The World of Androids Presented by: Shipra Gupta CSC 650
Overview <ul><li>Brief introduction of robots & their history </li></ul><ul><li>Advent of androids  </li></ul><ul><li>Issu...
What is a Robot? <ul><li>Common Definition:  A programmable machine that imitates the  </li></ul><ul><li>actions or appear...
The RUR Robot <ul><li>Robot comes from the Czech word “ robota” </li></ul><ul><li>Described fabricated workers in a fictio...
The World of Androids <ul><li>Basis of Androids </li></ul><ul><li>High demand to do tedious and dangerous tasks </li></ul>...
The World of Androids - contd. <ul><li>Had a limb control system, a vision system, and  a conversation system.  </li></ul>...
Development Issues <ul><li>Design challenges  </li></ul><ul><li>The need to coordinate sensors and artificial muscle </li>...
Dealing with the Challenges <ul><li>Severe shortcomings of contemporary approach leads to: </li></ul><ul><li>Inventions of...
Approach towards their Working   <ul><li>Use of rule-based logic in robotic &quot;brains” (eg. Aibo, the pet dog) </li></u...
Example of an Android Design <ul><li>Taking the example of  KISMET , an android with facial expressions  </li></ul><ul><li...
Kismet’s Expressions Calm Interest   Angry Happy   Sad   Surprise
Another example of an Android being built by a company   <ul><li>“ Asimo” is built by Honda (2 years old).  </li></ul><ul>...
Another example of an Android being built by a company – contd. <ul><li>Latest version of “Asimo” can: </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Some In-Process Android Projects “ Johnie”- Institute for Applied “Coco”, a baby gorilla project Mechanics at the Technica...
Popular Androids & their Developers <ul><li>Cog, built at MIT, can learn to recognize and grasp objects  </li></ul><ul><li...
Advantages of Androids <ul><li>In general:  </li></ul><ul><li>Perform automated tasks to save on labor </li></ul><ul><li>O...
Future of Androids & Fears <ul><li>Can build itself - cost effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Can rapidly become super intell...
References <ul><li>www.androidworld.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.thetech.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humano...
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What is a Robot?

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What is a Robot?

  1. 1. The World of Androids Presented by: Shipra Gupta CSC 650
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Brief introduction of robots & their history </li></ul><ul><li>Advent of androids </li></ul><ul><li>Issues and challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Approach of their working </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed examples </li></ul><ul><li>Some in-process android projects </li></ul><ul><li>Popular androids and main industries using them </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of androids </li></ul><ul><li>Future and fears of androids </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is a Robot? <ul><li>Common Definition: A programmable machine that imitates the </li></ul><ul><li>actions or appearance of an intelligent creature – usually a human. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be able to do two things: </li></ul><ul><li>Get information from its surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Do something physical </li></ul><ul><li>Modern industrial robots have been around for less than 50 years. </li></ul><ul><li>First programmable Robot was developed in 1954 by George Devol </li></ul><ul><li>- Coined the name of the first Robot Company, “Unimation”. </li></ul><ul><li>Since then they are: </li></ul><ul><li>- Painting cars at Ford plants </li></ul><ul><li>- Assembling Milano cookies for Pepperidge Farms </li></ul><ul><li>- Driving trains in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>- Defusing bombs in Northern Ireland </li></ul>
  4. 4. The RUR Robot <ul><li>Robot comes from the Czech word “ robota” </li></ul><ul><li>Described fabricated workers in a fictional 1920s play called Rossum’s Universal Robots </li></ul><ul><li>During early studies of literature and fiction, Asimov stated 3 laws: </li></ul><ul><li>A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a </li></ul><ul><li>human being to come to harm </li></ul><ul><li>A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where </li></ul><ul><li>such orders would conflict with the First Law </li></ul><ul><li>A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does </li></ul><ul><li>not conflict with the First or Second Law </li></ul><ul><li>(A zeroth law was added later as an extension of Law 1) </li></ul>
  5. 5. The World of Androids <ul><li>Basis of Androids </li></ul><ul><li>High demand to do tedious and dangerous tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Advent of faster and cheaper processors </li></ul><ul><li>Make robots move and &quot;think&quot; to look more like humans </li></ul><ul><li>Psycological factors </li></ul><ul><li>These facts have gave birth to ANDROIDS . </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: An android is an anthropomorphic robot </li></ul><ul><li>- Looks like a human </li></ul><ul><li>- Known as &quot;humanoids&quot; </li></ul>
  6. 6. The World of Androids - contd. <ul><li>Had a limb control system, a vision system, and a conversation system. </li></ul><ul><li>Could communicate in Japanese. </li></ul><ul><li>Measured distances and directions </li></ul><ul><li>Walked with his lower limbs </li></ul><ul><li>Gripped and transported objects </li></ul>First Android: WABOT-1 by Waseda University (1973)
  7. 7. Development Issues <ul><li>Design challenges </li></ul><ul><li>The need to coordinate sensors and artificial muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent programming </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient use of power </li></ul>Operational Challenges <ul><li>Need to create complex robot step-by-step </li></ul><ul><li>- Develop separate technologies and integrate them together </li></ul><ul><li>Not foolproof to operate </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to program a robot to walk </li></ul><ul><li>To rely upon built-in operating systems to run </li></ul><ul><li>To be designed for a novice user </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of sufficient funds </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dealing with the Challenges <ul><li>Severe shortcomings of contemporary approach leads to: </li></ul><ul><li>Inventions of newer concepts of development </li></ul><ul><li>Used to “fight the establishment” </li></ul><ul><li>Solve many serious problems </li></ul><ul><li>Gains followers </li></ul><ul><li>General ideas followed to deal with the challenges are: </li></ul><ul><li>More software innovations required </li></ul><ul><li>Move to cell manufacturing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Develop new programming language </li></ul><ul><li>Design new operating system if required </li></ul>
  9. 9. Approach towards their Working <ul><li>Use of rule-based logic in robotic &quot;brains” (eg. Aibo, the pet dog) </li></ul><ul><li>- Program vast amounts of information </li></ul><ul><li>Neural networks is another approach to artificial intelligence (eg. Kismet) </li></ul><ul><li>- Work more like human brain </li></ul><ul><li>- Can handle ambiguity better than rule-based systems. </li></ul><ul><li>- Feature of &quot;learning&quot; - a helpful tool to add more human-like behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus-response mechanism (also known as subsumption architecture, eg. Cog) </li></ul><ul><li>- No memory or logical decision making </li></ul><ul><li>- Hard-wired responses to stimulation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Example of an Android Design <ul><li>Taking the example of KISMET , an android with facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>and emotions built at MIT, by Dr Cynthia Brenzeal. </li></ul><ul><li>Had head with jaws </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes had color CCD camera </li></ul><ul><li>Small motors to move facial features </li></ul><ul><li>A network of 3 integrated circuits: </li></ul><ul><li>- Control </li></ul><ul><li>- Perception </li></ul><ul><li>- Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Required special software. 3 drives are: </li></ul><ul><li>- Social drive </li></ul><ul><li>- Stimulation drive </li></ul><ul><li>- Fatigue drive </li></ul>
  11. 11. Kismet’s Expressions Calm Interest Angry Happy Sad Surprise
  12. 12. Another example of an Android being built by a company <ul><li>“ Asimo” is built by Honda (2 years old). </li></ul><ul><li>Stands for Advanced Step in Innovative </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Small and light weight </li></ul><ul><li>Walks naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Arms move dynamically </li></ul><ul><li>Fingers are delicate </li></ul><ul><li>Walk up & down the stairs </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible body parts </li></ul><ul><li>Make registered gestures </li></ul><ul><li>High-tech control processor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Developed on its own </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- 3 times better than current PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>processors </li></ul></ul>“ Asimo” and friend
  13. 13. Another example of an Android being built by a company – contd. <ul><li>Latest version of “Asimo” can: </li></ul><ul><li>Turn its head to follow moves </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes preprogrammed faces </li></ul><ul><li>Respond with vocal welcome </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to couple of gestures </li></ul>
  14. 14. Some In-Process Android Projects “ Johnie”- Institute for Applied “Coco”, a baby gorilla project Mechanics at the Technical at MIT University of Munich (TUM) “ Robonaut” - NASA’s space android (2.5 years old)
  15. 15. Popular Androids & their Developers <ul><li>Cog, built at MIT, can learn to recognize and grasp objects </li></ul><ul><li>Working as tour guides </li></ul><ul><li>Toy companies have started selling pet animals like robots </li></ul><ul><li>Dante, a spider-like robot serves geologists </li></ul>Industries using Androids <ul><li>Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Underwater and Geological Explorations </li></ul><ul><li>Space Projects of NASA </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear and Chemical Laboratories </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism and Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Toys </li></ul>
  16. 16. Advantages of Androids <ul><li>In general: </li></ul><ul><li>Perform automated tasks to save on labor </li></ul><ul><li>One of the factors contributing to higher levels of productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Personalization and Ease of Use: </li></ul><ul><li>Not only an appliance/machine </li></ul><ul><li>Better acceptance by humans </li></ul><ul><li>Provides personal touch </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for domestic mundane tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Self explanatory repair mechanism </li></ul>
  17. 17. Future of Androids & Fears <ul><li>Can build itself - cost effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Can rapidly become super intelligent </li></ul><ul><li>Can become a rival to automobile industry </li></ul><ul><li>Estimation: </li></ul><ul><li>- 10% US homes will have android within 12 years </li></ul><ul><li>- 50% will within 20 years </li></ul><ul><li>Will androids be dangerous as portrayed in Hollywood Movies? </li></ul><ul><li>Though nothing can be sure unless we work with them. But positive </li></ul><ul><li>assumptions state that: </li></ul><ul><li>- Androids will have built in (software) protection (Asimov's first law) </li></ul><ul><li>- Androids don't need money or food or possessions or clothes which can </li></ul><ul><li>drive them to hurt </li></ul><ul><li>- They are designed to serve humans & not hurt them </li></ul>
  18. 18. References <ul><li>www.androidworld.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.thetech.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics-group/ kismet/kismet.html </li></ul><ul><li>Journals on “Artificial Intelligence: Androids” in Reinert Library Database </li></ul>

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