The Psychology of Robots Derek J. SMITH Centre for Psychology University of Wales Institute, Cardiff dsmith @ uwic .ac. uk http://www. smithsrisca .demon.co. uk
An Educational Resource in UWIC's "Psychology as a Career" Academic Video Series
DEDICATION This presentation has been inspired by the Welsh Assembly Government's Reaching Higher - Reaching Wider initiative for the modernisation of Welsh post-16 education, the H.E. Funding Council for Wales' FIRST Campus initiative for promoting the university experience to groups who would not normally consider it an option, and UWIC's own Widening Access Provision scheme.
As screened at the 2005 Christmas Lecture of the South Wales Branch of the British Computer Society Cardiff Bay Techniquest, 1st December 2005
PART 1 FROM AUTOMATA TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
SOME PSYCHOLOGY ..... HERE IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT QUESTIONS EVER ASKED ..... IF YOU WERE ALBERT OF COLOGNE, AND YOU PUT ENOUGH GEARS AND HYDRAULIC PIPES INTO A MECHANICAL PERSON, COULD YOU MAKE IT THINK?
FROM AUTOMATA TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Daddy! That's my boy!
FROM AUTOMATA TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE So let's summarise how far we'd got in the mid-1800s. Thanks to the anatomists, we knew something about the brain. Thanks to clockmakers and weavers we had programming. Thanks to Babbage and Lovelace we had computing. Thanks to Ampère we had cybernetics.
FROM AUTOMATA TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE The Henschel 293, 1941
FROM AUTOMATA TO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>In 1941, the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov invented the "laws of robotics" , as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. (2) A robot must obey, unless this conflicts with (1). (3) A robot must protect its own existence, unless this conflicts with (1) or (2). </li></ul><ul><li>So it's not really fair to describe robot weapons as robots, after all. They don't have any free will. </li></ul>
MORE PSYCHOLOGY ..... BUT WHAT IS FREE WILL ANYWAY? PSYCHOLOGISTS DON'T REALLY KNOW WHAT FREE WILL IS IN HUMANS , SO HOW ARE WE GOING TO DESIGN IT INTO INTELLIGENT MACHINES?
MODERN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Hi, I'm Robby, and this is my friend Twiki.
MODERN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE I swear I will not hurt you. (But if you're lying, I'll be back!)
MODERN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (BASIC RESEARCH)
MODERN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (BASIC RESEARCH)
MODERN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (BASIC RESEARCH) <ul><li>This is the Honda-Kawasaki ASIMO. It can walk, has colour vision, face recognition, gesture recognition, and speech, and can even obey simple commands. But it has little intelligence, and no free will at all! </li></ul>Hi, I'm ASIMO. I was born in 2003, and I can walk (but only when they tell me to).
MODERN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (BASIC RESEARCH) <ul><li>QRIO is Sony's answer to ASIMO. It can do most things ASIMO can do, but has better hand and finger control. </li></ul><ul><li>Here we see four identical QRIOs playing Ave Maria on handbells. </li></ul><ul><li>So are they just fancy musical boxes, or metal people? </li></ul>
MODERN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AT WAR) <ul><li>Here's a fierce looking robot. This one takes its own life at the end of its mission! If it was "alive" this would arguably make it a metal suicide bomber! </li></ul>I shan't be home for tea, tonight, darling!
MODERN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (IN THE OPERATING THEATRE)
MODERN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (IN THE FACTORY) Hi, I'm Roboblaster from Rossler, Inc.
MODERN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (READING THE NEWS) <ul><li>Here's a robot made only out of spots of light on a display screen. She's a "software agent" - a virtual android with lots of intelligence and no complicated mechanical bits at all. </li></ul><ul><li>She's the BBC's Ananova , prototype "cyberbabe" and virtual newsreader. </li></ul>And now over to Westminster .....
MODERN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AT THE RECEPTION DESK) <ul><li>This is Valerie , the android robot receptionist under trial at Carnegie Mellon University in the US. </li></ul><ul><li>She's going to be as near lifelike as they can make her! She'll even remember what you talked about last time you visited! </li></ul>So how's your Bert's lumbago?
MODERN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (IN THE GARDEN) <ul><li>Here's a robot from Friendly Robotics Inc. for mowing the lawn. </li></ul>
MODERN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (IN THE SITTING ROOM) <ul><li>And here's Electrolux's latest robot vacuum cleaner, the Trilobite . </li></ul>
WHERE TO NEXT? (ARTIFICIAL COMPANIONS) <ul><li>Remember that to be an "android" you have to have the shape of a man (or woman). </li></ul>Hi, I'm Valerie , the most advanced android in the world, from Android World, Inc. But I'm not such a babe without my face on ....
WHERE TO NEXT? (SPACE EXPLORATION) <ul><li>Not all robots will be shaped like humans (so they'll be robots, but not androids). </li></ul><ul><li>This prototype NASA rover has six legs because it needs to cope with rough ground on alien planets. </li></ul>
WHERE TO NEXT? (SPACE EXPLORATION) <ul><li>However, because humans and robots might need to share a space capsule one day, NASA will probably make android robots as well. </li></ul><ul><li>This one's called Robonaut . He won't need oxygen or food, but it makes sense for him to share tools with the humans, so he needs lifelike arms and hands. </li></ul>Pass me that hammer, Dai.
WHERE TO NEXT? (SPACE EXPLORATION) <ul><li>Android robots will be easier to identify with - form friendships, even. Or perhaps one day fall in love!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologists will have to investigate the problems of long-term robot-human confinement before any deep space mission can take place - which do you think will go mad first? </li></ul>Robots have feelings too, you know! (In fact, I've got 150 sensors in each arm.)
WHERE TO NEXT? (SPACE EXPLORATION) <ul><li>Psychologists are also working on Robonaut's brain, because intellectually he's still a long way from being ready for the trip. </li></ul><ul><li>(To put it bluntly, he's still a bit dull!) </li></ul>"Two plus two is - er - five?
MORE PSYCHOLOGY ..... HOW WILL ROBOTS AND ANDROIDS AFFECT HOW WE LIVE AND WORK? WILL THEY EVER "THINK" FOR THEMSELVES? WILL THEY GET BORED? WILL THEY NEED TO GO TO CHURCH? ETC., ETC., ETC.
NOBODY KNOWS FOR SURE BUT BECOME A PSYCHOLOGIST AND BE ONE OF THE FIRST TO FIND OUT!!
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION <ul><li>For leaflets on careers in psychology, to book your place on an Open Day, or just for general advice on the university experience as a whole, please contact ..... </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs Helen Campling, Centre for Psychology, UWIC, Western Avenue, Cardiff, CF5 2YB </li></ul><ul><li>Tel: 02920 417210 E-mail: [email_address] </li></ul>