This presentation offers students lots of opportunities to experiment with different types of robots and to learn how robots are used. The presenter will usually start by talking a bit about their own experiences in college, engineering or industry with robots. Then discuss some or all of the following: History of robots including the origin of the term &quot;robot&quot; What is a robot and how is it different from other machines? How robots are used in industry and science today How robots work and receive commands What robots may be designed to do in the future
Mercifully, he died before the Gestapo got to him for his anti-Nazi sympathies in 1938. The use of the word Robot was introduced into his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) which opened in Prague in January 1921. The play was an enormous success and productions soon opened throughout Europe and the US. R.U.R's theme, in part, was the dehumanization of man in a technological civilization. You may find it surprising that the robots were not mechanical in nature but were created through chemical means. In fact, in an essay written in 1935, Capek strongly fought that this idea was at all possible and, writing in the third person, said: &quot;It is with horror, frankly, that he rejects all responsibility for the idea that metal contraptions could ever replace human beings, and that by means of wires they could awaken something like life, love, or rebellion. He would deem this dark prospect to be either an overestimation of machines, or a grave offence against life.&quot; [The Author of Robots Defends Himself - Karl Capek, Lidove noviny, June 9, 1935, translation: Bean Comrada] There is some evidence that the word robot was actually coined by Karl's brother Josef, a writer in his own right. In a short letter, Capek writes that he asked Josef what he should call the artifical workers in his new play. Karel suggests Labori, which he thinks too 'bookish' and his brother mutters &quot;then call them Robots&quot; and turns back to his work, and so from a curt response we have the word robot. R.U.R is found in most libraries. The most common English translation is that of P. Selver from the 1920's which is not completely faithful to the original. A more recent and accurate translation is in a collection of Capek's writings called Towards the Radical Center published by Catbird Press in North Haven, CT. tel: 203.230.2391
The word 'robotics' was first used in Runaround , a short story published in 1942. I, Robot , a collection of several of these stories, was published in 1950. Asimov also proposed his three &quot;Laws of Robotics&quot;, and he later added a 'zeroth law'. Law Zero: A robot may not injure humanity, or, through inaction, allow humanity to come to harm. Law One: A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm, unless this would violate a higher order law. Law Two: A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with a higher order law. Law Three: A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with a higher order law. An interesting article on this subject: Clarke, Roger, &quot;Asimov's Laws for Robotics: Implications for Information Technology&quot;, Part 1 and Part 2, Computer, December 1993, pp. 53-61 and Computer, January 1994, pp.57-65. The article is an interesting discussion of his Laws and how they came to be in his books, and the implications for technology today and in the future.
Images: Upper right: Terminator Left: C3PO and R2D2 from Star Wars Duscussion: 1956 In 1956, George Devil and Joseph Engelberger formed the world's first robot company. Devol predicted that the industrial robot would &quot;help the factory operator in a way that can be compared to business machines as an aid to the office worker&quot;. A few years later, in 1961, the very first industrial robot was &quot;employed&quot; in a General Motors automobile factory in New Jersey. Since 1980, there has been an expansion of industrial robots into non-automotive industries. The main factor responsible for this growth has been the technical improvements in robots due to advancement in microelectronics (&quot;ME&quot;) and computers. Today Fully functioning androids are many years away due to the many problems that must be solved. However, real, working, sophisticated robots are in use today and they are revolutionizing the workplace. These robots do not resemble the romantic android concept of robots. They are industrial manipulators and are really computer controlled &quot;arms and hands&quot;. Industrial robots are so different to the popular image that it would be easy for the average person not to recognize one.
Image Descriptions: Left bottom picture is an automotive welder robot Right bottom is a handicap helper robot arm opening a microwave oven.
Hazbots have been used in crime prevention programs and industrial areas where hazards to humans are present. Have students think of places where hazbots could be used. Interesting web links: http://spacelink.nasa.gov/NASA.Projects/Space.Science/Robotics/Robotics.Images/.index.html http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/photo_gallery/
Benefits of Robots It is true that robots can cause unemployment by replacing human workers but robots also create jobs: robot technicians, salesmen, engineers, programmers and supervisors. The benefits of robots to industry include improved management control and productivity and consistently high quality products. Industrial robots can work tirelessly night and day on an assembly line without an loss in performance. Consequently, they can greatly reduce the costs of manufactured goods. As a result of these industrial benefits, countries that effectively use robots in their industries will have an economic advantage on world market.
Hazbots can also be used for fire fighting, and personal protection devices. Hazbots are small enough to maneuver in tight surroundings. The vehicle has a &quot;tank-like&quot; track drive with articulated front and rear sections to enable it to climb stairs and other obstacles. Welch explains HAZBOT III's utility, saying, &quot;For hazardous materials handling you want something that has dexterity. HAZBOT III is constructed for the small laboratory environment where it has to be able to unlock and open doors, get inside and get a visual picture of the total environment.&quot; A six-degree-of-freedom manipulator with a 30-pound lift capability allows the robot to perform a variety of tasks including the unlocking and opening of doors. The manipulator also incorporates a parallel jaw gripper with a 60-pound squeeze force and a gas detector to aid in material identification
au·ton·o·mous (ô-t n -m s) adj. Not controlled by others or by outside forces; independent: an autonomous judiciary; an autonomous division of a corporate conglomerate. Independent in mind or judgment; self-directed. Independent of the laws of another state or government; self-governing. Of or relating to a self-governing entity: an autonomous legislature. Self-governing with respect to local or internal affairs: an autonomous region of a country. Autonomic. [From Greek autonomos: auto-, auto- + nomos, law ; see nem- in Indo-European Roots.]
The Mars 2003 mission will consist of two identical rovers designed to cover roughly 100 meters each martian day. Each rover will carry five scientific instruments and an abrasion tool used to determine the history of climate and water on Mars where conditions may once have been favorable to life. Interesting web links: http://observe.arc.nasa.gov/nasa/fun/mars/mars.html http://eto.msfc.nasa.gov/
Pay attention to peak current which transistor can handle. Also pay attention to Vce-sat, the voltage across the transistor when it is switched on. Vce-sat times the collector current is the power which the transistor must dissipate. Too much and the device will first smoke then melt.
In the toy car that Etienne-Cummings adapted, two sensors are mounted as &quot;eyes&quot; on the front of the vehicle. The microchips force the car to follow a line detected by the sensors, unless an obstacle appears in its path. To the chips, avoiding a crash takes priority over following the line, so they steer the car away from the obstacle. The system also &quot;remembers&quot; how it turned to avoid the obstacle so that it can steer the car back to the line to resume its original course. Etienne-Cummings has also begun working with Johns Hopkins biomedical engineering researchers who are creating computer models of the heart. He hopes to use computational sensor technology to enable a robot arm to keep pace with a beating heart. If this technology is perfected, surgeons of the future may be able to use the robot to clear a blocked cardiac artery without having to stop the heart first, as doctors must do today. Tiny custom microchips like these give &quot;vision&quot; to a toy car by processing images and telling the vehicle how to respond. Photo by Mike McGovern To achieve such advances, closer collaboration between microchip designers and the mechanical engineers who build robots is essential, Etienne-Cummings says. &quot;The people who assemble robots don't have access to the sensors that I design,&quot; he says. &quot;I think that's one of the things that has prevented computational sensors from making greater inroads in robotics. We are two divided communities, and we haven't been talking to each other. Now, we're finally starting to have those conversations.&quot; Etienne-Cummings, who was born in the islands of Seychelles off the coast of Africa, earned his doctorate in electrical engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. He joined the faculty of Johns Hopkins' Whiting School of Engineering in the summer of 1998. Color slides of Ralph Etienne-Cummings and his system available; contact Phil Sneiderman Related Web Sites Ralph Etienne-Cummings' Home Page Johns Hopkins Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Johns Hopkins University news releases can be found on the World Wide Web at http://www. jhu . edu /news_info/news/ Information on automatic e-mail delivery of science and medical news releases is available at the same address. Go to [email_address] Home Page
Week 5 Topical Lecture
Robotics Bertain http://www.engineering-ed.org/ 1920 The idea of a robot is not new. For thousands of years man has been imagining intelligent mechanized devices that perform human-like tasks. He has built automatic toys and mechanisms and imagined robots in drawings, books, plays and science fiction movies.
Robotics History <ul><li>In fact, the term "robot" was first used in 1920 in a play called "R.U.R." Or "Rossum's universal robots" by the Czech writer Karel Capek. The plot was simple: man makes robot then robot kills man! Many movies that followed continued to show robots as harmful, menacing machines. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where did the word 'robot' come from? </li></ul></ul>What is the definition of a 'robot'? "A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks" Robot Institute of America, 1979
<ul><li>The term 'robotics' refers to the study and use of robots. The term was coined and first used by the Russian-born American scientist and writer Isaac Asimov (born Jan. 2, 1920, died Apr. 6, 1992). Asimov wrote prodigiously on a wide variety of subjects. He was best known for his many works of science fiction. </li></ul>Robotics Terminology The most famous include I Robot (1950), He also wrote the three “Laws of Robotics for which he is also famous.
<ul><li>More recent movies, however, like the 1977 "star wars", portray robots such as "C3PO" and "R2D2" as man's helpers. "Number five" in the movie "short circuit" and C3PO actually take on a human appearance. These robots, </li></ul><ul><li>which are made to look. </li></ul><ul><li>human are called "androids". </li></ul>
<ul><li>However, robots of today are not exactly the walking, talking intelligent machines of of movies, stories and our dreams. Today, we find most robots working for people in factories, warehouses, and laboratories. In the future, robots may show up in other places: our schools, our homes, even our bodies. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Robots have the potential to change our economy, our health, our standard of living, our knowledge and the world in which we live. As the technology progresses, we are finding new ways to use robots. </li></ul>Each new use brings new hope and possibilities, but also potential dangers and risks.
<ul><li>Robots offer specific benefits to workers, industries and countries. If introduced correctly, industrial robots can improve the quality of life by freeing workers from dirty, boring, dangerous and heavy labor. </li></ul>Benefits of Robots
<ul><ul><li>Many robots for bio-production have been developed in the world and it is predicted that they will be commercialized in the 21st century, since some of them were already commercialized by some companies in Japan and European countries. A tomato and cherry tomato harvesting robot, a cucumber harvesting robot, strawberry harvesting robots, a multi-operation robot to work in grapevine yard, and a chrysanthemum cutting sticking robot. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robotics for bio-production </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>HAZBOT III is part of JPL's Emergency Response Robotics Project, a five-year effort begun in 1991 to apply robotics technology to the safe handling of hazardous materials. Robots such as HAZBOT also hold potential for use in mining and law enforcement. "It's almost standard now to have robots on bomb squads in major cities, but it took several years for the idea to catch on," said Richard Welch, task manager of Emergency Response Robotics at JPL. </li></ul>EMT
<ul><li>Future missions to space will include many robotic vehicles designed to perform specific tasks both autonomous and remote controlled. </li></ul>Robotics History And Future
<ul><li>The Mars 2003 Rover Project is designed to have two scientific rovers going to Mars in 2003. Each rover will search for evidence of liquid water that may have been present in Mars past. The rovers will be identical to each other, but will land at different regions of Mars. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Robots use arms, end effectors (grippers ), drive mechanisms, sensors, controllers, gears and motors to perform the human-like functions necessary to perform their jobs </li></ul>Robot Components Parts of a robot
<ul><li>Robot arms come in all shapes and sizes. The arm is the part of the robot that positions the end-effector and sensors to do their pre-programmed business. </li></ul>Robot Components See http://www.paly.net/~dbertain/robotics/robo/griponrobotics/index.html arms <ul><li>Many (but not all) resemble human arms, and have shoulders, elbows, wrists, even fingers. This gives the robot a lot of ways to position itself in its environment. Each joint is said to give the robot 1 degree of freedom. </li></ul>
Robot Components Degrees of freedom So, a simple robot arm with 3 degrees of freedom could move in 3 ways: up and down, left and right, forward and backward. Most working robots today have 6 degrees of freedom. Humans have many more and some robots have 8, 12, or even 20 degrees of freedom, but these 6 are enough for most basic tasks. As a result, most jointed-arm robots in use today have 6 degrees of freedom
Robot Components X, Y, Z, Tilt and Spin Are 3 of the degrees of freedom that robots perform. Most arms move according to Cartesian coordinates AXIS OF ROTATION
<ul><li>Tilt is the angle between gripper and Z-Axis. The animation sequence shows the three most important tilting angles +45, 0, and -45 and how tilting enables to tip over a block. </li></ul>Robot Components tilt
<ul><li>Spin is defined as the gripper's rotation around the Z-Axis. You need to choose a spin value to align the jaws of the gripper with a block. Spin 0 aligns the block with the Y-Axis, Spin -45 with the diagonal between Y- and X-Axis. </li></ul>Robot Components spin
Robotics Sensors & Controllers Sensors collect all the information a robot needs to operate and interact with its environment. What are sensors? What are Controllers? Controllers interpret all the input from the sensors and decide how to act in response.
Robotics Sensors & Controllers What are sensors for? The control of a manipulator or industrial robot is based on the correct interpretation of sensory information. This information can be obtained either internally to the robot (for example, joint positions and motor torque) or externally using a wide range of sensors.
Robotics Sensors & Controllers <ul><li>Since sensors are any device that provide input of data to the robot controller a wide verity of sensors exist. Some basic types of sensors are shown including: </li></ul><ul><li>Light sensors which measure light intensity. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Sensors which measure temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Touch sensors which tell the robot when it bumps into something. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra Sonic Rangers which tell the robot how far away objects are. </li></ul><ul><li>And gyroscopes which tell the robot which direction is up. </li></ul>Types of Sensors
Robotics Sensors & controllers The bumper skirt on this robot is an example of a touch sensor. When the robot runs into a wall the bumper skirt hits a micro switch which lets the robot controller know that the robot is up against a wall. Other types of touch sensors are used internally to let the robot know when an arm is extended to far and it should be retracted or when the robots other physical limits are reached.
<ul><li>Light sensors are used to detect the presence and Intensity of light. These can be used to make a light seeking robot and are often used to simulate insect intelligence in robots. </li></ul>Robotics Sensors & controllers
<ul><li>Heat sensors help robots determine if they are in danger of overheating. These sensors are often used internally to make sure that the robot’s electronics do not breakdown. </li></ul>Robotics Sensors & controllers
<ul><li>Ultra Sonic Rangers are used to determine how far a robot is away from an object. They are often used by robots that need to navigate complicated terrain and cannot risk bumping into anything. </li></ul>Robotics Sensors & controllers
<ul><li>Gyroscopes are used in robots that need to maintain balance or are not inherently stable. Gyroscopes are often coupled with powerful robot controllers that have the processing power necessary calculate thousands of physical simulations per second. </li></ul>Robotics Sensors & controllers
<ul><ul><li>Use transistors as a switch to control power to motors, relays and lamps. Current and power handling capability is pretty much dictated by package size. The bigger the package, the more power. </li></ul></ul>Robotics Sensors & controllers <ul><ul><li>Transistors </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Basic Stamp II The Basic Stamp II is a small, self-contained computer controller manufactured by Parallax Inc. This easy-to-use system is programmed using a Basic-like language called PBasic. Programs are written on an IBM-style PC then downloaded to the Basic Stamp II for execution. Large libraries of programs can be created and saved. </li></ul>Robotics Sensors & controllers Controllers
<ul><li>Tiny custom microchips like these give "vision" to a toy car by processing images and telling the vehicle how to respond. </li></ul>Robotics Sensors & controllers Controls