
 Weeks
–
Months
duraSon
 PracSces
 Professional
development
 Learning
and
Engagement
 Week
–
Month
duraSon
 Work
AcSvity

 Learning
&
Doing
Tasks
 Decisions
and
Risks
 Day
–
Week
duraSon
 SituaSonal
 Interpersonal
 Immediate
duraSon
 26
  • 27. Methods are merely reflections of our perspective on inquiry. They
are
choices
about
how
we
 plan
to
observe
&
communicate.

  • 28. Methods by context. TransformaSonal
Systemic
Change
 MulS‐organizaSonal
complexity
 Strategic
CooperaSon
 I
 Months
–
Years
duraSon
 Methods
by
 OrganizaSonal
Change
 context
 Complexity
NavigaSon

 MulSdisciplinary
CollaboraSon
 Weeks
–
Months
duraSon
 O
 PracSces
 Professional
development
 Learning
and
Engagement
 Week
–
Month
duraSon
 Work
AcSvity

 Learning
&
Doing
Tasks
 Decisions
and
Risks
 W
 Day
–
Week
duraSon
 Human
Centered
Research
 Interpersonal
 H Immediate
duraSon
 28
  • 29. So how might we scale Thinking Observing Designing Between contexts ?

  • 30. Consider the context of design practice. NextD

 
 
 
 
 D1.0
 


 
 
 
 D2.0
 


 
 
 
 D3.0
 


 
 
 
 D4.0

  • 31. Copyright
2009

  • 32. Copyright
2009

  • 33. 33
 Copyright
2009

  • 34. Copyright
2009

  • 35. What does this mean? How do we adapt designing? How do we adapt design research? Understand
 Implement
 Problem
 &
Sustain
 Formulate
 SoluSon

  • 36. Sensemaking Changemaking “Strange” making Sensemaking D1 D2 D3 D4 




















OBJECTS
 
 PRODUCTS/SERVICES
 





ORGANIZATIONS





















PROBLEM
SYSTEMS
 Increased
complexity
requires
that
more
of
the
design
engagement
is
spent
sensemaking

 Cannot
design
or
act
unSl
we
understand
what
dynamic
systems
we’re
changing
 Tools
for
sensemaking
differ
as
problem
complexity
increases:


 Ashby’s
Law
of
Requisite
Variety:
Variety
of
the
transforming
system
must
match

the
variety
of
 possible
condi*ons
of
the
changed
system.

  • 37. D3
and
D4
are
Wicked
Problems
 Sensemaking Changemaking “Strange” making Sensemaking D1 D2 D3 D4 














OBJECTS
 







PRODUCTS/SERVICES
 





ORGANIZATIONS





















PROBLEM
SYSTEMS
 Wicked
Problems
(Rijel
and
Webber,
1973)
are
ill‐defined,
evolving,
mulS‐factored
situaSons
 There
is
no
definite
formula*on
of
a
wicked
problem.
 Wicked
problems
have
no
stopping
rules
(you
don’t
know
when
you’re
done).
 There
is
no
immediate
and
no
ul*mate
test
of
a
solu*on
to
a
wicked
problem.
 Wicked
problems
do
not
have
an
enumerable
set
of
poten*al
solu*ons.
 Every
wicked
problem
is
essen*ally
unique.
 Every
wicked
problem
can
be
considered
to
be
a
symptom
of
another
[wicked]
problem.

  • 38. By now it should be no surprise that we need new ways of sensemaking. We need contextual methods & ways of creating knowledge … For design.
  • 39. FOR EXAMPLE, HEALTHCARE
  • 40. Where do we locate healthcare? CONTEXT of SERVICE 40
  • 41. How
people
make
sense.
 IdenSty


 Profession,
Roles,
Individual
 differences,
Pre‐understanding,
 Membership,
Social
networks
 Making
Sense
of
their
Situa)on
 What’s
 next?
 Experience
 Bridge
to
goals
 Cogni*on
 Goals
 Emo*on
 Aspira*on
 Desire
 Outcomes
 Percep*on
 Learning
 Goals
 Help
 Sensa*on
 Decisions
 Values
 Constraints
&
gaps
 Understanding What’s
really
 important
to
our
 Cultural
belonging
 customers?
 Past
horizon,
Culture,
 Tradi*ons,
Na*onality,
 Values,
Societal
norms


 Human
sensemaker
 Making
sense
of
our
situaSon

  • 42. D1.0 We’ve all heard about EMRs & the millions they will save on care $. VA’s VistA system is free, to any health provider in the world. This is how it looks at a VA clinic.
  • 43. Today’s EMR systems are so bad … D1.0 Good D1.0 only would make a huge difference. “Though nobody can give me the specifics, it is rumored that our contract with Epic (and all EMR vendors) includes language forbidding screen sharing. I honestly think they do this to protect what they consider to be trade secrets as if these screens are wonderful works of innovation! It's kind of sad when you think about it. I have shown Epic and McKesson apps to about a half dozen UX pros here in town. Without fail their first reaction is to laugh. Every single one. They can't help it. When I was interviewing at _____ and they showed me their OR charting app, I laughed. Though we could argue for a methodological approach to evaluating the UI of these apps, maybe just getting past the quot;laugh testquot; would be a good start.”
  • 44. What kind of problem is the integrated workflow of EMR? D2.0 Service, system, or organization? Today it is treated as system (D2.0) 2
 4
 Paper
 EMR
 EMR
 1
 EMR
 EMR
 Online
 3

  • 45. Research Methods for D2.0 systems D2.0 Such a wide range that most UX researchers do not consider that they are not generalizable to all problems.
  • 46. Research Methods for D2.0 systems D2.0 Such a wide range that most UX researchers do not consider that they are not generalizable to all problems.
  • 47. How does the organization change to D3.0 fully integrate the new EMR? Are people still expected to conform to the dictates of poorly designed data services & user interfaces? What is possible for a large healthcare system if we re-framed the EMR design problem as truly organizational?
  • 48. What are some of the ways we make D3.0 sense of the organizational context for the EMR intervention? R3.0
 AcSvity‐Centered
Design
 Understanding
 Ethnography
 Ac*vity
analysis
 Lifecycle
modeling
 Genera)ng

concepts
 Ideal
ac*vity
scenarios

 Par*cipatory
design
 Organiza)onal
research
 User
needs
analysis
 Evalua)on
 Total
user
experience
evalua*on
 Compara*ve
best
prac*ces
 Program
evalua*on

  • 49. Scaling to the problem system, the situation is (always) socially distributed . D3.0 D4.0 Here framed as Transforming Care. Often requires we design to lifecycles. No
known

 












Symptoms
 ConfirmaSon
 
















In
the
OR
 














Chronic
Illness
 Illness
 













&
Exam

 (Now
PaSent)
 















&
Hospital
 














Management
 Referral
 Inter‐ ConSnuity
 Primary
 Tests
 venSon
 Care
 Drugs
 consult
 Learning
 Self‐ EvaluaSng
 Undergoing
 Self‐ about
 evaluaSon
 treatment
 Care
 care
 CondiSon
 Health
 Personal
 Becoming
 The
Sharp
End
 Everyday
health

 Consumer
 Diagnosis
 very
PaSent
 
of
Care
 
“Living
with”


  • 50. Researching all contexts in one problem D3.0 D4.0 Healthcare
Professions
 Constraints,
Structures,
Rules,
 Inst.
drivers,
Mission
 Standards
 Medical
Disciplines:
Emergency,
Clinical,


 Specialty,
Pediatric,
Medical,
Surgical,
…
 InsStuSonal
Context:

 Hospital
&
Unit
 AcSvity:
Pa*ent
Care,

 Inhibitors
 Enablers
 Admin,
Educa*on
 Tasks
w/
EMR
Admit,
Prep,
Surgery,
 Post‐op,
Diagnos*cs,
Therapy,
…
 Info
Services:
EMR
System,
 Intranet,
Internet,
Library,
...
 InformaSon
ArSfact:
EMR
Data,
 Chart,
Care
Plan,
Notes,
...
 Scheduling,
Admin
 PaSent
 Mo*va*ons,
Needs,
Career

  • 51. What design research methods are D3.0 D4.0 considered when we frame a situation as a D4.0 problem? In this frame, we see a fusion of research & design method. Large-scale sensemaking requires the diversity & participation of stakeholders to the problem. We do not “do design” as usual. We step into the realm of 3rd Phase Science (G. de Zeeuw, 2001). We interact with what we observe, we change ourselves as we intervene.
  • 52. Sensemaking Changemaking Communities Org leaders Action teams Process leads Project Teams Funders Individual Stakeholders & User s Institutions Everyone Community leaders “Strange” making Sensemaking 





















OBJECTS
 
 

SERVICES
 
 






ORGANIZATIONS





















PROBLEM
SYSTEMS
 D1 D2 D3 D4 1. As problem complexity increases, we lose ability to understand factors influencing design. 2. Increasing the probability that we design the wrong THING or intervention. 3. Higher probability that we miss critical interactions among factors and stakeholders Requiring us to collaborate, early, with all necessary stakeholders of the problem.
  • 53. Sensemaking Changemaking Humanistic Social values New situational ethics User Patient lifeworld Practice values Instrumental Experience Equality / Justice Customer focus Care “Strange” making Sensemaking 





















OBJECTS
 
 

SERVICES
 
 






ORGANIZATIONS





















PROBLEM
SYSTEMS
 D1 D2 D3 D4 Finally, we cannot just treat the context shift as a problem of scale Or a problem of design process, or of methodology. We must understand & design to the normative values differences that require a clear centering for each context.
  • 54. Back to Transformation … What are WE able to change, when Change is owned by stakeholders?
  • 55. A
Topography
of
Design
Research.

 Dialogic Design Liz
Sanders
(2006)
Design
Research
Quarterly.

  • 56. A
Topography
of
Dialogic
CollaboraSve
Design
Methods.

 Strategic Structured

 Dialogic
Design
 CharreSes
 Scenario
building

 Simplex
 Visual

 Sensemaking
 Democratic Town
Hall
sessions
 Future
Search
 World
Café

 Open
Space
 Generative Socra*c
inquiry
 Nominal
Group
 User
co‐design
 Technique
 Brainstorming
 Open Guided Structured
  • 57. As we scale up problem context We must scale ourselves up also - new perspectives, new skills, networks Before we can help those who want to create lasting positive transformation.
  • 58. Thank you. Questions, dialogue? redesignresearch.com designdialogues.com nextexts.com