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  1. 1. ED-MEDIA ’08 The media literacy spectrum: shifting pedagogic design The media literacy spectrum: shifting pedagogic design 3. New Roles of the Instructor & Learner: Pedagogical Issues Anthony ‘Skip’ Basiel IWBL – pros@mdx.ac.uk Mike Howarth MHM Services - michael.howarth@mhmvr.co.uk Raphael Commins commins@dei.uc.pt Abstract At Work Based Learning we have distance learning students that can not easily access the web. We needed an offline induction resource that was scalable for our university undergraduates to our doctoral candidates. Our programme is trans-discipline, inclusive of many professions, so we wanted to support all of our international stakeholders with access to online communication in the design as well. The resource was pedagogically structured to accommodate the learning preferences of the offline student while anticipating the growth of the networked millennium learners. We address the media literacy spectrum and how the pedagogic design of eLearning events must adapt to the student’s needs. It is informed by social media theory recognising oral, print and the growing impact of digital literacy. An exemplar is reviewed addressing logistical, usability and pedagogic concerns. We conclude with a summary of lessons learnt with pedagogic guidelines offered and some possible software solutions. 1
  2. 2. ED-MEDIA ’08 The media literacy spectrum: shifting pedagogic design Introduction This paper investigates academic cultures of eLearners with a focus on the shift in the digital spectrum from the offline student to the networked learner. The argument put forward examines in brief, matters such as; social trends, struggles, practical options, potential outcomes, recommendations and possible approaches in exploiting these new tools and processes. A case study exemplar is also used as an instantiation of the learning design principles put forward in this paper. Our starting point recognises that the dominant mode of communication clearly shapes the culture of our time. Berger remarks that, "The world begins to shake in the very instant that its sustaining conversation begins to falter" (Berger, 1973, p.31). This paper explores how our concepts of learning are considerably altered through changes in media. These media are transforming our cultures and in doing so rupturing procedures of education and forms of learning that we once held as sacred and unchanging. It is hoped that new incites and models of academic practice will be cultivated only by examining the potentialities and limitations of media past and present and their contribution to evolving epistemologies. Next, let’s explore the concept of print media which has shaped learning and education in the past and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future. Media theorists state that there are three principle communicational media epochs in human history; Orality, Literacy and the Electronic (McLuhan & Powers 1992, Eisenstein 1980, Ong 2002,Postman 2005). They believe that these have utterly transformed the cultures that they have encountered in terms of their social, epistemological, linguistic, and cultural behaviours. McLuhan posits that societies have always been shaped more by the nature of the media by which men communicate than by the content of the communication (McLuhan & Fiore, 2001, p.8).Our current educational systems are heavily defined around issues concerning the scrutiny and dissemination of information, particularly printed texts. McLuhan suggests that practices the 'unofficial' culture (i.e. different cultures, age groups, minorities, the marginalized etc) may be witnessing a different reality and may in fact embrace the changes in a different manner. He argues that developing cultures may be at an advantage to this change. The Networked Paradigm Gupta states that examples of this networked learning paradigm can be found in parts of India were mobile phone sales and internet applications are becoming more in demand and seemingly leap-frogging Internet 1.0 and the physical networked presence. Gupta (2006) observes that, mobile phone use already has exceeded land line use in India, and by 2007, 150 million out of the 200 million phone lines there will be cellular. Again in relation to emerging events in India Jain (2006) posits that ‘We have missed the bus for Internet 1.0. But we do have an opportunity to catch the Internet 2.0 bus. In this world, mobile phones and network computers will connect to centralized services. Our lack of legacy in India makes us possible to jump to the next Internet? If only 2
  3. 3. ED-MEDIA ’08 The media literacy spectrum: shifting pedagogic design we can start building out the digital infrastructure for it.’ (Jain, 2006) Can the 'official' culture acknowledge, cope or change swiftly enough to cater for the future type of learner? A generation collectively known as 'Millennials', individuals born in the 80’s and 90’s, are now filling new positions in society and are fully immersed and accepting of what we regard as still 'new' media. This up-to-the-minute group is more comfortable with web than the local library and with the computers over television. They are permanently wired and mobile and comfortable with technological advancements. They dwell naturally in a world of networked tools and applications. The format of the printed document to them is not their customary source of information, but one of a plurality of means to access information in a variety of forms. In the university context, current practice of electronic writing latches to a tradition or seems to mimic the practice of the older printed document format, (we talk of pages, linear sequential narratives etc). Our approach may be regarded as retrogressive or unfamiliar to the budding or 'undisciplined' Millennial researcher. ‘E-mail is for old people', according to the Guardian (2007), which states that few teens have interest in using email. Teens are taking lead in the transition to being a fully wired and mobile group. They prefer more immediate forms of communication such as text messaging and IRC (Pew 2006). Only a small percentage use or see any value in the use of email. This view is further supported by a poll which covered over 2,000 middle, high school and college students in Korea (Chosun Ilbo 2004): ‘I rarely use or don't use e-mail at all.’ In fact many of the candidates in the survey mentioned that email belonged to the 'grown-up world', ‘E-mail is increasingly seen as a tool for communicating with ‘adults’ such as teachers, institutions like schools, and as a way to convey lengthy and detailed information to large groups.‘ Akerman (2006) begs the researcher to consider other newer alternatives, ‘How does the role of peer researcher evolve when the body of scholarly knowledge expands from slowly circulating, static documents to the universe of rushing, dynamic interactions made possible by the Internet? Although traditional forms of scholarly communication are still used, the sheer volume and pace of information enabled by the Internet and publishing tools such as weblogs (blogs) demands novel solutions.’ The process of writing, the print culture within academic circles, needs dedicated analysis so that we can better understand the spectrum of learning preferences presented in this discussion. New technologies will critically alter our practice of writing in the future. Countless new social softwares (Wikipedia, del.icio.us, Flickr, Photobucket, MySpace, LiveJournal bloggers, CraigsList, Friendster, eBay) are developing beyond the scope of the university's current research clout or cultural recognition. 3
  4. 4. ED-MEDIA ’08 The media literacy spectrum: shifting pedagogic design Yahoo Answers for example is attracting new forms of knowledge synthesis and distribution, members of the public pose questions to groups of networked 'specialists'. This service as from November 2006 has over 66 million answers to over 7 million questions. The quality of answers is rated by the users through swarm analyses in much the same manner as books are rated in Amazon or users in e-Bay. In future will these specialists be salaried by yahoo? Can we learn from these evolving technological models? Can we go beyond the current public comment model to something more beneficial to teaching and learning or the scientific community? Should our systems mimic the spirit of the open network? And, if so, what are the ramifications of such actions? Jennings states peer review using alternative techniques and technologies seems under-studied. ‘There is a growing literature on the subject, but for the most part we are still only seeing snapshots. A more systematic approach is needed if we are to understand peer review as it is currently practiced or to evaluate the pros and cons of any alternative approaches.’ (Jenning 2006) Kluckhohn elaborates a definition of culture as ‘a set of standardized orientations to recurrent problems’ (Kluckhohn, 1950, p.4) Do we have the 'standardized orientations' to avail of current change of events we are encountering?. A cultural paradigm only exists when we comply, legitimatize and foster a set of beliefs and norms. In order to maintain this, we may need authorities and communicational media to sustain a settled equilibrium. In the past these authorities were often the political and intellectual elites suspended within communicational and cultural systems that had changed little for centuries. Remedios quotes Barnes and states ‘The continuation of a form of culture implies mechanisms of socialization and knowledge transmission, procedures for displaying the range of accepted meanings and representations, methods of ratifying acceptable innovations and giving them stamp of legitimacy. All of these must be kept operative by the members of the culture themselves, if its concepts and representations are to be kept in existence. Where there is a continuing form of culture there must be sources of cognitive authority and control.’ (Remedios, 2003, p.39) Not only are these systems changing at such a tremendous rate, but a plurality of options may cause fracturing where once we had norms and standards in communicational protocols. The offline minority? The introduction of this paper has provided us with a theoretical underpinning for this discussion which has painted a picture of our modern-day eLearner. But when we design for eLearning events we should not limit our pedagogy to one student profile. Indeed, a bi-polar (either-or) approach is useful for critical scholarly discussion, but does not lend itself to the ‘natural digital world’ where learning takes place through a range in the continuum. 4
  5. 5. ED-MEDIA ’08 The media literacy spectrum: shifting pedagogic design Table 1 presents a matrix of this critical discussion to lead us into the next part of the paper. eLearning events ‘Offline students’ 'Millennials' networked learners Synchronicity Asynchronous ‘Live interaction’ Learner age profile Mature learner Millennium kids Learning style Reflective Spontaneous Learning design Just-in-case Just-in-time Learning platform Local hard drive Server-side & client-side web browser Mobile applications ‘off network games’ Bluetooth & Broad band wireless social online games & simulations Historic perspective ‘90’s multimedia stand ‘00’s new media alone resources’ streaming ‘ Content source Expert generated ‘Stakeholder generated’ Content focus Process focus Revise content Slower turn-around on Online revisions more revised materials quickly achieved Push-pull preference Tend to go to sources of Tend to have up-to-the- knowledge minute information sent Table 1: Overview of on/offline eLearning models In 2006, 52 per cent of households in the EU-25 had Internet access at home. The UK was above the EU average, at 63 per cent, while the Netherlands had the highest proportion in the EU (80 per cent), followed by Denmark (79 per cent). Elsewhere in Europe, Iceland had a higher proportion of homes with Internet access, at 83 per cent. Greece had the lowest rate in the EU, at 23 percent (Statistics 2007). Figure 1: Web access in EC So in the UK, for example, there is still a large percentage of the population without access to broadband connection. This limits the type of new media 5
  6. 6. ED-MEDIA ’08 The media literacy spectrum: shifting pedagogic design learning resources that can be easily used in an eLearning event. Can offline applications address this situation? Historically UK eLearning has its roots from the old Teaching and Learning Network (TLTP) in the 1980/90’s (Appendix 1 URL). Pre-web eLearning research projects focused on highly interactive stand-alone content and simulations. They often were not re-usable as we have with today’s SCORM compliant eLearning artefacts (SCORM 2007). The reason for this was either technical (e.g. – operating platforms not compatible) or pedagogical (e.g. – knowledge domain was specific to one module in a particular university). But what this eLearning model did offer was a robust learning application that would run on the local hard drive of your computer, be it desk-top or portable. The early ‘stand-alone’ style multimedia learning resource was usually authored by a subject expert so the content was of high quality. It was asynchronous by default since it was designed for offline use. Self- assessment type feedback would be dispersed through the materials to promote a scaffolded or ‘instructional design’ learning approach (Instructional Design 2007). If the student had a question or problem they would typically have to email an academic or technical support staff member outside of the learning system. The integrated communication we have come to expect in today’s virtual learning environments was not usually in place. There were still the usual ‘just-in-case’ advantages you would expect from electronic learning such as self-pacing, engaging high quality multimedia, etc. but keeping the expert generated content current and up-to-date was more problematic offline. There is an increasing awareness of the mature, lifelong learner in UK higher education. An example is the Institute of Education’s Master’s Level Module. ‘Issues in Educating and Training Mature Adults (50+)’ (Mature Learners 2007). These stakeholders may not have the ICT confidence and capability as their younger millennium generation counter-parts as presented earlier. Approaches to finding new knowledge to solve real-world problems may differ depending on prior knowledge and ICT capabilities. Therefore, mature learners that are not acquainted with ‘push-technologies’ (i.e. – RSS feeds, smart-bot agents, etc. (Botspot 2007) may rely on a more ‘paper-based’ approach such as going to get the information from a library (Basiel A. 1999). The growing trend in mobile learning is another issue. Communication and collaboration through mobile devices and related software are rapidly changing. Mobile devices and networks now support many media types such as text, audio and video. Additionally, the ‘capture’ capabilities (e.g. still and video images and audio record) have improved to the point to empower us to become ‘citizen journalists’ (Web 2.0 2007). Mobile web access now allows us to instantly transfer our phone captures and upload them to a web server for public/private dissemination. This capability is 6
  7. 7. ED-MEDIA ’08 The media literacy spectrum: shifting pedagogic design promoting the popularity of social network sites such as Face Book and others introduced earlier (Social Networks 2007). But mobile devices also contain stand-alone applications. These are often in the form of games or multimedia editing tools. Some examples of these Java-based programs allow the user to create new variations of the captured content. Google has now entered the mobile platform as well. A new project, Android, is calling for developers to design applications to work on the new Google mobile phone system using its own SDK (Google Android 2007). Of course these games and applications are not restricted to use solely on the device. Many programs provide the opportunity to have multiple-users through Bluetooth connectivity. Additionally, files can be shared through this wireless media. But, as stated in figure 1, not all eLearners have unlimited broadband access or multimedia mobile connectivity. A work based learning context At the Institute for Work Based Learning (IWBL), Middlesex University we provide a distance learning programme to allow full-time workers to apply their professional knowledge towards a UK Higher Education Degree from undergraduate Bachelors to postgraduate Professional Doctorates (IWBL 2007). We are a trans-discipline organisation, meaning we cater to all knowledge domains and professions. One cohort we are partnered with is seafarers through the British Marine Society (BMS 2007). This unique group of distant learners shares a characteristic of a number of our students – limited access to broad band web tools and resources. Since these ship-based students are roaming the seas they may never meet their tutors or work based learning (WBL) colleagues. Although there is access to the internet via satellite, they have limited time allocation to the computers for learning purposes. This is a situation shared by other professions in IWBL such as Driving Instructors, and Classroom Teachers. As a result of this learning context there is often a feeling of isolation as a distant learner. Students have expressed the need for more supportive online networks of colleagues for peer-support and review through our minuted Board of Studies with student representatives (BOS 2007) and which is reinforced through reflective learning journals. There is the desire to have a sense of community and to be part of a learning group. Students want to hear from each other and not just the tutors. In this way the pedagogic model of interaction is shifting from ‘tutor-student’ only to a ‘triad-model which is informed by student handbooks as seen in Figure 2. 7
  8. 8. ED-MEDIA ’08 The media literacy spectrum: shifting pedagogic design Student Tutor Student On/offline content Figure 2: Student interaction The communication side of the learning can be done online, while reading materials and engaging multimedia can be accessed offline locally. Originally IWBL used a paper-based correspondence model. The pedagogic design has shifted to a more blended eLearning system. The main virtual learning environment system is WebCT/Blackboard providing a repository for the electronic documents and text-based a/synchronous communication (WebCT 2007). Web-based video conferencing is also used for student pre- enrolment interviews, recording live face-to-face on-campus tutorial sessions and assessment of oral project presentations from our overseas students. This was done through our Flash Communication server using Adobe Connect, formerly known as Macromedia Breeze (Adobe 2007). With the increased complexity of the commercial VLE greater demands on software arose. We needed to have a specific web browser (e.g. IE6) for best viewing, Java 5 (not 6) and Adobe PDF viewers. So, a localised collection of software (on/offline) became an issue. If the files / applications are large in memory size (Mb.) local access on a portable storage device becomes useful. We did not want to be constrained by the media type. If it was limited to a DVD and not a flash drive or memory stick there could be an access issue. We wanted the files to be presented through a web browser. Large file size is also an issue for digital video exemplars and case studies. Even with Flash streaming technology running digital videos can be a strain on the processor. If the technology leads on the design then there will be problems with making the resource scalable for the future. The offline pedagogic design for our situation was the focus of our pre-pilot study. Our ‘generic model’ approach in this project was to take this design for our undergraduate first-year inductees and apply and adapt it to our post- graduate and doctorate programme as well as our specialist knowledge domain partners (e.g. – Psychology, Corporate Coaching, etc.). Offline induction resource This final section summarises the lessons learnt so far from the ‘Offline Induction Projects’ aimed to meet the needs of learners exemplified by the seafarers (Offline Induction 2007): 8
  9. 9. ED-MEDIA ’08 The media literacy spectrum: shifting pedagogic design 1) The need for good organisation The project has benefited from a small team driving the production process. a) An author who has knowledge of the teaching experience and content is committed to creating content to deadlines. b) Multimedia producer able to provide technical skill across different media with professional education media experience (BBC) and experience of operating within an academic environment (PhD in education multimedia). c) Manager/facilitator to provide organisation and drive through the project. e) A well-prepared and rigorous production schedule, report logs and regular meetings. 2) The value of open participation approach a) All staff are fully informed and see project developing (Content available to view on a website during development. b) Participate and ownership in specific manageable instances – video contributions, audio and text support (so overworked staff are not pressured). 3) The flexibility of Web 2 technology a) A browser website sitting on a DVD with a simple structure and a clear, easy to follow layout that can be reorganised - pages moved and content rearranged easily and quickly - therefore responsive to staff comment. b) A system of CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) driven stylesheet templates that are demonstrated on the website within the product illustrate potential for text, lists and table, text and pictures. Extra high production value content and design can be added at any time. Staff prepare content in Word with reference to the stylesheet templates which the producer can quickly achieve in web CSS layout media. c) The stylesheet demonstrations of how Flash slideshow and video content can be added to a page. Staff can see the layout how the media can added anywhere on the site, pop up, side bar, separate page etc to add value to text content where the lecturer wishes. d) A case study, within the DVD, of a full working content for one WBL course (Seafarers). Advantages of the design: • A fully operational product achieved within the research funding allocated. • Staff see what can be achieved by peers. • Model is transparent in its working. • Results can be easily and quickly achieved with staff content • Recording of the production process is a valuable experience for the production process disseminated amongst staff. • Feedback will be available from students for a full version for future courses. • Preparation time for staff is shorter, and flexible becomes potentially an enjoyable experience. 9
  10. 10. ED-MEDIA ’08 The media literacy spectrum: shifting pedagogic design Summary Discussion Should we stand firm in our long-established approaches to learning and teaching? Are we at risk either with or without private consent to witnessing an exposure into the pervasive ubiquitous world of electronic media and in doing so, risk descending into a Babylonian mire of heterogeneity? We need a new conceptual apparatus that is influential and conducive to exploring the electronic mediated environment. Our reliance on social software tools will only continue to grow in the years ahead. This dependency will need continuous efforts on our part, in order to develop a robust interdisciplinary approach to understanding and informing future decisions. This would entail a more extensive analysis and collaborative work in areas such as media and literary theories. This paper has focused and defined a seemingly pervasive (and rarely questioned) transition that is taken place around us. The movement from the classical concept of writing research to a more fluid remediation and diversification of itself. The authors in charting transition have in part, justified an argument for critical new approaches in research to take place in this fledging area. Various themes have emerged when we compared these learning models to the pilot case study done at the Institute for Work Based Learning at Middlesex University, London. These include: • Theory informs design, which is then applied and adapted to the next generation, • Human Computer Interaction (HCI) design principles should be considered. The offline design should be similar to the virtual learning environment (VLE) to promote ease of navigation and usability (Nielsen J. 2007), • Personal learning approach – Induction materials should not be constrained to the learning resources, but should help form a bond between the student and the tutors and other eLearning event stakeholders, • Logistics of producing an offline resource – When planning the design of the offline resource consider these points: o You may need to get health and safety documentation to conduct digital video interviews, o Plan for worse case scenarios with respect to digital video interviewees, • Ethics – We need to formalise the work based learning model and apply it to the eLearning event. Forms need to be set in advance with procedures made explicit. • Evaluation must not be overwhelmed for the novice. We need to plan in advance your audience. (NB – There will be some responses) • Show your plans, and feedback to inform the next offline version. There are several software applications that embrace and support the offline model. First, there is the website capture tool (Capture 2007). This allows you 10
  11. 11. ED-MEDIA ’08 The media literacy spectrum: shifting pedagogic design to download an entire website locally onto your local hard drive and still maintain live web links to external sites. Adobe Air and Connect Presenter are Flash-based file streaming solutions to the offline learner and learning technologist (Adobe Air 2007). These tools and learning technology design approaches help designers to produce local resources to meet the wide spectrum of the learners’ needs. The next phase of the research will collate and analyse data from the stakeholders’ (students, tutors, administrators, etc.) on/offline learning experience to inform revisions of the next version of the resource and its pedagogic design. 11
  12. 12. ED-MEDIA ’08 The media literacy spectrum: shifting pedagogic design Bibliography / References <all web references checked Dec. 2007> 12
  13. 13. Adobe 2007-12-11 http://www.adobe.com/support/connect/ Adobe Air 2007 http://www.adobe.com/devnet/air/ ED-MEDIA ’08 The media literacy spectrum: shifting pedagogic design http://www.adobe.com/support/documentation/en/connectenterprise/ Akerman, R. (2006) Technical solutions: Evolving peer review for the internet, Peer review needs to adapt to the pace and volume of information Published online from: Nature, International weekly journal of science Basiel A. 1999 http://www.elearning.mdx.ac.uk/research/pushpull/pushpull/Push&Pull.htm http://www.elearning.mdx.ac.uk/research/pushpull/pushpull/PROFILE.HTM Berger, P. L. C. (1973). The social reality of religion. Harmondsworth :: Penguin, BMS 2007-12-11 http://www.ms-sc.org/Marine-Society/Content/Education/WB-Learning-Degrees/Work-Based-Learning-BA$1BSc BOS 2007 – contact pros@mdx.ac.uk for ID and password http://oasisplus.mdx.ac.uk/webct/urw/lc4130011.tp0/cobaltMainFrame.dowebct Botspot 2007 http://www.botspot.com/pages/chatbots.html Capture 2007 http://www.download.com/3120-20_4-0.html?tg=dl-20&qt=website%20capture&tag=srch http://www.tucows.com/search.html?search_scope=win&search_lib=soft&search_adv=0&search_size=&search_size _multi=b&search_terms=website+capture&x=0&y=0 Carnevale,D. (2006) E-Mail is for Old People, Published online from: The Chronicle of Higher Education: Information Technology http://chronicle.com/free/v53/i07/07a02701.htm Cascio,J. (2004) Leapfrog 101, Published online from: http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/001743.html Chosun Ilbo (2004) http://english.chosun.com/w21data/html/news/200411/200411280034.html Ki-hong, K. (2006) New Forms of Online Communication Spell End of Email Era in Korea, 2006 Eisenstein, E. L. (1980). The Printing Press as an Agent of Change. Cambridge University Press. Google Android 2007 http://code.google.com/android/ Guardian (2006) – IT Supplement, UK 13 Dec. ’07 www.guardian.co.uk/ http://www.nature.com/nature/peerreview/debate/nature04997.html Instructional Design 2007 1) http://www.google.com/search?q=Instructional+design%2C+scaffolding&sourceid=mozilla- search&start=0&start=0&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla:en-GB:official 2) http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Instructional+design%2C+scaffolding&hl=en&lr=&btnG=Search IWBL 2007 http://www.mdx.ac.uk/wbl/index.asp Jain,R. (2005) TECH TALK: India Empowered: My Views Weblog on Emerging Published online from : Technologies, Enterprises and Markets emergic http://www.emergic.org/archives/2005/10/28/index.html Jenning (2006) Quality and value: The true purpose of peer review What you can’t measure, you can’t manage: the need for quantitative indicators in peer review Published online from the: Nature, International weekly journal of science http://www.nature.com/nature/peerreview/debate/nature04997.html Lenhart,A. (2006) Teens and Technology: Youth are Leading the Transition to a Fully Wired and Mobile Nation, Published online from: Pew Internet & American Life Project http://www.pewinternet.org/report_display.asp?r=162 Mature Learners 2007 http://ioewebserver.ioe.ac.uk/ioe/cms/get.asp?cid=882&882_1=830&var1=3&var2=MAMODIETMA McLuhan, M., & Fiore, Q. (2001). The Medium is the Massage. Gingko Press. McLuhan, M., & Powers, B. R. (1992). The Global Village: Transformations in World Life and Media in the 21st Century (Communication and Society. Oxford University Press, USA. Nielsen J. 2007 http://www.useit.com/ Offline Induction (2007) http://www.mhmvr.co.uk/iwblcoursecd/index.html Ong, W. J. (2002). Orality and Literacy. Routledge. Pew (2006) - Pew Internet and American Life Project titled "Teens and Technology" http://www.usabilityviews.com/pew_by_date.html , http://www.citeulike.org/group/48/article/267293 Postman, N. (2005). Amusing Ourselves To Death. Penguin Paperbacks. Remedios, F. (2003). Legitimizing scientific knowledge an introduction to Steve Fuller's social epistemology. Lanham, Md. :: Lexington Books, SCORM 2007 http://searchsoa.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid26_gci796793,00.html Social Networks 2007-12-09 http://www.facebook.com/ ; http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla:en- GB:official&hs=BO&sa=X&oi=spell&resnum=0&ct=result&cd=1&q=Facebook,+social+networks&spell=1 Statistics 2007 www.statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nugget.asp?ID=1715&Pos=&ColRank=2&Rank=1000 Web 2.0 2007-12-09 www.google.com/search?hl=en&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla:en- 13 GB:official&hs=DD&sa=X&oi=spell&resnum=0&ct=result&cd=1&q=citizen+journalism,+web+2.0,+user+generated+content&spell=1 Web 2.0 207 http://reportr.net/category/user-generated-content/ WebCT 2007-12-11 http://www.webct.com/webct