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    Ubiquitous System Challenges and Outlook Ubiquitous System Challenges and Outlook Presentation Transcript

    • UbiCom Book Slides (Short Version) Chapter 13 Ubiquitous System: Challenges & Outlook Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction Stefan Poslad http://www.eecs.qmul.ac.uk/people/stefan/ubicom
    • Related Chapter Links
      • Underlying form of this model is given in chapter 1
      • Challenges & Outlook is related to UbiCom management in Chapter 12
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • UbiCom Challenges & Outlook
    • Chapter 13: Overview
      • The slides for this chapter are split into several parts:
      • Part A: Overview of Future Challenges 
      • Part B: Smart Devices
      • Part C: Smart Interaction
      • Part D: Smart CPI - Energy Usage
      • Part E: Smart CPI - ECO-Friendly UbiCom Devices
      • Part F: Smart HCI
      • Part G: Human Intelligence versus Machine Intelligence
      • Part H: Social Issues: Promise Versus Peril
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Overview of Challenges
      • Key Challenges
      • Multi-Level Support for UbiCom Properties
      • Evolution Versus Revolution
      • Future Technologies
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Key Challenges
      • Key Challenges for each of the core UbiCom system properties are considered:
      • Distributed
      • Context-Aware
      • iHCI
      • Artificial Intelligent
      • Autonomous
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Key Challenges: Distributed
      • Reliability
      • Openness
      • Less clearly defined system boundary
      • Synchronising data
      • Privacy & security
      • Event floods
      • Ad hoc interactions
      • Overwhelming choice, multiple versions, heterogeneity
      • Reduced cohesion,
      •  Distribution computation and communication costs
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Key Challenges: iHCI
      • Users get overloaded.
      • Disappearing technology problems
      • Disruptions
      • Ambiguous user intentions
      • Loss of privacy & control
      • Loss of presence in physical real-world
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Key Challenges: Context-Awareness
      • Localized scalability
      • Unclear user goals and context
      • Context adaptation leads to quicker commitments.
      • Balancing system versus application versus user control of context adaptation
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Key Challenges: Autonomous
      • Loss of high value macro mobile resources
      • Loss of many low value micro resources
      • No-one wants to be an administrator
      • Undesired or unintelligible adaptation
      •  Interdependencies
      • Loss of control by user
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Key Challenges: Intelligent
      • System infers incorrectly
      • Greater reliance and dependencies on systems of systems interactions to operate.
      • Systems learn to operate unsafely
      • Systems exceed normal human behaviour limits
      • Virtual organisation can masquerade as real organisations.
      • Byzantine, disruptive and malicious behaviours
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Multi-Level Support for UbiCom Properties
      • It is not necessary, nor necessarily desirable, to support the full level for each UbiCom property:
        • Distributed
        • Context-aware
        • iHCI
        • Autonomous
        • Intelligent
      • Why not?
        • It depends upon the application and the situation.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Multi-Level Support for UbiCom Properties
      • Propose that there are graduated levels of support by UbiCom systems for each of the five core UbiCom system properties:
        • level 1 (minimal),
        • level 2 (basic),
        • level 3 (medium),
        • level 4 (high),
        • level 5 (full).
      • Levels of support could be used to indicate of levels of maturity for a system and for a property
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Multi-Level Support for UbiCom Properties
      • For example, a recommender, location-aware system application for a mobile user could be designed to support medium levels of support for the core UbiCom properties:
        • ???
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Multi-Level Support for UbiCom Properties
    • Multi-Level Support for Smart
      • In Section 1.4, the term smart was defined to mean that the entity can be:
        • Active, Digital, Networked
        • can operate to some extent autonomously
        • is reconfigurable
        • and has local control of the resources it needs such as energy and data storage.
      • A second way to define smart is in terms of the level of AI the system supports (Figure 13‑1)
        • minimal type of smartness is that a system has an explicit representation of its structure and state which it can share with others.
        • medium level of smartness is that systems support problem solving and reasoning.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Evolution versus Revolution
      • Technology can be categorised as
        • disruptive
        • sustaining.
      • D isruptive technology is one that changes or replaces the accepted way of doing things.
      • S ustaining technology enhances an existing product or service by refining it or making its creation and delivery more efficient.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Evolution versus Revolution
      • Many visions for future computing assume
      • sustainable, incremental, evolutionary progress in technology,
      • whereas history has shown repeatedly that markets are changed mostly by disruptive technologies
      • Examples ?
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Evolution versus Revolution
      • Examples of disruptive technologies along with famous companies and people that rejected them?
        • ??
      • Technology sometimes tries to drive use rather than use drives technology.
        • ??
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Future Technologies
      • There are many sources of ideas for future technology.
      • Many science fiction writers who may have trained or worked as scientists and engineers have described ideas which later turned into reality. Examples?
        • ??
      • Many engineers and scientists in many different fields have proposed bold visions for the future use of ICT. Examples?
        • ??.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Future Technologies
      • Technological revolutions or evolutions are just one of the environments which must be affected in such a multi-disciplinary world
      • We need to understand the novel secondary effects of technology, to understand the complex interplay between systems and their environment.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Chapter 13: Overview
      • The slides for this chapter are split into several parts:
      • Part A: Overview of Future Challenges
      • Part B: Smart Devices 
      • Part C: Smart Interaction
      • Part D: Smart CPI - Energy Usage
      • Part E: Smart CPI - ECO-Friendly UbiCom Devices
      • Part F: Smart HCI
      • Part G: Human Intelligence versus Machine Intelligence
      • Part H: Social Issues: Promise Versus Peril
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Smart Devices
      • Smaller, More Functional Smart Devices
      • More Fluid Ensembles of Diverse Devices
      • Richer System Interaction and Interoperability
      • Migrating from Analogue to Digital Device Interaction
      • Richer Digital Device Interaction
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Smaller, More Functional Smart Devices
      • Evolutionary trend towards smaller, lower power, higher resourced devices,
      • Phones can be manufactured to be much smaller, lighter, low powered & multi-functional
      • Phones can leverage MEMS technology further (Chapter 6)
        • .
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Smaller, More Functional Smart Devices
    • A Wider Range of Raw Materials from which Devices are Manufactured
      • The use of more flexible materials to act as ICT devices
      • This can lead to many more physical objects supporting dual or even multiple hidden virtual computing functions
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Micro & Nano Device Issues
      • Synthetic reality which combines self-organisation of multiple MEMS devices called catoms and tangible UIs.
      • Nano components can also act in a similar manner.
      • Benefits?
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Microscopic Device Issues
      • Problems?
      • These could get out of control.
      • etc
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • More Fluid Device Networks
    • More Fluid Ensembles of Diverse Devices
      • Many hidden and diverse devices
      • In a smart office, smart office ware ….
        • e.g., specific lights, on the desk, can switch on when activity on the desk is sensed whilst other lights in the vicinity can remain off
      • In the bathroom, smart (bath)ware ….
        • smart mirrors can provide information about predicted conditions
      • In kitchen, smart ware …
        • Ovens contain temperature probes to sense inside food being cooked
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Migrating from Analogue to Digital Device Interaction
      •  use of digital vs. analogue devices situated in physical and human environments. Why?
      • Many individual digital systems, particularly those which are embedded systems, currently operate in isolation. Why?
      • Drivers for richer, flexible and dynamic device interaction?:
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Migrating from Analogue to Digital Device Interaction
      • Many devices are still designed to be stand-alone analogue single function appliance devices.
      • Discuss what the pros and cons are in different devices being digital:
        • Toaster
        • Clothes Iron
        • Coffee / tea maker etc
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Richer Digital Device Interaction
      • Majority of this richer system interaction is still C2C interaction
        • with some limited HCI to support finely grained user configuration, rather than CPI or HPI (Section 1.3).
      • An evolution pathway towards richer & softer (Section 12.3.1) information interaction is proposed.
        • See Section 8.4
      • Application data protocols enable different applications to:
        • exchange data structures.
        • be controlled remotely.
      • Richer interaction goes beyond sharing information
        • ??.
      • This system interaction needs to be managed within the constraints of their ICT, physical and human environments.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Chapter 13: Overview
      • The slides for this chapter are split into several parts:
      • Part A: Overview of Future Challenges
      • Part B: Smart Devices
      • Part C: Smart Device Interaction 
      • Part D: Smart CPI - Energy Usage
      • Part E: Smart CPI - ECO-Friendly UbiCom Devices
      • Part F: Smart HCI
      • Part G: Human Intelligence versus Machine Intelligence
      • Part H: Social Issues: Promise Versus Peril
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Smart Device CCI Trends Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Smart Interaction
      • Unexpected Connectivity: Accidentally Smart Environments
      • Impromptu Service Interoperability
      • Context-Awareness: Ill-Defined Contexts Versus a Context-Free World
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Smart Interaction
      • Smarter interaction between individual smart devices and smart environments is a key enabler to promote richer, more seamless, personal, social and public spaces.
      • Interaction with smart mobile & environment devices requires effective human computer interaction design to make these systems useful
      • Human interactions often need to be centred in physical world rather than centred in virtual computer devices.
      • User activity-oriented interaction is different to service or task-oriented interaction. How?
      • Interaction can benefit from being location aware
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Key challenges for Interaction in Smart Environments
      • Challenges have already been given in Part A
      • Multiplicity of interactions increase,
      • However, contexts can be hard to determine
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Key challenges for Interaction in Smart Environments
      • Key challenges for using ubiquitous computing applications in home type smart environments (Edwards & Grinter, 2001) are:
        • "accidentally" smart home,
        • impromptu interoperability,
        • no systems administrator,
        • designing for domestic use,
        • social implications of aware home technologies,
        • reliability, and inference in the presence of ambiguity.
      • Their analysis can be generalised to smart (physical world) environment interaction
      • New design models of connectivity with wireless technologies are needed
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Unexpected Connectivity: Accidently Smart Environments
      • Wireless networks are less deterministic. Why?
      • Example 1
      • Homeowners may not realise that their wireless speakers can actually connect themselves to sound sources in another house nearby just as easily as to sound sources within their own home.
      • New design models of connectivity with wireless technologies are needed
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Unexpected Connectivity: Accidently Smart Environments
    • Unexpected Connectivity: Accidently Smart Environments
      • But what if the wired interaction accesses the Internet rather than the interaction remains locally?
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Fluid Service Interoperability
      • Many ICT devices in physical environment are designed to be operate as appliances, not to interoperate on-line.
      • Some devices are designed to interoperate off-line via removal media.
      • Interoperability of many devices is practically constrained. Why?
      • Interoperability goes beyond simple connectivity.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Fluid Service Interoperability
      • User's expectation is that systems should work together fluidly and flexibly.
      • New design models of interoperability need to interoperate at multiple levels:
        • at the I/O hardware,
        • plug and play level
        • at the network level
        • at the service level
        • At the connector / Wire level:
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Determine Environment Context versus Its State
      • Focus on meaning of environment context, how it affects an application goal rather on environment state.
      • For example, the design of a human weighing scale,
      • Should we design context-aware weighing scales?
        • How can we design these?
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Context Awareness: Ill-Defined Contexts versus a Context Free World
      • Context-aware systems are often expected to make decisions with limited context information about the world and with limited adaptation.
      • Environments may be only partially observable,
      • Adaptation, when performed, should be predictable,
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Context Awareness: Ill-Defined Contexts versus a Context Free World
      • Context awareness may be ill-defined for several reasons
      • Because contexts are derived
        • etc
      • Contexts may be aggregated from several factors or indirectly inferred,
        • .
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Active Context-aware System Challenges
      • Active context-aware systems,
        • e.g., systems that issue location-aware alerts to persons
      • These can be problematic? Why?
      • Active context-aware systems should support some user interaction. Why?
      • Replicating the complexity of the real world can make context-aware systems complex and vulnerable to error.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Chapter 13: Overview
      • The slides for this chapter are split into several parts:
      • Part A: Overview of Future Challenges
      • Part B: Smart Devices
      • Part C: Smart Interaction
      • Part D: Smart CPI - Energy Usage 
      • Part E: Smart CPI - ECO-Friendly UbiCom Devices
      • Part F: Smart HCI
      • Part G: Human Intelligence versus Machine Intelligence
      • Part H: Social Issues: Promise Versus Peril
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Lower Power and Sustainable Energy Usage
      • A range of power management techniques can be used to enable devices to reduce their power consumption, e.g.,
      • Passive electronic components can be used that do not require energy to maintain their state,
      • Active computation devices can adapt their power requirements based upon demand
        • Etc
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Energy: Batteries
      • Most macro-sized mobile devices are currently powered by batteries, which need to be charged by attaching them to internal building energy grids.
      • Batteries have pros & cons
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Energy: Batteries
      • Alternatives to batteries include:
      • Fuel cells
      • Capacitors
      • Ultracapacitors
      • Renewal energy
        • kinetic energy,
        • mechanical vibrations etc
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Energy Optimisation
      • Energy optimisation in devices faces several design challenges.
      • A lack of feedback control leads to poor energy optimisation.
      • Energy can often be wasted instead of usefully converted into a form to be reused
      • Energy is used to provide services which are oriented to a human presence but humans may not be present
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Smart Energy Grids & Regulation
      • A ubiquitous home environment needs to be developed to support smart energy regulation to improve energy efficiency.
        • In demand response systems
        • In direct load control systems
      • Can use context-aware energy devices
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Chapter 13: Overview
      • The slides for this chapter are split into several parts:
      • Part A: Overview of Future Challenges
      • Part B: Smart Devices
      • Part C: Smart Interaction
      • Part D: Smart CPI - Energy Usage
      • Part E: Smart CPI - ECO-Friendly UbiCom Devices 
      • Part F: Smart HCI
      • Part G: Human Intelligence versus Machine Intelligence
      • Part H: Social Issues: Promise Versus Peril
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Eco friendly UbiCom Devices
      • Environmentally friendly or eco friendly devices are devices which cause minimum or no harm to the environment.
      • This requires considering device use throughout the whole of its life-cycle, from extraction of raw materials, through manufacture, through operation, through disposal.
      • As more of the physical world is being annotated and augmented with digital systems, it is vital that devices behave as part of sustainable digital ecosystems.
      • Else, we will end up with an ever increasing collection of unused yet still usable electronics products to dispose off whose high cost of production and disposal is not offset sufficiently.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Disposal of Fully-Working Devices
      • In 2008, consumer electronics account for 1-4% of municipal waste stream in Europe, USA,
        • but is responsible for 40% of the lead in this waste stream
      • Although the small size of handheld ICT devices means that its disposal yields less waste than that of a traditional desktop computer, it size also makes it more likely to be thrown away.
      • Suggestions for extending the lifetime of the phone?
        • Business oriented
        • Engineering oriented
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • More Eco-friendly Device Use
      • Need to consider use & benefits in multiple environments & orientate these to an eco-friendly goal
        • Changing the business model
        • Recycling devices & components
        • Manufacture using Eco-Friendly Materials
      • Need to consider all of the device cycle
        • Need to go beyond recycling by also considering demanufacturing and remanufacturing
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • ICT Manufacture using Eco-Friendly Materials
      • ICT Systems should be manufactured from eco-friendly materials so if they are discarded, the can be recycled without releasing any toxic substances into the environment.
      • E.g., ???
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • ICT Can Reduce Use of Physical Environment Resources
      • There are many examples of use of ICT to reduce use of physical resources
      • Paperless trading
      • Video-conferencing instead of physical conferencing etc
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Reusing & Recycling Common Components
      • This can be challenging
      • Consider how we can design common components such as power transformers to be reused.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Overview of (Forward) Engineering versus Reverse Engineering
    • Manufacturing
      • Traditional manufacturing , forward manufacturing , moves from high-level abstractions and logical designs to the finished product, formed out of lower order components .
      • Reverse manufacturing. remanufacturing is a process that
        • starts with a finished product, an output of a previous manufacturing process,
        • but which seeks to undo this
        • in order to reuse some parts, recycle or even remanufacture a product to make it usable again.
      • Demanufacturing is just the disassembly stage for remanufacturing and reverse manufacturing.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Remanufacture & Demaufacture of Embedded Smart Devices
      • There is a different challenge in handling the remanufacture & demaufacture of smart devices embedded into or strewn into physical environments versus handling self-contained smart devices
        • As acquisition and disassembly processes are different.
      • In industrialized countries, macros sized electronic equipment is currently processed separately from other physical world objects because of its material composition.
      • However, as microelectronic components become increasingly embedded in commonly used non-ICT objects, this may make it both ecologically and economically unfeasible to separate these embedded components for special waste treatment.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Ecofriendly: Main Lessons
      • As technologists we need to build things in a modular way, to make things easy and cheap to repair.
      • Rather than to just replace things, we need to build things to last longer.
      • From the outset, we need to design things to support easy and economical methods of disposal.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction 
    • Disposal of Micro Devices
      • Is the disposal of smart dust devices represents only a minor concern?
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Chapter 13: Overview
      • The slides for this chapter are split into several parts:
      • Part A: Overview of Future Challenges
      • Part B: Smart Devices
      • Part C: Smart Interaction
      • Part D: Smart CPI - Energy Usage
      • Part E: Smart CPI - ECO-Friendly UbiCom Devices
      • Part F: Smart HCI 
      • Part G: Human Intelligence versus Machine Intelligence
      • Part H: Social Issues: Promise Versus Peril
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Smart Human–Device Interaction
      • More Diverse Human–Device Interaction
      • More Versus Less Natural HCI
      • Analogue to Digital and Digital Analogues
      • Form Follows Function
      • Forms for Multi-Function Devices
      • Posthuman: ICT Augments Human Abilities Beyond Being Human
      • Blurring of Reality and Mediated Realities
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Smart Human–Device Interaction
      • Smart devices can be used to form a smart personal and pervasive space for their owners that follow them around.
      • Smart devices may be resource constrained, leading in turn to restricted device behaviours
      • Devices may be mobile.
      • Flexible service discovery is needed
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Smart Device HCI Trends
      • Smart devices have changed from the recent past to the current time as follows:
        • from GUIs to gestures
        • from VDUs to smart fabrics
        • from stationary pad transceivers to mobile tab sized transceivers
        • from simple robots to autonomous machines
        • from hard disks to digital memories or footprints
        • from shrink-wrapped to mash-ups
        • from sometimes-on phones and answer-phones to always-on.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Smart Device HCI Trends
      • Interface stability 
      • Ecosystems of P2P ad hoc interaction of devices occur
      • Hyper-connectivity 
      • Ephemeral human memories 
      • New forms of creative engagement 
      • Multiple-modes and multiple channels of communications
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Smart Device HCI Trends
    • Natural HCI: Challenges
      • Challenges in natural HCI?
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • HCI: 2 nd Nature
      • Although, UbiCom systems (artefacts) aim to make some artificial activities seem more natural for humans to interact with, UbiCom inherently does the opposite by changing an activity from being less natural to being more artificial.
      • What appears to be natural interaction is dynamic, historical, cultural and to an extent personal.
      • Need to focus ion making interaction 2nd nature rather than on making it natural.
      • Several factors affect making interaction 2nd nature.
        • ??
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Analogue to Digital Conversion
      • The physical world itself is not a discrete digital system, although it can sometimes be approximated to one.
      • It is an analogue continuum of states in multiple dimensions.
      • In order to sense and interface to the world, analogue to digital conversion (ADC) is needed.
      • There is a trade-off involved in terms of the benefits of going digital versus the disruption to the human experience in changing some traditional way of doing things.
      • In order to digitise activities may require transducers:
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Digital Analogues
      • Much human interaction remains inaccessible to many humans.
      • How to  accessibility?
        • Use digital analogues?
        • etc
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Form follows Function
      • With single function analogue type devices, functional & physical design can be naturally intertwined so that the physical form follows function or vice versa
      • Possible for digital artefacts to mimic analogue form
      • Could in theory mimic the form of complex physical objects, using smart clay type devices.
      • Hence,  accessibility to interact with rare physical artefacts
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Forms for Multi-Function Devices
      • Whereas it is sometimes intuitive to design single function devices so that form follows function,
      • Form of a multi-function device may be less obvious.
      • Form for Multi-function device?
      • How to use the 2 largest planar surfaces of mobile phone to support multiple functions
      • Design component based devices
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Posthuman Model
      • Humans will use
        • more accompanied micro systems
        • more wearable or surface-mounted systems
        • more implants for direct body & brain, interfaces
      • As humans become more dependent on machines, it may make us become less human. Why?
      • Technology could distance us from nature
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Posthuman: ICT Augments Human Abilities Beyond Being Human
      • Implants are used to enable less able people to become more normally able but they can also be used to enhance normal abilities.
      • There are many wider societal and moral issues here?
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Future use of Virtual & Mediated Realities
      •  use of embedded and implantable devices is changing the nature of & experiences of being human
      • Virtual models have been created that can autonomously synthesize realistic human motions and possess a broad repertoire of lifelike human motor skills
      • Cannot yet deploy physical artefacts of humans, e.g., robots & androids, in everyday life.
      • Virtualisation can be progressively used to give the illusion of different places and times.
      • Increased virtual interaction can cause physiological effects
        • E.g., Multiple virtual identity disorders etc
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Chapter 13: Overview
      • The slides for this chapter are split into several parts:
      • Part A: Overview of Future Challenges
      • Part B: Smart Devices
      • Part C: Smart Interaction
      • Part D: Smart CPI - Energy Usage
      • Part E: Smart CPI - ECO-Friendly UbiCom Devices
      • Part F: Smart HCI
      • Part G: Human versus Machine Intelligence 
      • Part H: Social Issues: Promise Versus Peril
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Human Intelligence Versus Machine Intelligence
      • There are different visions of how humans and intelligent systems will coexist in the future.
        • E..g, Machine Intelligence singularity etc
      • Human brains & ability have not appeared to have changed significantly over a couple of thousand years,
      • Humans have developed machines which allows the combined ability of humans using machine as tools to improve pure mental and physical human ability.
      • As human develop ever more complex machines will these machines remain under human control?
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Artificial Intelligence versus Human Intelligence
    • Human versus Artificial Intelligence
      • What are Humans better at ?
      • What are machines better at ?
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    •  AI: More Active Environments
      • Environments will become more active.
      • Machines model humans better.
      • This can cause more complex cyclic mutual modelling independencies
      • This can cause a difficulty in establishing operational equilibria between multiple active interacting artificial intelligent and physical world systems.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    •  AI: Over-Reliance on Computers
      • 2 extremes in portraying a future landscape for future human computer interaction.
        • Over reliance on computer
        • Greater distrust of computers
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • AI Dependence on Human Intelligence
      • “ The intelligence of a system is indivisible from the people who use it, built it, and designed the task environment in which it runs”.
      • Until clever machines can autonomously design other intelligent machines, intelligent machines will always rely on human ingenuity of designer and /or operator.
      • Balance and combine best of human and machine intelligence
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Can Human Intelligence be Captured Artificially?
      • Can human intelligence be modelled or ultimately subsumed by machine intelligence?
      • Differences in architecture between human brain & ICT computer exist. What?
      • There is no embodiment
      • Can machines actually think versus merely simulate thinking?
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Future of AI: Human Risks
      • Jobs
      • Time
      • Loss of individualism
      • Loss of privacy
      • Loss of accountability to humans
      • Humans die out
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Chapter 13: Overview
      • The slides for this chapter are split into several parts:
      • Part A: Overview of Future Challenges
      • Part B: Smart Devices
      • Part C: Smart Interaction
      • Part D: Smart CPI - Energy Usage
      • Part E: Smart CPI - ECO-Friendly UbiCom Devices
      • Part F: Smart HCI
      • Part G: Human versus Machine Intelligence
      • Part H: Social Issues: Promise Versus Peril 
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Social Issues: Promise Versus Peril
      • Increased Virtual Social Interaction versus Local Social Interaction
      • UbiCom Accessible by Everyone
      • UbiCom Affordable by Everyone
      • Legislation in a Digital World & Digitising Legislation
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Social-issues: Promise versus Peril
      • New technology may be disruptive
      • Can create new social norms
      • More open access increases the need for privacy control of more vulnerable groups
      • Social aspects including benefits are often not envisaged by service providers.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Social Ubiquity
      • The characteristics of ubiquitous computing are often quoted as being able to support computation anywhere and anytime.
      • However, it is worth considering the exclusivity of the relationships between computation in the digital age and specific social groups.
      • Many markets of goods become saturated before reaching everyone,
        • e.g., in the video game market there is a sharp divide between gamers and non-gamers and this has lead to a stagnant market (Section 5.2.4).
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Social Ubiquity
      • What about the relations between the individual and personal space of users and technology.
      • Almost no ubiquitous-computing systems work ubiquitously.
      • Many demonstrations of a smart room or building, work only in their place of development.
      • Many Content or Information services are designed to be regional rather than local
      • Loss of conventional regulatory control at fixed boundary points through disruptive technologies
      • Technological innovation can strain existing business models
        • E.g., place-shifting audio-video content
        • E.g., P2P shifting of server power
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Social & Person Awarensss
      • Systems could seek to orientate their services based upon social context.
        • S ocial sorting
      •  ability of smart environments to analyse & correlate more human interactions & link these to identities ->  privacy
      • Promiscuous tags, e..g, RFID, left on items that accompany you, can inform others in public spaces about you
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Virtual Social Interaction versus Local Social Interaction
      • Computers becoming more interwoven into physical world
      • More remote access and virtual interactions
      • Ubiquitous networks and devices, by default always on?
      • Are work and leisure overlapping too much?
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • UbiCom Accessible by Everyone
      • To make systems accessible has
        • a general meaning
        • a specific meaning in terms of HCI usability criteria.
      • In the general sense, ICT accessibility
        • the degree to which it can be easily reached or used by as many people as possible.
      • In HCI, ICT accessibility
        • technology that can be used by people with a wide range of physical & mental abilities and disabilities.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Accessibility
      • Within the general sense, making UbiCom accessibility, means taking in account not just usability but also:
        • economic affordability,
        • international cultural access
      • Many countries have a sizeable ethnic, diversity
        • e.g., in the UK this was about 8% in 2001.
      • Many international national, cultural, religious rules, conventions govern use of ICT products & services.
        • Give Examples
      • Why design UIs to be accessible by the widest possible group of users?
        • Maximises user group
        • Is a legal requirement
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Affordability
      • The use of UbiCom access devices by everyone is dictated to a very large extent by economics and social aspects and in addition to the technology.
      • In some parts of the world, people still cannot afford the capital outlay to purchase an ICT device or the costs to maintain and operate ICT devices
      • How to develop ICT infrastructure in emerging economies?
      • Socio-economic factors affect how smart devices can be used by everyone. What are these?
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Affordability
      • Technical strategies to reduce the equipment cost include:
      • Using open-source software; GNU UNIX, Linux
      • Low-cost PCs and lap-tops: e.g., One Laptop Per Child” (OLPC) is an education project,
      • Low cost through Miniaturization of ICT components (Section 6.4)
      • etc
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Affordability
      • Need to reduce other operational costs, through the providing cheaper and multi-service local access networks,
        • ??
      • In rural areas, computers must be designed for volatile & low power supplies & volatile & low bandwidth network access (Section 3.3.3.9).
      • Robust to be designed for use in more hostile open living physical environments rather in enclosed living spaces.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Digitising Legislation
      • Legal frameworks:
        • are complex and manual
        • oriented to be human readable
        • Oriented to be understandable by human legal specialists
      • Can be difficult to know exactly which specific legislation applies
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Digitising Legislation
      • There are two complementary aspects of legislation we consider here.
      • As legislation gets so complex, we need to develop automated techniques to show legal compliance.
        • Else humans may get over burdened, become a bottleneck
      • The legislation needed to protect the rights in society as more innovative UbiCom systems become developed and more widely deployed, needs to be reviewed / evolve..
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Digitising Legislation
      • How to automate regulatory compliance
      • How to structure and transcode these accurately represent legal rules etc
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • New Legislation for UbiCom
      • Society sets up bodies to review and regulate new technologies in order to protect individuals and society.
      • These concerns are enhanced for UbiCom. Why?
        • ??
      • Technical, social and commercial uncertainty about detrimental effects which may happen
        • ??
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • New Legislation for UbiCom
      • To protect humans from robots and to give robots some rights to protect themselves as sentient beings, a set of 3 Laws for Robotics was proposed by Asimov in 1940s.
      • Are these robot laws sufficient?
      • Emergent type technology and intelligence can be hard to legislate to control research and development.
      • Legislation can be formulated to be too technology specific and thus to become too technology restrictive.
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Machine Ethics
      • Machines can be designed to incorporate:
        • multiple individual human traits such as intelligence, emotions
        • collective human traits such as social and legislative behaviours.
      • Whilst designing machines to operate legally appears understandable,
      • Should machines also be designed to be ethical, to support fairness, justice, equity, honesty, trustworthiness & equality?
      • How to support machine ethics .?
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Summary & Revision
      • For each chapter
      • See book web-site for chapter summaries, references, resources etc.
      • Identify new terms & concepts
      • Apply new terms and concepts: define, use in old and new situations & problems
      • Debate problems, challenges and solutions
      • See Chapter exercises on web-site
      Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Exercises: Define New Concepts Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction
    • Exercise: Applying New Concepts Ubiquitous computing: smart devices, environments and interaction