Collaborating for                             Complexity  Social Design for Sustainable Innovation                        ...
“Only our minds are able to discover the generalized principles operating without exception in each & every special‐experi...
Buckminster FullerBeyond sustainability.             First philosopher of Thrivability.             A reinvention of civil...
Fuller’s technology foresight? “You may very appropriately want to ask me how we are going to resolve the ever‐acceleratin...
Why I’m herePeter Jones, Ph.D.Senior Fellow, Strategic Innovation LabFaculty, Strategic Foresight & InnovationOCAD Univers...
The Chaos of Decision MakingTechnology is the easy part.  Now that we can do anything, why aren’t we doing the right thing...
System of Systems View – Economic interdependenciesCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
Fuller’s Fundamental Optimism     “Humanity will overcome complexity          through design science.”But we will never ov...
Design ScienceCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
Model for Sustainable DesignNathan Shedroff, Design is the Problem   Sustainable Design Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
Principles of Collaborative DesignCollaboration requires cohesive collective communication processes Which (in new collabo...
Principles of Collaborative Design1.     Complex problems are irreducible: are not resolved by analytical processes. 2.   ...
Complexity & ProblematizingAs problem complexity increases, increased demand for requisite variety. 4 systems thinkers rei...
Ross Ashby “The quantity                                   of regulation that can be                                   ach...
Design Science                                             Stafford Beer’s                                             Syn...
Rittel, H. and Weber, M. (1973). Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning, Policy Sciences, 4, 155‐169           Wicked Pr...
Hasan Ozbekhan“We proceed from thebelief that problems have"solutions" --although wemay not necessarilydiscover these in t...
Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
Principles of Collaborative Design1.     Complex problems are irreducible: are not resolved by analytical processes. 2.   ...
COLLABORATION SKILLS        for    COMPLEXITY     NAVIGATIONCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
Multiple perspectives are critical                                                 Social design requires eliciting, under...
Finding common ground  Social design organizes multiple stakeholder perspectives in a  complex situation by  relational st...
Micro‐design language for collaboration.Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
Collaborative skills differ from design skillsCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
Social design requires social processesCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
Principles of Collaborative Design1.     Complex problems are irreducible: are not resolved by analytical processes. 2.   ...
Stakeholder Variety      Regional & Urban Planning                                                  Product Innovation    ...
What type of innovator are you?Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones                                   Creative Problem Solving...
Insufficient conceptual focus                                           An organization                                   ...
Insufficient generation!                                      A typical group of                                       man...
Who do you want advising the board?                                             Many directors                            ...
Complexity requires              understanding,              sensemaking,              problem‐framing,              not p...
Simplexity ‐ Separate process & content  Copyright © 2011, Peter H. JonesSimplexity process at basadur.com
WHERE DO YOU LOCATE COLLABORATIVE DESIGN?  Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
A science & design language for collaboration.Structured Dialogic Design           • Complex system / product planning    ...
Generic Design ScienceJohn Warfield1974  The first group process using computersBattelle used Warfield’s Interpretive Stru...
Christakis  on Structured Dialogic Design:                   “Given the complexity of political,                   social,...
Dialogic Design     Methodology  for addressing root causes of wicked problems             •    Based on scientific & desi...
Dialogic Design – Collaborative Process        1                                   2Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones      ...
Dialogic Design Science: 7 Axioms   1. Complexity Axiom:  Observational variety is respected when engaging          stakeh...
Dialogic Design Principles: 7 Laws 1. Requisite Variety  an appreciation of the diversity of     perspectives and stakehol...
7 Laws  4. Requisite Meaning  … & wisdom are produced in a dialogue only          when observers search for relationships ...
Collaboration is a human process.  Co-Laboratory                                                                          ...
Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
Democratic across power & stakeholders. •    Cyprus Reunification Dialogues (2001 – 2011)        EU project for Israeli‐Pa...
Collaborative Design ‐ not just teamwork    • Collective sensemaking   Collaboration is necessary to resolve           any...
Thank you“I am not a political revolutionary, I am design science revolutionary.”“The self‐sufficient enterprise is becomi...
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Collaborating for Complexity: SIUC Synergetics

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Fuller said: “Humanity will overcome complexity through design science.” But we will never 'overcome' complexity. We will navigate it by collaborative design.

But the problem is, we really do not collaborate well. We need more than methods - we need cultural change, and to disrupt the way we think about problem solving.

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Collaborating for Complexity: SIUC Synergetics

  1. 1. Collaborating for  Complexity Social Design for Sustainable Innovation Peter Jones, Ph.D. SIUC Synergetics Symposium, April 7 2011Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  2. 2. “Only our minds are able to discover the generalized principles operating without exception in each & every special‐experience case which if detected & mastered will give knowledgeable advantage in all instances.” Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  3. 3. Buckminster FullerBeyond sustainability. First philosopher of Thrivability. A reinvention of civilization …  Creating the very idea of the futuristicCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  4. 4. Fuller’s technology foresight? “You may very appropriately want to ask me how we are going to resolve the ever‐acceleratingly dangerous impasse of world‐opposed politicians and ideological dogmas. I answer, it will be resolved by the computer.”His socio‐political foresight? Spot on.Yet his principles‐based design approaches did not account for social complexity.Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  5. 5. Why I’m herePeter Jones, Ph.D.Senior Fellow, Strategic Innovation LabFaculty, Strategic Foresight & InnovationOCAD University, TorontoPublications designdialogues.com    Transformation Dialogic Design International Design Research Redesign, Inc.Democratic process  Globalagoras.orgCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones designforcare.com
  6. 6. The Chaos of Decision MakingTechnology is the easy part.  Now that we can do anything, why aren’t we doing the right things?Large projects – institutions, governments, corporations – increasingly fail, big, & recover up.Why do so many large projects fail?We first fail to understand social complexity. Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  7. 7. System of Systems View – Economic interdependenciesCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  8. 8. Fuller’s Fundamental Optimism “Humanity will overcome complexity  through design science.”But we will never overcome complexity.We will navigate it by collaborative design.Our problem is, we compete. We do not (yet) collaborate well.Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  9. 9. Design ScienceCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  10. 10. Model for Sustainable DesignNathan Shedroff, Design is the Problem Sustainable Design Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  11. 11. Principles of Collaborative DesignCollaboration requires cohesive collective communication processes Which (in new collaborations) evolve in a progression from:Cooperation > Coordination > Collaboration >  ConvergenceCollaboration necessary for problem types beyond Simple  / Tame:Complicated >   Complex >  Wicked >  Chaotic Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  12. 12. Principles of Collaborative Design1. Complex problems are irreducible: are not resolved by analytical processes. 2. Socio‐technical complexity requires collaborative design. Collaborative design is both a science & a design language.3. Collaboration skills differ from design skills, and both are needed. 4. Collaboration is dialogic, entailing human biases & group dynamics.5. Multiple perspectives are critical to ensure requisite variety in the system  to be designed.6. Dialogic collaboration is democratic, separates process & content.7. Complexity requires understanding, sensemaking, not problem‐solving.Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  13. 13. Complexity & ProblematizingAs problem complexity increases, increased demand for requisite variety. 4 systems thinkers reinvented problematics:Ozbekhan  Problematique 1968Beer Viable systems model 1972Rittel  Wicked problems 1973Warfield Managing complexity  1974Problem understanding, not problem solvingCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  14. 14. Ross Ashby “The quantity of regulation that can be achieved is bounded by the quantity of information that can be transmitted in a certain channel.” Requisite variety in group process requires engaging participants whose variety of knowledge is equal or greater than the elements in the system to be regulated.Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  15. 15. Design Science Stafford Beer’s Syntegrity process Synergetics + Requisite Variety for viable organizations. Cybersyn center in Allende’s think tank, 19 Chilean Center of Public StudCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  16. 16. Rittel, H. and Weber, M. (1973). Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning, Policy Sciences, 4, 155‐169 Wicked ProblemsPoorly‐defined, evolving, multi‐factored situations.  At least 10 properties, 7 of which require collaboration:1. There is no definite formulation of a wicked problem.2. Wicked problems have no stopping rules (you don’t know when you’re done).3. Solutions are not True/False but Good/Bad (value judgments)5. Every solution attempt is a one‐shot trial.  Every attempt counts significantly.7. Every wicked problem is essentially unique.  (Nobody can claim expertise).8. Each can be considered to be a symptom of another problem.10.  The designer has no right to be wrong.Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  17. 17. Hasan Ozbekhan“We proceed from thebelief that problems have"solutions" --although wemay not necessarilydiscover these in thecase of every problem weencounter. Christakis on Structured Dialogue: “Given the complexity of political,This peculiarity of our social, economic, & technological issuesperception causes us to view of the Information age, & the strongdifficulties as things thatare clearly linkages among those issues, is it defined &discrete in reasonable to expect that the approach themselves.” for engaging people in dialogue 2500 years ago during the Golden Age of theTHE PREDICAMENT OF MANKIND: A Quest for  Copyright © 2011, Peter H. JonesStructured Responses to Growing World‐wide  would work today?” AtheniansComplexities and Uncertainties
  18. 18. Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  19. 19. Principles of Collaborative Design1. Complex problems are irreducible: are not resolved by analytical processes. 2. Socio‐technical complexity requires collaborative design. Collaborative design is both a science & a design language.3. Collaboration skills differ from design skills, and both are needed. 4. Collaboration is dialogic, entailing human biases & group dynamics.5. Multiple perspectives are critical to ensure requisite variety in the system  to be designed.6. Dialogic collaboration is democratic, separates process & content.7. Complexity requires understanding, sensemaking, not problem‐solving.Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  20. 20. COLLABORATION SKILLS for COMPLEXITY  NAVIGATIONCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  21. 21. Multiple perspectives are critical Social design requires eliciting, understanding, &  negotiating differing values, perspectives, goals How  might we  reenergize our  How  might we  downtown and  reenergize our  Good question!  bring employers  downtown and  Where do we  Recent grad back to the city? bring employers  start? back to the city? Conversations for  Possibility Business  owner ? Land  developers Retiree Families Political  officers City planner CONVERSATIONAL DIALOGICCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  22. 22. Finding common ground  Social design organizes multiple stakeholder perspectives in a  complex situation by  relational structuring of commitment. How do we  organize our Let’s prepare an  projects so this offer to the city. I’m in. Who else  happens? do we need on  the team? Conversations for  Action ? What steps can  What actions can  we take as  we take that will  individuals and  make the  most  groups? difference? Management of Divergence (possibility)     & Convergence (action) Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  23. 23. Micro‐design language for collaboration.Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  24. 24. Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  25. 25. Collaborative skills differ from design skillsCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  26. 26. Social design requires social processesCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  27. 27. Principles of Collaborative Design1. Complex problems are irreducible: are not resolved by analytical processes. 2. Socio‐technical complexity requires collaborative design. Collaborative design is both a science & a design language.3. Collaboration skills differ from design skills, and both are needed. 4. Collaboration is dialogic, entailing human biases & group dynamics.5. Multiple perspectives are critical to ensure requisite variety in the system  to be designed.6. Dialogic collaboration is democratic, separates process & content.7. Complexity requires understanding, sensemaking, not problem‐solving.Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  28. 28. Stakeholder Variety Regional & Urban Planning Product Innovation Business  Business owners leadership Land owners Current usersDesign team Design team Land  ? developers ? RetailersRetirees Hardware Families engineering Product  Developers Political  officers City planner Partners New users Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  29. 29. What type of innovator are you?Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones Creative Problem Solving Profile at basadur.com
  30. 30. Insufficient conceptual focus An organization  attempting to  establish new  financial products  quickly in a very  competitive  environment, but  encountering a high  percentage of  failures.Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  31. 31. Insufficient generation! A typical group of  managers from a  large aerospace  company serving the  aircraft, airline, and  aerospace industries  and having trouble  expanding into new  products and new  marketsCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  32. 32. Who do you want advising the board? Many directors  have enjoyed  successful careers  due to their  implementation  skillsCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  33. 33. Complexity requires  understanding,  sensemaking,  problem‐framing,  not problem‐solving.Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  34. 34. Simplexity ‐ Separate process & content Copyright © 2011, Peter H. JonesSimplexity process at basadur.com
  35. 35. WHERE DO YOU LOCATE COLLABORATIVE DESIGN? Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  36. 36. A science & design language for collaboration.Structured Dialogic Design • Complex system / product planning • Strategic management / uncertainty • Foresight & futures scenarios • Coordinating ideas, power & action on complex social  & ecological issues • Understanding root forces & constraints in social  systems • Democratic resolution of wicked problems Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  37. 37. Generic Design ScienceJohn Warfield1974  The first group process using computersBattelle used Warfield’s Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) software (over phone lines, Dayton & Columbus) Became process of Interactive ManagementAleco ChristakisDesign science is democratic.Information Age requires collaborative designto navigate increasing complexity of situationsCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  38. 38. Christakis  on Structured Dialogic Design: “Given the complexity of political, social, economic, & technological issues of the Information age, & the strong linkages among those issues, is it reasonable to expect that the approach for engaging people in dialogue 2500 years ago during the Golden Age of theCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones Athenians would work today?”
  39. 39. Dialogic Design Methodology  for addressing root causes of wicked problems • Based on scientific & design principles Consensus among very disparate stakeholders • All decisions are collected through inclusive voting Elicits root causes AND interconnections • Grounded in systems science, visually describes system Strategic AND Democratic • Exacting method for equality & autonomy in engagementCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  40. 40. Dialogic Design – Collaborative Process  1 2Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones 3
  41. 41. Dialogic Design Science: 7 Axioms  1. Complexity Axiom:  Observational variety is respected when engaging  stakeholders, ensuring cognitive limitations are not violated while striving  for comprehensiveness (John Warfield).  (Magical number 3,    +/‐ 0) 2. Engagement Axiom: Designing social systems without the authentic  engagement of the stakeholders is unethical, and results in inferior plans  that are not implementable (Hasan Ozbekhan).   (Normative planning) 3. Investment Axiom: Stakeholders must make personal investments of  trust & commitment to be effective in discovering shared understanding  & collaborative solutions (Tom Flanagan).   (Dialogic principle) 4. Plus four others, including: Reconciliation of Power AxiomCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  42. 42. Dialogic Design Principles: 7 Laws 1. Requisite Variety  an appreciation of the diversity of  perspectives and stakeholders is essential in managing  complex situations.  (Ashby) 2. Requisite Parsimony    Structured dialogue is needed to avoid  the cognitive overload of stakeholder/designers. (Warfield) 3. Requisite Saliency  … observations can only be understood by  comparisons in an organized set of observations. (Boulding)Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  43. 43. 7 Laws 4. Requisite Meaning  … & wisdom are produced in a dialogue only  when observers search for relationships of similarity, priority, influence,  etc, within a set of observations. (Peirce) 5. Requisite Autonomy & Authenticity   … protect the autonomy and  authenticity of each observer in drawing distinctions. (Tsivacou) 6. Requisite Evolution of Observations … learning occurs in dialogue  as people search for relationships in a set of observations. (Dye) 7. Requisite Action  … action plans must be designed in authentic  engagement of those whose futures influenced by the change  (Laouris)Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  44. 44. Collaboration is a human process. Co-Laboratory Webscope Co-located, onsite Screen share Cogniscope Teleconference Mixed locations 12-30+ participants ISM method software Wiki support Wiki + teleconference Print media & real-time display Mixed media & online displayCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones Facilitator-managed
  45. 45. Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  46. 46. Democratic across power & stakeholders. • Cyprus Reunification Dialogues (2001 – 2011)   EU project for Israeli‐Palestinian dialogues (2011) • Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Initiative:   48 stakeholders & 10 observers  from 38 organizations on CKD outcomes, resulting in action plan.  • Transnational indigenous Leaders Dialogue on Globalization:   40  Indigenous leaders from Americas and New Zealand & experts (2004) • FDA Good Practices Review dialogues (1995‐1999) • Schering‐Plough Drug Development Action Planning (1992‐1994). • Alternative Energy Future Planning, Northwest Energy Alliance (2001).Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  47. 47. Collaborative Design ‐ not just teamwork • Collective sensemaking   Collaboration is necessary to resolve  any complex situation as multiple perspectives are critical. • Complexity navigation methods  We need better methods. The  same tools – Facilitation, Brainstorming ‐ yield only the same results. • Collaborative design skills   Must be developed for a new  generation of social design of systems, organizations, communities. • Social design is cultural & human. Unlike tech skills, we do not  change quickly. Requires diffusion into culture to change habits.Copyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
  48. 48. Thank you“I am not a political revolutionary, I am design science revolutionary.”“The self‐sufficient enterprise is becoming anachronistic. Each organization is part of a matrix of merging and evolving ideas and opportunities. … Leading companies focus less on positioning and more on patterns of people and institutions they work with ‐ or against.”  James Brian Quinn, 2002Peter Jones, Ph.D.Senior Fellow, Strategic Innovation LabFaculty, Strategic Foresight and Innovation, OCAD Universitydesigndialogues.com     dialogicdesignllc.com globalagoras.orgCopyright © 2011, Peter H. Jones
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