Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL

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  • 1. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL Peter Eisentraut, credativ GmbH / credativ Ltd. PGCon 2008 Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 1 / 80
  • 2. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Disclaimers This presentation was written by a PostgreSQL expert, not an Oracle expert. Both Oracle and PostgreSQL are diverse, complex, and moving targets. Both Oracle and PostgreSQL are (probably) Turing-complete, so almost anything is “possible”, but we are looking for reasonable options. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 2 / 80
  • 3. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management You Will See . . . Porting projects are hard. Compatibility and compatibility layers are an illusion. It might be better not to do it. But success can be very rewarding. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 3 / 80
  • 4. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Outline 1 Porting the SQL 2 Porting Tools 3 PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL 4 Interfaces 5 Project Management Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 4 / 80
  • 5. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Outline 1 Porting the SQL 2 Porting Tools 3 PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL 4 Interfaces 5 Project Management Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 5 / 80
  • 6. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Syntax Identifiers Oracle case folds to upper case, PostgreSQL to lower case. Big trouble if you mix quoted and unquoted identifiers. Column aliases SELECT foo [AS] bar — Most Oracle applications omit the AS, but PostgreSQL requires it. Fixed in PostgreSQL 8.4. MINUS Change to EXCEPT. SQL key words Usually not a big problem, but should be kept in mind. “FROM dual” Easy to work around (or use orafce). Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 6 / 80
  • 7. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Table Definition The usual features are mostly the same: columns, constraints, defaults. Data types are more work; see below. No fancy features like “table of type”. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 7 / 80
  • 8. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Data Types: General Both Oracle and PostgreSQL support plenty of SQL-conforming data types. But usually the nonconforming ones are in wider use. Thin compatibility layers can usually help, but that will make your PostgreSQL application unpretty. A big search-and-replace is usually in order. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 8 / 80
  • 9. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Data Types: Specifics varchar2 → varchar or text clob, long → varchar or text nchar, nvarchar2, nclob → (varchar or text) number → numeric or bigint or int or smallint or double precision or real (bug potential) binary float/binary double → real/double precision blob, raw, long raw → bytea (additional porting required) date → date or timestamp Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 9 / 80
  • 10. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Null Values Infamous Oracle behavior: NULL = ’’ Consequently, ’’ = ’’ is not true Completely weird and inconsistent Usually, your data will just disappear in PostgreSQL transform_null_equals does not help here If your application relies on any of this, you are in trouble. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 10 / 80
  • 11. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Functions: General Function compatibility is a bottomless pit. PostgreSQL (+ orafce) supports many Oracle compatibility functions. It’s easy to write your own. Only the special syntax is trouble. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 11 / 80
  • 12. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Functions: Compatibility For example, the following common functions are supported by PostgreSQL as well: substr to char nvl, nullif (orafce) Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 12 / 80
  • 13. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Functions: Specifics Manual work required here: sysdate → current_timestamp or localtimestamp Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 13 / 80
  • 14. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Functions: decode DECODE(expr, search, expr[, search, expr...] [, default]) becomes CASE WHEN expr THEN search .. ELSE default END Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 14 / 80
  • 15. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Default Parameters: Overview PostgreSQL supports neither default values for parameters nor named parameters in function calls. Oracle applications make ample use of both. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 15 / 80
  • 16. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Default Parameters: The Easy Case CREATE FUNCTION foo (a int, b int, c int = 0) ... becomes CREATE FUNCTION foo (a int, b int, c int) ... CREATE FUNCTION foo (a int, b int) ... AS $$ SELECT foo(a, b, 0) $$; Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 16 / 80
  • 17. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Default Parameters: The Hard Case CREATE FUNCTION foo (a int, b int = 5, c int = 0) ... This is only callable with named parameters. PostgreSQL doesn’t support this. You will have to change your client application. Your project time will double. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 17 / 80
  • 18. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Default Parameters: Conclusion Approx. 97% of applications to be ported contain issues like this. Client code must be reworked. Adding this support in PostgreSQL would be a great feature. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 18 / 80
  • 19. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Sequences: Creating Sequences are somewhat compatible . . . Change NOCACHE to CACHE 1 (or omit). MAXVALUE 9999999999999999999999999 needs to be reduced. Don’t rely on the caching behavior. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 19 / 80
  • 20. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Sequences: Using Oracle syntax: sequence_name.nextval PostgreSQL syntax: nextval(’sequence_name’) Search-and-replace; but direct sequence calls are rare. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 20 / 80
  • 21. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Outer Joins: Overview PostgreSQL only supports the SQL-standard outer join syntax. Oracle supports it since version 9. Most Oracle code uses the old, Oracle-specific syntax. Porting is usually straightforward, but requires manual work. Set up test queries to catch porting mistakes. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 21 / 80
  • 22. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Outer Joins: Simple Example SELECT * FROM a, b WHERE a.x = b.y(+) becomes SELECT * FROM a LEFT JOIN b ON a.x = b.y Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 22 / 80
  • 23. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Outer Joins: Complex Example SELECT ... FROM A, B, C WHERE A.A_ID (+) = B.A_ID AND C.C_KEY(+) = B.C_KEY becomes SELECT ... FROM A RIGHT JOIN B ON (A.A_ID = B.A_ID) LEFT JOIN C ON (C.C_KEY = B.C_KEY) Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 23 / 80
  • 24. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Outer Joins: Unclear Example SELECT ... FROM A, B, C, D, E WHERE A.A_ID = B.A_ID AND B.B_ID = C.A_ID(+) AND B.B_KEY = C.B_KEY(+) AND C.C_ID = D.C_ID(+) AND B.A_ID = E.A_ID(+) AND B.B_KEY = E.B_KEY(+) AND ’CONSTANT’ = C.X_ID(+) What’s that??? Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 24 / 80
  • 25. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Locking Transaction isolation, locking, SELECT FOR UPDATE behave pretty much the same. Oracle also defaults to read committed. Usually, no one at the client has ever heard of concurrency issues, so the code is likely buggy anyway. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 25 / 80
  • 26. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Indexes Basic syntax the same: CREATE INDEX name ON table (a, b) Primary keys and unique constraints are automatically indexed. Other features are implementation-specific. You will have to re-tune the entire porting result anyway. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 26 / 80
  • 27. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Optimizer Hints Delete them Or keep them for future investigation Usually useless Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 27 / 80
  • 28. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Date Formatting TO_CHAR is largely compatible. Warning: PostgreSQL version is not very robust. One-argument variant provided by orafce NLS_DATE_FORMAT is replaced by locale settings. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 28 / 80
  • 29. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Date Arithmetic Usually, date arithmetic is easier in PostgreSQL, so consider a small code rewrite. orafce provides compatibility functions, such as last_day, add_months. Oracle code often does date + int . . . In PostgreSQL, this may become timestamp + int. This doesn’t work. Write a custom operator or rewrite the code. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 29 / 80
  • 30. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Encodings Both Oracle and PostgreSQL support the same ideas. But everything is named differently. Might be a good time to review the encoding and locale choices. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 30 / 80
  • 31. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management NLS * vs. LC * Approximate analogies: NLS CALENDAR — NLS COMP lc collate = ’C’ NLS CURRENCY lc monetary NLS DATE FORMAT DateStyle NLS DATE LANGUAGE lc messages, lc time (8.4?) NLS LANG, NLS LANGUAGE LANG, client encoding NLS NCHAR — NLS NUMERIC CHARACTERS lc numeric NLS SORT lc collate NLS TERRITORY LANG, lc * Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 31 / 80
  • 32. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management ROWNUM and ROWID ROWNUM: Use generate_series, or Rewrite and apply LIMIT, or Just handle in the client ROWID: Analogous to ctid Good code should usually not use this. That does not prevent some from trying. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 32 / 80
  • 33. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management XML (untested!) xmltype → xml extract → xpath XMLELEMENT, XMLATTRIBUTES, etc. are the same. Most functionality is different or missing in PostgreSQL. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 33 / 80
  • 34. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Triggers: Declarations Oracle uses inline trigger actions: CREATE TRIGGER foo AFTER action ON table AS BEGIN ... END; becomes CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION foo_tg() RETURNS TRIGGER LANGUAGE xxx AS $$ ... $$; CREATE TRIGGER foo AFTER action ON table EXECUTE PROCEDURE foo_tg(); Note: FOR EACH STATEMENT is the default in Oracle and PostgreSQL. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 34 / 80
  • 35. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Triggers: Column-Level Triggers Oracle supports column-level triggers: CREATE TRIGGER foo BEFORE UPDATE OF column ON table AS BEGIN ... END; becomes CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION foo_tg() RETURNS TRIGGER LANGUAGE xxx AS $$ BEGIN IF NEW.column IS NOT DISTINCT FROM OLD.column THEN RETURN NEW; END IF; ... -- normal code END; $$; CREATE TRIGGER foo AFTER action ON table EXECUTE PROCEDURE foo_tg(); But this doesn’t catch updates to the same value. You will need to make a choice which behavior you need. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 35 / 80
  • 36. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Things That Won’t Work Directly CONNECT BY Try contrib/tablefunc. Materialized views Write your own wrapper. Snapshots Write your own wrapper. Database links Use contrib/dblink plus views. Autonomous transactions Try dblink. Synonyms Try views or wrapper or schema path. Partitioning Write your own system. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 36 / 80
  • 37. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Outline 1 Porting the SQL 2 Porting Tools 3 PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL 4 Interfaces 5 Project Management Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 37 / 80
  • 38. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management orafce http://orafce.projects.postgresql.org/ Large set of Oracle compatibility functions “dual” table Debian and RPM packages available Invaluable Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 38 / 80
  • 39. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management ora2pg http://ora2pg.projects.postgresql.org/ Converts Oracle schema definitions Extracts data from Oracle database for import into PostgreSQL Packages available Invaluable Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 39 / 80
  • 40. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management TOra http://tora.sourceforge.net/ GUI for PostgreSQL and Oracle Contains exploration and debugging facilities for Oracle Packages available, but usually without Oracle support Generally a bit outdated, but good for this purpose Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 40 / 80
  • 41. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management DBD::Oracle http://search.cpan.org/dist/DBD-Oracle/ Needed for ora2pg Also helpful for test scripts etc. Building it can be challenging Debian and RPM packages available Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 41 / 80
  • 42. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Oracle Instant Client Needed for DBD::Oracle and TOra Also contains sqlplus download from Oracle Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 42 / 80
  • 43. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Oracle Database Express Edition Use this for testing if you have no other Oracle instance. download from Oracle Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 43 / 80
  • 44. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Outline 1 Porting the SQL 2 Porting Tools 3 PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL 4 Interfaces 5 Project Management Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 44 / 80
  • 45. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management From PL/SQL to PL/pgSQL Compatibility isn’t that great, but it’s obviously the best choice. The PL/pgSQL parser is DAAB. See also http://www.postgresql.org/docs/current/ static/plpgsql-porting.html. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 45 / 80
  • 46. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Function Creation CREATE FUNCTION ... RETURN type becomes CREATE FUNCTION ... RETURNS type Function body must be quoted (dollar quoting). Various other details are incompatible: LANGUAGE STRICT, STABLE, etc. For variable declarations, DECLARE is needed in PostgreSQL. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 46 / 80
  • 47. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Syntax Differences FOR i IN REVERSE 1..10 LOOP — Order must be switched for PostgreSQL. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 47 / 80
  • 48. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Variables PL/SQL can distinguish column names and variable names. PL/pgSQL replaces all matching tokens by variables. Find a namespacing mechanism to tell apart variables, parameters, and columns. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 48 / 80
  • 49. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Packages Use schemas to group your functions. Call syntax is about the same. But there is no equivalent public/private mechanism. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 49 / 80
  • 50. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Package Variables Not supported by PostgreSQL Write a wrapper based on (temporary) tables. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 50 / 80
  • 51. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Cursors Usually, you need less cursors in PostgreSQL. CURSOR foo IS SELECT ...; BEGIN FOR x IN foo LOOP can be simplified to BEGIN FOR x IN SELECT ... LOOP Note: The x is defined implicitly in Oracle. In PostgreSQL, you need to declare it. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 51 / 80
  • 52. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Cursors Variables This doesn’t work in PostgreSQL: CURSOR foo IS SELECT ...; x foo%ROWTYPE; BEGIN FOR x IN foo LOOP Use RECORD: DECLARE CURSOR foo IS SELECT ..; x RECORD; BEGIN FOR x IN foo LOOP Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 52 / 80
  • 53. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management PERFORM In PostgreSQL, “procedure” calls must start with PERFORM. E. g., service.put_utl(’Error’); becomes PERFORM service.put_utl(’Error’); Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 53 / 80
  • 54. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management EXECUTE For DDL statements, EXECUTE might be necessary. E. g., EXECUTE ’CREATE TABLE ’ || quote_ident(foo) || ... Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 54 / 80
  • 55. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Subcommits Code that does COMMIT or ROLLBACK needs major, client-side changes. (Savepoints won’t usually do the job.) Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 55 / 80
  • 56. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Exceptions (1) An exception rolls back all changes implicitly in PostgreSQL. You can drop most savepoint-using code from the Oracle version. More complex behavior needs a redesign. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 56 / 80
  • 57. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Exceptions (2) Exception block syntax is the same. Exception names are different. Oracle supports user-defined exception names. Error codes are different. Variable SQLERRM is available. Of course, error messages are also different. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 57 / 80
  • 58. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Exceptions (3) We use a scheme to encode exception information into the message string: RAISE name; ---> RAISE EXCEPTION ’name’; Similar for error codes: raise_application_error(12345, ’msg’); ---> RAISE EXCEPTION ’+12345:msg’; Codes can be positive or negative. Write a wrapper function. errcode := substr(SQLERRM, 1, 6) Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 58 / 80
  • 59. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management No Data Found Exceptions Oracle throws NO_DATA_FOUND exceptions for SELECT INSERT UPDATE DELETE PostgreSQL only for: SELECT INTO STRICT Use IF NOT FOUND to deal with other cases. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 59 / 80
  • 60. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Logging dbms_output “package” is provided by orafce. E. g. dbms_output.put_line(’WRONG PARAMETER: ’ || par); Watch for interferences from null values! Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 60 / 80
  • 61. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Backtraces orafce provides dbms_utility.format_call_stack() impossible to implement dbms_utility.format_error_stack() in PostgreSQL (except by patching PL/pgSQL directly) Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 61 / 80
  • 62. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management What About PL/Java? Should be compatible with SQL/JRT and Oracle Basic functionality should work without changes Reality is more complex There is little or no experience with this scenario. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 62 / 80
  • 63. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Outline 1 Porting the SQL 2 Porting Tools 3 PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL 4 Interfaces 5 Project Management Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 63 / 80
  • 64. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management psql/sqlplus psql is much nicer for interactive use. :-) sqlplus is much nicer for scripting use. :-( With use of variables and naming conventions, sqlplus scripts can be converted anyway. Consider a wholesale rewrite. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 64 / 80
  • 65. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Backup, Recovery Build a new system using transaction log archiving or SQL dumps. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 65 / 80
  • 66. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Setup, initdb Works completely differently. Forget everything you get from Oracle. Write new setup scripts that integrate well with the operating system. Forget about tablespaces, partitioning, OS tuning, etc. until you have a porting result. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 66 / 80
  • 67. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management JDBC Works great, aside from SQL syntax issues Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 67 / 80
  • 68. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Outline 1 Porting the SQL 2 Porting Tools 3 PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL 4 Interfaces 5 Project Management Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 68 / 80
  • 69. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Testing Have a test suite for: functions setup tables/database contents Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 69 / 80
  • 70. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Dividing the Work In PL/SQL-heavy applications, you can usually divide the work by function or package. Someone needs to drive and monitor integration work. Have a test suite. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 70 / 80
  • 71. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Long-Term Maintenance Will the original application continue to be developed? . . . while the porting project runs?!? How is the merging going to work? One time ports, maintainable ports, and mergeable ports are all slightly different. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 71 / 80
  • 72. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Code Formatting Create a code formatting standard. (This applies to any development project.) I tend to stick with the original layout. This is important for later updates, merges, and maintenance. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 72 / 80
  • 73. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Version Control Use version control, even if the client doesn’t. Prefer to use your own VCS; merge later. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 73 / 80
  • 74. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Beyond the SQL Applications also contain setup and maintenance scripts. These were typically written by old-school Oracle administrators. Hence completely incomprehensible and written in ksh Half the logic usually doesn’t make sense for PostgreSQL. Half the logic required to make PostgreSQL work will not have been written yet. Reserve plenty of time for dealing with this. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 74 / 80
  • 75. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Legacy Code and Legacy Environments Applications to be ported are usually very old and crufty. This multiplies the time required to deal with them. A lot of the code won’t compile/run on newer operating systems. Half your tools won’t compile/run on the old operating system. Everything is locked down, so you can’t do anything about this. Evaluate this carefully before starting the project. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 75 / 80
  • 76. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Client Participation Almost always, the database clients will need to be adjusted. Almost always, you need someone reachable who understands the code. Clients think SQL code is a black box with a clean and simple interface. In practice, a port is like a major new software release. A port affects your entire system. The client must be willing, able, and available to participate in the project. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 76 / 80
  • 77. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management “Josh’s Rules (of Database Contracting)” http://blogs.ittoolbox.com/database/soup/archives/ joshs-rules-of-database-contracting-17253 Learn them by heart. Print them out. Post them at your office door. Quote them to the sales people. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 77 / 80
  • 78. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Contribute Your Improvements Porting projects are a great source of ideas for features and bug fixes. Record your experiences, e. g., in the wiki. Contribute to orafce and ora2pg. Contribute to PL/pgSQL and PL/Java. Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 78 / 80
  • 79. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Coincidence? If you need help: Oracle Ask Tom: http://asktom.oracle.com/ PostgreSQL Ask Tom: tgl@sss.pgh.pa.us Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 79 / 80
  • 80. Porting the SQL Porting Tools PL/SQL vs. PL/pgSQL Interfaces Project Management Fly Way to Conclude SQL-Themed Presentation COMMIT; Porting Oracle Applications to PostgreSQL: 80 / 80