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Student Coursebook

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    Student Coursebook Student Coursebook Document Transcript

    • ITGS Course Information Credit: 1 unit Time: 5 periods per week, 40 weeks (1 year) Examination: Departmental Prerequisite: None; Open to students in grades 10-12 Curriculum written by: Gianni Bussani, Fairport High School – Technology Department William Stanton, Fairport High School – Technology Department April 5, 2001 Updated: September 1, 2005 ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 2
    • ITGS Course Description T he computer has facilitated changes in our society. It has become the main tool in society for the processing of data, the development of information and the main form of communication. Arguably, no other technological advancement has affected our global society like the computer and information technology. Students will need an understanding of the social significance of information technology, the ability to analyze and evaluate ethical considerations from the use of information technology and gain an appreciation of the development and historical significance of the computer and information technology. Information Technology in a Global Society explores social implications and ethical considerations arising from information technology. Students explore information systems and information technology tools, the convergence of information technologies, and networks and the Internet through intense in-depth study and experiential problem-solving dealing with topics ranging from jobless growth to medical simulation to computer animation. As their study progresses, students write six "Portfolio Papers" which look in depth at the social implications and ethical considerations of aspects of information technology. The year's learning culminates in production of major projects that meet a social need and detailed metacognitive and analytical reports on the process and the product. ITGS will provide students with the opportunity to explore real world challenges. Through exercises developed within learning activities, students will be provided with experiences in critical thinking, problem solving and decision-making. ITGS will provide students with the opportunity to explore advanced real world challenges. Recognizing the values, differences and importance of the individual learners, this course curriculum provides experiences for the student to function as a more skillful and knowledgeable citizen in his/her employment, community, environment and family. A variety of evaluative instruments will be used to assess student achievement. Students will be assessed through written and practical tests, research papers and presentations. Students will create desktop publishing documents, multimedia presentations and Web pages for use at Fairport High School and in the community. In addition, students are expected to maintain a portfolio, which will include examples of their best works. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 4
    • ITGS Aims The aims of all subjects in group 3, individuals and societies are to: 1. encourage the systematic and critical study of: human experience and behavior; physical, political, economic and social environments; the history of development of social and cultural institutions. 2. develop in the student the capacity to identify, to analyze critically and to evaluate theories, concepts and arguments about the nature and activities of the individual and society. 3. enable the student to collect, describe, analyze and interpret complex data and source material and to test hypothesis. 4. develop an awareness in the student that human attitudes and beliefs are widely diverse and that the study of society requires an appreciation of such diversity. 5. enable the student to recognize that the knowledge and methodologies of the subjects in group 3 are contestable and that their study requires the acceptance of uncertainty. The aims of the information technology in a global society (ITGS) course at HL and SL are to: 1. demonstrate an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of new technologies as methods of expanding our knowledge of the world at the local and global level. 2. promote an understanding of the social significance of information technology for individuals, communities and organizations. 3. analyze and evaluate the ethical considerations arising from the widespread use of information technology at the local and global level. 4. recognize that people can hold diverse opinions about the impact of information technology on individuals and societies. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 5
    • ITGS Topics Section 1: Social and Ethical Issues 1.1 Reliability 1.2 Integrity 1.3 Security 1.4 Privacy and anonymity 1.5 Authenticity 1.6 Intellectual Property 1.7 Equality of access 1.8 Control 1.9 Globalization and cultural diversity 1.10 Policies and Standards 1.11 People and Machines Section 2: IT Systems in a Social Context 2.1 Basics: Hardware and Networks 2.1.1 Systems Fundamentals 2.1.2 Networks 2.2 Applications 2.2.1 Software Fundamentals 2.2.2 Databases and Spreadsheets 2.2.3 Word Processing and Desktop Publishing 2.2.4 Images, Sound and Presentations 2.2.5 Modeling and Simulations 2.2.6 Tutorials, Training and Wizards (Assistants) 2.3 Communications Systems 2.3.1 The Internet 2.3.2 Personal and Public Communications Section 3: Areas of Impact Students at HL are required to study all six areas of impact. Students at SL are required to study part A and a minimum of two other areas of impact from Part B Part A 3.1 Business and Employment Part B 3.2 Education 3.3 Health 3.4 Arts, Entertainment and Leisure 3.5 Science and the Environment 3.6 Politics and Government ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 6
    • ITGS Objectives and Action Verbs Objective 1 Define Give the precise meaning of a word or phrase as concisely as possible. Draw Represent by means of pencil lines. Add labels unless told not. List Give a sequence of names or other brief answers with no elaboration. Each one should be clearly distinguished from the others. State Give a specific name or other brief answer. No supporting argument or calculation is necessary. Objective 2 Annotate Add brief notes to a statement, diagram, drawing or graph. Apply Use an idea, equation, principle, theory, or law in a new situation. Take given information and use it to solve a task. Recalled information can be required for their solution. Describe Give a detailed account, including all the relevant information. Identify Find an answer from a number of possibilities. Outline Give a brief account or summary, including essential information only. Objective 3 Analyze Interpret information to reach conclusions. Compare Give an account of similarities and differences between two (or more) items, referring to both (all) of them throughout. Comparisons can be given using a table. Discuss Give an account including, where possible, a range of arguments, assessments of the relative importance of various factors or comparison of alternative hypotheses or ideas. Evaluate Discuss and examine the implications (the effect and significance) and limitations (the confines and boundaries) Explain Give a clear account including causes, reasons or mechanisms. Objective 4 Deduce Reach a conclusion from the information given. Design Produce a plan, object, simulation or model. Determine Find the only possible answer. Predict Give an expected result. Suggest Propose a hypothesis, solution or other possible answer. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 7
    • ITGS Course Requirements Assignments • Computer Activities Within each subject area or covering multiple subject areas, students will complete computer activities which demonstrates their knowledge of the subject area(s) material and related hardware and software. • Oral Presentations Students will complete oral presentations of their research for a given topic within selected subject areas. Portfolio Papers Two pieces of written work based broadly on different categories of social issues, each 500 – 750 words. ITGS students will be able to choose any four topics from the six options listed in the Assessment Outline. Worksheets • Students will complete worksheets to assess their knowledge of particular subject area(s). Tests • Written Tests Within each subject area or covering multiple subject areas, students will complete written tests consisting of multiple choice, short answer and essay type questions. • Practical Tests Within each designated subject area students will complete a practical test as an assessment of their knowledge of the software and hardware. Project (3rd Quarter only) • Students will complete a Technology Integration project with the emphasis on the solving of a problem where people are affected either directly or indirectly. Students will demonstrate an ability to integrate IT tools to solve a real problem. • The Project consists of three parts: - Product: developed through the integration of IT tools. - Report: a 2000 – 2500 word document summarizing the process. - Log Book: chronological record of the development of the Product. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 8
    • Methodologies for Analyzing Social Impact and Ethical Considerations Throughout the course students must analyze and evaluate the social impact of information technology on individuals and society and consider the ethical issues raised by this impact. Social impact and ethical considerations need to be analyzed from both local and global perspectives, recognizing that attitudes and opinions are diverse within and between different cultures Key Questions Social Issues The analysis of social issues can be guided by answering the following key questions. 1. What are the social issues associated with a particular IT development? 2. How did the IT development emerge? 3. Who axe the stakeholders—individuals, institutions, societies who initiate and control the IT developments and are affected by them? 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages for the stakeholders? 5. What feasible solutions can be applied to overcome problems? 6. What is the social impact of the IT development on human life? This may include some or all of the following areas: economic, political, cultural, legal, environmental, ergonomic, health and psychological. 7. What are the social impacts on local and global communities? Ethical Issues The analysis of ethical issues can be guided by answering the following key questions. 1. What are the ethical issues associated with a particular IT development? 2. Who is responsible? 3. Who is accountable? 4. What policies, rules or laws apply to the situation? 5. What are the alternative ethical decisions? 6. What are the consequences of these decisions? ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 9
    • Assessment Outline Standard Level External Assessment 70 Written Papers 3 hours Paper 1 1 hour 25% Four compulsory short-answer questions which assess in an integrated way sections 1 and 2 of the syllabus: social and ethical issues and IT systems in a social context. Paper 2 2 hours 35% Six structured questions which assess in an integrated way sections 1, 2 and 3 of the syllabus: social and ethical issues; IT systems in a social context; and areas of impact. The paper is divided into two parts. Part A: one compulsory question on business and employment. Part B: five questions, one on each of the other areas of impact. Candidates are required to answer two questions from this section, each one on a different area of impact. Internal Assessment 30% Project 30% An IT solution to a problem set in a social context. Candidates must produce: o A product developed through the integration of IT skills o A written report (2000-2500) o A log book ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 10
    • Internal Assessment Criteria: The Portfolio The portfolio is assessed against six criteria, which are related to the assessment objectives of the ITGS course. Criterion A Presentation of the issue 4 marks Criterion B The IT background of the issue 5 marks Criterion C The impact of the issue 5 marks Criterion D Solutions to problems arising from the issue 5 marks Criterion E Selection and use of sources 2 marks Criterion F Expression of ideas relevant to the social issue 4 marks Total 25 marks A. Presentation of the issue – failure to refer to the news item will result in a penalty of 1 mark Level 0 Level 1 is not achieved or the news item is in the same area of impact as a previous piece of work. 1 The candidate identifies an appropriate social and/or ethical issue related to an IT system. 2 The candidate outlines an appropriate social and/or ethical issue related to an IT system. 3 The candidate describes an appropriate social and/or ethical issue related to an IT system. 4 The candidate explains an appropriate social and/or ethical issue related to an IT system B. The IT background of the issue Level 0 Level 1 is not achieved. 1 The candidate states the IT background (concepts, developments and trends) relevant to the issue. 2 The candidate outlines the IT background (concepts, developments and trends) relevant to the issue. 3 The candidate describes the IT background (concepts, developments and trends) relevant to the issue. 4 The candidate explains the IT background (concepts, developments and trends) relevant to the issue. 5 The candidate analyses the IT background (concepts, developments and trends) relevant to the issue. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 11
    • C. The Impact of the Issue Level 0 Level 1 is not achieved. 1 The candidate outlines the impact of the issue on society, and identifies at least one related problem. 2 The candidate describes the impact of the issue on society, and identifies at least one related problem. 3 The candidate explains the impact of the issue on society, and identifies at least one related problem. 4 The candidate analyses the impact of the issue on society, and identifies at least one related problem. 5 The candidate evaluates the impact of the issue on society, and identifies at least one related problem. D. Solutions to problems arising from the issue • Both solutions must address one problem identified in criterion C. Two non-IT solutions are acceptable. • If the problem has not been identified in criterion C or D, he student receives no marks for criterion D. Level 0 Level 1 is not achieved. 1 The candidate states two feasible solutions to one problem identified in criterion C 2 The candidate outlines two feasible solutions to one problem identified in criterion C. 3 The candidate describes two feasible solutions to one problem identified in criterion C 4 The candidate explains two feasible solutions to one problem identified in criterion C. 5 The candidate evaluates two feasible solutions to one problem identified in criterion C. E. Selection and Use of Sources  Use any standard format for bibliography and footnotes.  A copy of the news item must be attached to the piece of work Level 0 Level 1 is not achieved or the news item is not attached. 1 The candidate has provided a list of references (minimum 4, including the new~ item) 2 The candidate has provided a list of references (minimum 4. including the news item) and properly cited those references in the text. F. Expression of ideas Relevant to the Social Issue Level 0 Level 1 is not achieved. 1 The candidate expresses ideas with supporting arguments. 2 The candidate expresses ideas with supporting arguments and relevant examples. 3 The candidate expresses ideas coherently with supporting arguments and relevant examples. 4 The candidate expresses ideas coherently with supporting arguments and extended relevant examples ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 12
    • Internal Assessment the Project Introduction The emphasis of the project is on solving a problem, set firmly in a social context, that affects the ways in which individuals, organizations and groups access and use information. Only projects that solve an actual problem should be undertaken. Although a simple solution can often be an appropriate response to a particular problem, candidates are encouraged to undertake challenging tasks to develop their IT skills and increase their awareness of the social impact of providing a feasible IT solution to a specific problem. The making of the product, the writing of the report- and the keeping of the log book must be undertaken by the candidate on an individual basis. Collaborative work is not allowed. In identifying a problem set in a social context candidates can select any topic that interests them. It need not be related directly to any of the areas of impact in the syllabus and the problem identified can be inside or outside the school environment. One approach which candidates may find helpful and which is quite acceptable is to draw on material from other parts of the Diploma Program where an IT solution could be found to a social problem. Examples could include: o collecting data from a biology field trip for use as preparatory material in interactive presentation for the following year’s students o mapping backstage activities in an IT format for use in a drama production in theatre arts o identifying an IT solution to a problem encountered in creativity, action, service (CAS), such as teaching a child to recognize colors, do simple arithmetic or compose a simple tune. Requirements The project consists of three parts (product, report, log book), a1I of which must submitted for moderation. Product The end product is the IT solution to the problem. This must include the integration of at least three different IT skills. The product can be submitted on paper; as a URL address (web site) on a CD- ROM; on a videotape. Report The report is a document of 2000-2500 words describing the process involved in the development, testing and implementation of the project. The report must be written in the order of the assessment criteria and the assessment criteria headings must be used as sub-headings in the report. Visual documentation from the product in the form of screenshots, graphs, storyboards, photographs and similar visual evidence must be integrated into the body of the report under appropriate sub- headings. The text in the report should refer to the visual evidence. Appropriate annotated documentation from the development and formal testing of the product may be included in appendices. Any appendices will not be included in the word count of the report. Log book The log book is a chronological record of the entire process used by the candidate throughout the development of the product. The log book is assessed and maintaining it is mandatory. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 13
    • The log book contains regular, dated entries from analyzing. planning, testing, implementing and evaluating the process and product Regular dated entries of the process and product must be recorded in the log book, These include references for information, sketches and designs, evaluative comments, crossings out, subject statements and other appropriate entries. It will document the candidate’s actions and thoughts throughout the development process. It is normal for the log book to be handwritten. The log book is intended primarily as a means of improving skills of organization, documenting the process of development and as an aid to problem solving for the student. Explanation of the Process Identifying a problem within a social context The candidate must identify and describe a problem set in a social context, and the person who will be the end-user of the IT solution. The end-user will be involved in all stages of the process. The following key questions should be considered. o What is the present system? How does it work? What are the limitations of o the current system? o What is the problem? o Who will benefit from an IT solution? A specific IT solution must not be identified at this stage o Has the need been determined through discussions with relevant people? and end-user(s)? Analyzing the problem The candidate will collect relevant information, identify user needs and explain two distinct IT approaches to meet these needs. For example. in order to publicize a particular project in a school, two distinct possible approaches would be o to produce a brochure by using a desktop publishing program o to create a web site. However, a brochure produced by a word processor and desktop publishing program are not distinct approaches. Similarly, producing a web site using two different methods are not distinct approaches. Projects that do not use two distinct approaches will be penalized (see citerion H). The following key questions should be considered. o What is the relevant information that is needed for solving the problem? o Have all the relevant stakeholders been consulted? o Has all the necessary information been collected? o What information is available about other IT solutions that have been used in similar situations? o What hardware and software are currently available? o Have the two approaches been completely described? Candidates should relate each approach back to the way it would address the need and the o requirements of the end-user(s). o I-law the advantages and disadvantages of each of the approaches bee. o identified? o Have two feasible and distinct approaches been identified? Considering the feasibility of alterative IT solutions The candidate is expected to compare the feasibility of two approaches. Assessing the feasability means considering the appropriateness of the solution in this social’ ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 14
    • context, the availability of technical aid human resources and the cost effectiveness The following key questions should be considered. o Which approach best meets the needs of the end-user(s)? It is possible that one approach best meets the needs of the end-user(s) but because of other o advantages and disadvantages, the other approach is selected, o Is it clear which approach will be selected and why? Planning the chosen IT solution The IT solution must be one of the feasible approaches identified above. Based ~ research, the investigation of various solutions, and the factors involved (data stakeholders. software, hardware, procedures and policies), a formal plan is developed The following key questions should be considered. What data is required? o Who are the end-users? o What specific software (tide, company, version) is required and is it. choice justified? o What hardware (model, specifications) is required and is its choice justified? o What technical support is required? o What are the details of the time line? o Are storyboards, diagrams, or other design details required to make the product? o Has the testing strategy (who, what when, where for beta and end-user testing) been formulated? o What are the end-user training requirements? o What related procedures and policies are required? o Is the design clear enough to allow replication by a third party? Making the product The candidate creates the product. During this process, the candidate modifies the product as necessary and collects informal testing information and opinions from the ITGS teacher and fellow students. This phase is considered alpha testing and an ongoing process until the students feels that the product is ready for beta testing (formal testing). The following key questions should be considered. o Does the product work technically? o Does the product contain all the data that is required? o Does the product meet the needs of the end-user(s)? o Is the product effective and fully functional? Testing and evaluating the solution Formal testing is conducted by requiring the beta tester and the end-user to record their observations on a questionnaire. The questionnaire and the responses must be included in the appendices, Within the report, the candidate must include the names of the persons who are involved in the beta testing and end-user testing and state why they are qualified to do this formal testing. The candidate must explain the process by which the solution was beta tested (formally tested for technical flaws), termed and then beta rested again by a different person. The candidate must explain the modifications. Before and after screen shots can be included to assist in explaining how the change has improved the product. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 15
    • The last phase of formal testing is by the end-user who was identified in the identifying the Problem” phase. The end-user must evaluate the solution to ensure that the product meets the social need. The following key questions should be considered. o Has the product been beta tested for technical and design flaws? o Has the product been tested for content? o Has the product been formally tested by the end-user? o Have alt testing processes been formally documented? Assessing the social significance of the product The candidate must identify and explain two distinct Social impacts of the product. o The observed social impact must emerge from the development or use of the product. o The projected social impact arises from the candidate’s perspective of how this pro-duct could be used in the future in a wider setting. The social impact of the product may emerge as the candidate observes the end-user in the testing process and the reactions of users when the final product is made available. Final product is made available. Candidates should record their observations in the log book. The candidate should consider what the impact of the product would be if its use was expanded or used in a wider setting. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 16
    • Internal Assessment Criteria – The Project The project is assessed against seven criteria which are related to the objectives of the ITGS course. Criterion G Identifying the problem within a social context 3 marks Criterion H Analysis and feasibility study 4 marks Criterion I Planning the chosen IT solution 10 marks Criterion J Testing and evaluating the solution 6 marks Criterion K Assessing the social significance of the product 3 marks Criterion L The product 6 marks Criterion M The log book 3 marks Total 35 marks G. Identifying the Problem within a Social Context If the problem is not set in a social context or the candidate does not identify an end-user, a mark of zero is awarded Level 0 Level 1 is not achieved. 1 The candidate outlines the problem in a social context and identifies an end-user. 2 The candidate describes the problem in a social context and identifies an end-user. 3 The candidate describes the inadequacies of the present situation, describes the problem in a social context and identifies an end-user. H. Analysis and Feasibility Study The candidate is expected to analyze two feasible and distinct IT approaches to the solution of the problem. Level 0 Level 1 is not achieved. 1 The candidate describes two distinct IT approaches that address the problem. 2 The candidate describes two distinct IT approaches that address the problem and compares their advantages and disadvantages. 3 The candidate satisfies the descriptors for 2 marks and justifies the chosen approach with reference to its feasibility. 4 The candidate satisfies the descriptors for 3 marks and justifies the chosen approach by explaining how it solves the problem. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 17
    • I. Planning the Chosen IT Solution The Candidate should provide the following information related to the planning of the IT solution. A maximum of 10 marks is available for this criterion. Each of the five areas listed below is marked independently. Level 0-2 The candidate has provided a detailed schedule of the events involved in the planning, implementation and testing of the product. This includes who does what, and when. 0-2 The candidate has provided visual evidence of the design of the product. either as storyboard or as detailed diagrams. 0-2 The candidate has fully described the software required (including title, company, version) and explained how it is used. 0-2 The candidate has fully described the hardware required including model and specifications and explained how it is used 0-2 The candidate has fully described the collection of the appropriate data required for a comprehensive solution to the problem. J. Testing and Evaluating the Solution These two types of testing are called beta testing and end-user testing The candidate is required to use the cycle: beta test, refine, beta test, refine, end-user test, refine.. For each stage of testing, the candidate must make appropriate revisions to the project justifying the modifications. Evidence of the formal testing must appear in the appendix In the form of a questionnaire and responses from the testers. A mark of zero is awarded if there is no evidence formal testing. Level 0 Level 1 is not achieved. 1 the candidate describes testing by one beta tester and explains why they are a qualified beta tester but there is no refinement to the product. 2 The candidate describes testing by one beta tester and explains why they are a qualified beta tester, and there is one justified refinement to the product. 3 The candidate describes testing by two testers (beta and end-user, or two beta) and explains why they art qualified testers, and there is one justified refinement to the product 4 The candidate describes testing by two testers (beta and end-user, or two beta) and explains why they are qualified testers, and there are two justified refinements to the product. 5 The candidate describes testing by two beta testers and an end-user and explains why they are qualified testers, and there are two justified refinements to the product 6 The candidate describes testing by two beta testers and an end-user and explains why they are qualified testers, and there are three justified refinements to the product. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 18
    • K. Assessing the Social Significance of the Product Level 0 Level 1 is not achieved or the news item is not attached. 1 The candidate has provided a list of references (minimum 4, including the new~ item) 2 The candidate has provided a list of references (minimum 4. including the news item) and properly cited those references in the text. 3 The candidate explains one observed and one projected social impact of the project. L. The Product The product is submitted with the project report and the log book. If no product is submitted or the product is not a solution to the problem identified in criterion H, a mark a/zero is awarded for this criterion. Marks will be awarded by reference to the product, together with visual evidence contained within the project report. A maximum of 6 marks is available for this criterion. Each of the three areas listed below is marked independently. Level 0-2 2 marks are awarded if the product is technically fully functional. 1 mark is awarded if the product is partially functional A mark of 0 is awarded if the product is not functional. 0-2 The product is appropriately designed. A mark of 0 is awarded if the problem is not appropriately designed. 0-2 The candidate has developed a comprehensive solution for a complex task A mark of 0 is awarded for a simple solution. M. The Log Book The log book contains regular, dated entries from analyzing, planning, testing, implementing and evaluating the process and product. These include references for information, sketches and designs, evaluative comments and other appropriate entries. Level 0 Level I is not achieved. 1 The log book contains regular dated entries recording what the student has done throughout the whole period when the project was developed. 2-3 The requirements for I mark are met. and there is evidence from each of the five stages (analyzing, planning, testing, implementing and evaluating the process arid product). ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 19
    • LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS This is a list of IT abbreviations used in this guide. AI Artificial intelligence MHz Megahertz ASCII American standard code for information MIDI Musical instrument digital interface interchange MP3 MPEG audio layer 3 ATM Automated teller machine OCR Optical character recognition CAD Computer-aided design OMR Optical mark reader CAI Computer-aided instruction PDA Personal digital assistant CAL Computer-aided learning PDF Portable document format CD Compact disk RAM Random access memory CD-ROM Compact disk read-only memory ROM Read only memory dpi Dots per inch RTF Rich text format DTP Desktop publishing SSL Secure socket layer DVD Digital versatile disk TB Terabyte EDI Electronic data interchange TCP Transmission control protocol EFT Electronic funds transfer UPS Uninterruptible power supply FTP File transfer protocol URL Uniform resource locator GB Gigabyte VPN Virtual private network GUI Graphical user interface VR Virtual reality HTTP Hypertext transfer protocol WAN Wide are network IP Internet protocol WWW World Wide Web KB Kilobyte LAN Local area network MB Megabyte ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 20
    • Grading Policy Quarters 1, 2 & 4 Grade: Quarter 3 Grade: Assignments 60% Assignments 60% Computer Activities Computer Activities Portfolio Papers Worksheets Oral Presentations Tests Oral Presentations Worksheets 20% Project 40% Tests 20% Written Tests Practical Tests Final Grade: 1st Quarter 20% 2nd Quarter 20% 3rd Quarter 20% 4th Quarter 20% Final Exam 20%
    • Glossary of Terms used in ITGS The ITGS curriculum development team has attempted to include here all the essential terms required for the ITGS course. However, users should NOT assume that the list is exhaustive nor that terms not listed here will not be used in the course. In addition, we have included some terms that are not required but that may be useful for those wishing to cover selected topics in more depth than is required for the course. This glossary was developed for viewing with a Web browser. It has many internal links to help clarify selected definitions. Nearly all of the hyperlinks in this document are internal to this glossary. Thus, this glossary may be used effectively in a computer not connected to the World Wide Web. In addition, there are several links to external documents that give much more detailed information on selected topics. Two of the external links are to files at the International Baccalaureate Curriculum and Assessment office (IBCA) that can be downloaded and used in the same directory as this glossary file. Several other external links may be to non-IBCA documents providing amplification beyond the requirements of this course. A check mark, , occurs before terms that are used in the ITGS Course Guide or before terms that are important in understanding basic IT concepts. -A- ® Acrobat A product of Adobe Systems that produces documents which can be displayed and printed from most computer operating systems. Adobe provides free Acrobat® readers for downloading from the Internet. Acrobat® files have extensions of " PDF" (for portable document format). AI See artificial intelligence American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) The primary encoding character set used in computers. The current version has 7 bits per character. 8-bit "words" or character codes provide a bit that can be used as a check bit to help verify that the remaining 7 bits are correct. analog, analogue Referring to a signal that is varies continuously. The other type is signal is digital which is composed of discrete units. Digital circuits are easier t design and operate. Nearly all modern computers and new communication systems use digital signals. Stand alone fax machines usually (in 1996) send and receive analog signals. ANSI American National Standards Institute. The United States group that approves US many standards, including the standards for computers and for communications. ANSI is a member of the International Organization for Standardization, ISO. Also see byte. android A machine created to perform one or more functions normally done byhumans. Android literally means possessing human features; the OxfordEnglish Dictionary defines android as "an automaton resembling a human being." Androids resemble humans while robots need not have physical features like those of humans (but they may). See cyborg and robot. applet Programs written in Sun Microsystem's Java language. The programs contain the code needed to "play" animations or to present interactive applications. Applets can be downloaded using Netscape and played in a Web session. application software or programs Programs designed to support work or recreation functions, e.g., word processors, spreadsheets, database managers, and image editors. These programs may be integrated into one or more suites of software. Application software should be distinguished from utility programs. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 22
    • Archie A system that gathers, indexes, and distribute information on the Internet. Initially developed at McGill University School. While Veronica searches Gopher files, Archie searches FTP file sites. Archie functions are being replaced by Web Search Engines on the World Wide Web. artificial intelligence A property of machines that, if achieved, mimics human thought processes. Many researchers in artificial intelligence consider the abilities of "learning", reasoning, and decision making as essential to claims of machines possessing artificial intelligence. Sometimes referred to as AI. ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Also see byte. Asimov, Issac (1920-1992) An author of mostly science fiction short stories and novels. He is known as a futurist who predicted future developments in computers and information technology and their influence on society. Asimov introduced the fictional "three laws of robotics" that have been the basis for many discussions on ethical considerations of using robots. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) A very fast data transmission method. It dynamically allocatesbandwidth and uses a fixed-size data packet. Large files are broken into small standard sized units that are transmitted to the receiving computer where the packets are reassembled into a copy of the original file. The number of packets transmitted per second is dynamically determined based upon the needs of the applications requesting the data. ATM See Asynchronous Transfer Mode attachment, e-mail A document sent as a attachment to an e-mail message. The attachment may be any digital file object such as a simple ASCII text document, a word processing document, an image, a sound file, a video file, or a spreadsheet file. authentication Verification of a person's identity or the source of a document. In network systems, authentication referrers to verifying that messages and documents came from the person indicated. -B- back door (or "trap door", "wormhole") An entry into a computer system deliberately left by designers, usually privileged accounts intended for field service technicians or maintenance programmers. backup, back-up 1. verb - To make copies of computer data or programs. 2. noun - Copies of computer data or programs. Backups may be on any media such as floppy diskettes, hard disks, CD-ROMs, or tapes. Backups are made to be used for recovery in the the event of damage or loss of the original version of the files. bandwidth 1. The difference in height between the highest and lowest frequencies.. 2. A measure of the amount of data that can be transmitted through a circuit per unit of time (second). baud The carrying capacity of communication lines or systems in symbols per second. Baud rates coincide with bits per second only under specificconditions. "Baud" was used for telegraph speeds for one Morse code dot per second. The term is confusing and, "bits per second" (bps) or "characters per second" (cps) should be used for modern computer and fax communications. Note that in the ASCII code, each character is composed of eight bits! BGR Blue, Green, Red. The colors of light that, when mixed, produce any other color. Images may be stored as sets of separate red, green and blue overlays. The three colors are emitted from to the three "guns" in a color cathode ray tube. BGR is sometimes a synonym for color, for example, a "RGB monitor". There are other methods of storing and representing colors (see CMYK and HSV). binary ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 23
    • Relating to systems composed of only two items or choices. See bit. bit binary digit. The smallest unit of information for data storage andtransmission. Each bit is considered to be either a "1" or a "0" and is said to be "set" or true if its value is 1 and "clear" or "reset" if the value is "0". Bits are sometimes referred to as being O or 1, and sometimes as plus (+) or minus (-), sometimes as being "on" or "off", and sometimes as "true" or "false". (Seebyte. Also see Boolean logic and fuzzy logic.) bitmap A file or image structure representing, bit for bit, an image displayed on a monitor. Bitmaps define the width and height of images and the parts of images. Bitmaps may represent colored images; in this case, more than on bit is needed to define each pixel. See BGR. BMP An image file format used in Microsoft Windows. A bitmap format. See GIF, JPEG, PIC, PIX, TIFF, and WPG. Boolean logic A system of logic based on Boolean algebra and named after George Boole (hence, capitalized). It deals with the two truth values of "TRUE and "FALSE". It also included the modifiers of "AND", "OR" and "NOT". The Boolean conditions of true and false are often represented by "0" for "false" and "1" for "true". The "0" and "1" states are sometimes referred to as "no" and "yes" conditions. See fuzzy logic boot, boot up To start or initialize a computer operating system. bps Bits per second, the transmission speed of data between computers (or faxmachines). BOPS is often used to express data transmission speeds. browser A program for reading hypertext. Browser permit viewing the contents of documents and support navigating among documents. The most popular World Wide Web browsers (1996) are Netscape Navigator and Microsoft's Internet Explorer. bulletin board system, bbs or BBS A computer and software providing a message database. Users log in and leave and read messages. Messages are often divided into topics. Some BBS provide archives of files or other services, e.g., e-mail. bug An unwanted operation or function in a program or in computer hardware. the use of the term "bug" to computer malfunctions is attributed to Admiral Grace Hopper. The story told by Admiral Hopper is that an early computer had malfunctioned. Upon investigation, a moth was discovered between the contacts in the machine. byte The unit of data storage and transmission in computers. A byte is usually considered the code for a single character. The number of bits in a byte varies among computer systems. We usually think of a byte as being 8 bits long. The English Latin alphabet has 52 characters (upper and lower case) and computers commonly also use punctuation marks and a few special characters such as the period, exclamation mark, slashes, equal sign, tilde, ampersand, dollar symbol, pound sign, percent mark, asterisk, plus sign, and carriage return. Including punctuation mark and special characters, we need approximately 100 unique codes. Each bit can exist in only two states, 0 or 1. Thus, a 6 bit word can define only 64 characters, a 7 bit word can define 128 characters, and an 8 bit word can define 256 characters. If one bit is used to check the integrity of the entire byte, then we need at least an 8 bit byte (or "word") for common computer uses. -C- CAD Computer Aided Design. CAD systems are sometimes integrated with a computer aided manufacturing system, <AHREF="#cam"CAM. CAL Computer Aided Learning. learning that is assisted by interactive computer programs. See training and tutorial. call id, caller id ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 24
    • A telephone service the displays the telephone number and name of the person calling. call forward A telephone service by which telephone calls are forwarded to a previously determined number. The number to which calls are forwarded can be changed at time either remotely or at the phone from which the calls are forwarded. CAM Computer Aided Manufacture. CAM systems are sometimes integrated with a computer aided design system, <AHREF="#cad"CAD. CD, CD-ROM Compact Disk, Compact Disk-Read Only Memory. A data storage medium that uses the same physical formats as audio compact disk. There are several logical formats used to store data on CDs. Compact disk can store (currently,1996) approximately 600 megabytes (8-bit bytes) of data. Note: The French Academy has recommended the Gallicized cédérom version of word with this dictionary entry, "Cédérom (masculine noun) (final m pronounced). Adapted from the American term CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read Only memory). CERN The European Laboratory for Particle Physics located in Geneva, Switzerland. The World Wide Web originated in this laboratory in 1989 when its staff proposed a multimedia, hyperlinked system of documents. This laboratory has sometimes been referred to as the "home of the Web." The NCSA staff developed the first graphical browser, Mosaic, for the World Wide Web. Mosaic was released (free) for public use in 1990. chat room A virtual "place" where two or more network users can exchange e-electronic messages. Most chat or talk systems support real -time or simultaneous communications. checkdigit A checksum of only one digit. See ISBN for an example of a checkdigit. checksum A value that is computed and that depends on the contents of a set of data. Checksums are stored or transmitted with the data. The checksum is used to detect if the data has been altered during transmission or when being stored and retrieved. Receiving programs recompute the checksum to compare with the checksum sent or stored with the data. Checksums may be more than one digit. They are not always the result of addition but may be the result of one or more computations involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division. A very simple example of a checksum is found in ISBN codes for books and other documents. The last digit of an ISBN code is a checkdigit. (The ISBN codes use a single digit check value; thus an "x" is used to denote a value of 10 in ISBN codes.) ISBN checksums are examples of a one-digit checksum, or a checkdigit. client A computer program that requests a service of another computer system (a "server"). See also client-server. client-server A software partitioning scheme in which a system is divided between server tasks performed on requests from clients, asking for information or action. CGI Common Gateway Interface. A type of program that will run under nearly all operating systems and that is used primarily to process requests from html forms or to act upon information obtained from html forms. CISC Complex instruction set computer. The opposite of RISC. Pentium® and x86 type chips use CISC chips. codes of conduct Standards of behavior that are expected by or required of members of a community. Users of networks abide a code of conduct that insists upon respect for intellectual property rights, respect for other users of the network, and responsible use of network facilities. CMYK A method for describing colors by amounts of the secondary colors of Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow. In addition the amount of blacK (the "key") is also specified. The CMYK system is used in printing. See BGR and HSV). ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 25
    • computer abuse With respect to computer systems, using computers and networks to perform illegal or unacceptable acts. Abusive acts may include unauthorized access, send messages or making available files containing offensive language pornographic materials, repeated sending of unwanted messages, or any act considered unacceptable by the community sharing the resources. commercial software Software, usually copyrighted, produced for sale or license for use. See freeware software, public domain software, and shareware software. compression The coding of files to storage space or transmission time. Most commonly used files of text, images, sound, or video can be converted into files of fewer bits. These compressed files can then be expanded to the original form for display or play. Many compression algorithms exits. Some compressions are better suited on one type of file than for others. Commonly used image compression methods are JPEG, and GIF. There are special compression methods for sound and video (e.g., MPEG compression) files. Some compression methods are used for files without regard to the kind of data represented. Common general compression methods include zip and pkzip for DOS based systems, stuffit for Macintosh® operating systems, andcompress (using gzip) for UNIX operating systems. Two or more compressed files may be combined into an archive file using compression programs such as tat or zip. cookie A transaction ID used between cooperating programs. Cookies are used by some browsers and Web server programs to identify the client user and even unique preferences or requests from the client user. Cookies may be stored for use during a given session, for a set length of time (seconds, minutes, hours, or days), or retained permanently. Cookie information is stored with the browser on the client side; the information is automatically accessed and used by the browser in subsequent transactions. copyright 1. The legal right of authors, composers, or publisher to "print" and distribute intellectual and artistic creations. The right is granted by governments and may apply to intellectual property in digital forms. In this case the printing and distribution includes digital forms of the works. cps Characters per second, used in expressing the speed of transferring digital data. CPU Central Processing Unit. The main processing chip of a computer. cracker A person who attempts to gain unauthorized access a computer system, often for malicious purposes. The term was coined by hackers to defend against misuse of "hacker". cyborg A human with one or more mechanical or electronic devices implanted to enhance the capsbilites of that human. Seeandroid androbot. -D- data Numbers, codes, words, or phrases without units or other items that define or give meaning to these original elements. See information, knowledge, and wisdom. DBMS Database management system. A program that sorts, links, and otherwise organizes and manages data in a database. DBMS may also assist in the analysis of data and the preparation of reports. data compression See compression. data redundancy The storage of duplicate data. Relational databases provide file structures than can help reduce the need for duplicate data elements. Networks help reduce the need for duplicate data by permitting the sharing of data. data encryption ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 26
    • The scrambling of data into unintelligible characters using passwords. The encrypted file can be restored to their original state using the correct password. See an external document about encryption. database (also "data base") A collection of related types of data in a single file or set of files for sorting, analysing, and reporting. data integrity The entry and preservation of stored data in a manner that results in its retrieval in a form identical to the original and representing the original observations or ideas. Uncorrupted data. data redundancy The storage of duplicate data. Data redundancy is often unnecessary but is sometimes useful or essential. relational databases help reduce the unnecessary replication of data. Unique keys in each database table are used to link tables of data belonging to specific records or entries in the database. defragment A process that reads file segments form non-contiguous sections of a storage device and then writes the files to the same device so that each file segment is contiguous with the preceding and following segments. When storage devices have files deleted, the unused space is available for future storage. If the net file written into the released space is large than the space available, then a pointed is recorded at the end of the segment and the remained of the file is written into one or more non-contiguous segments. DES Data Encryption Standard. An encryption algorithm. DES is the same as the ANSI standard Data Encryption Algorithm. It is a popular encryptionmethod, "approved" by the US Government. DES has been implemented inhardware and software, neither of which are supposed to be exported fromthe United States. desktop publishing (DTP) The use of computers to prepare text and graphics for printing. The best desktop publishing programs support the fitting of text into irregular shapes and the use of a variety of typefaces and font sizes and styles (bold, italic, underline, outline, superscripts, subscripts). digital Of or pertaining to data, programs, or information that exist in electronic binary form. The information is represented by combinations of the "1" and "0" conditions. See binary. digital data Data captured, stored, or transmitted in binary form. See bit and binary. directory A division of a file system into which files are placed. Directories are often organized into a hierarchal system with a root or main directory and one or more sub-directories. each sub-directory may also have many levels of sub-directories. In practice, most users keep related files with a single directory; operating system files are usually placed within specially named directories. In the MacIntosh Operating System, directories are called folders.See folder. Disk Operating System See DOS. Domain Name System -- (DNS) 1. A distributed data query service used on the Internet to translate Internet host names into Internet addresses. 2. Also the way of naming hosts, servers, and clients on Internet. download The transfer files from one computer to another. DNS 1. Domain Name System. A data query service used on Internet fortranslating host names into Internet addresses. It is also the host name used on the Internet. The proper term for a host name its "fully qualified domain name". DNS refers to both a way of naming hosts and the way of naming the servers and clients that manage that information on the Internet. 2. Distributed Name Service, used by OSF (Open Software Foundation) as the naming service for DCE (Distributed Computing Environment). DOS ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 27
    • Disk Operating System. A widely used interpreter or program that translates user commands into machine code for computer-disk interactions. Functions include the organization of files into folders or directories and the finding, erasing, coping, or restoring of files. DTP Desktop Publishing. -E- e-mail, email Electronic mail. EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. See ASCII and byte electronic mail Documents or messages exchanged electronically over computer networks. E-mail is typically sent to a mail server computer where the document is held until the intended recipient connects to the mail server and reads or downloads the documents. E-mail notes may have attached files. encryption The reversible modification of data into unintelligible sequence of characters using passwords and special computer programs. See data encryption. EDI Electronic Data Interchange. The set of document format standards and protocols by which business and academic information is exchanged over networks. EDI documents are used to process purchase orders, paybills, invoices, share shipping orders,send transcripts, and to facilitate similar transactions. endless loop See loop, endless. EPS A file extension for Encapsulated PostScript See Encapsulated Post Script. Encapsulated PostScript A type of formatting in which positions and vectors describe images.Postscript formatted information is embedded into files for display orprinting. Abbreviated as EPS. EPS is used for Postscript graphics files that are to be incorporated into other documents. Ethernet A coaxial cable local area network and an industry standard. Data is sent packets and the bandwidth (speed) is approximately 10 Mbits per second. ergonomics The designing of equipment to increase productivity and reduce user fatigue or discomfort. ethics, ethical consideration Ethics is a set of principles of acceptable behavior or the rules for the conduct of people. Ethical considerations are those factors that should be considered in determining appropriate actions. In the ITGS course, these considerations arise from social issues raised by the application IT. The following is an excerpt from an article, Philosophical Bases of Computer Ethics by Professor Robert Barger. "Computer ethics can be grounded in one of four basic world-views: Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism, or Existentialism. Idealists believe that reality is basically ideas and that ethics therefore involves conforming to ideals. Realists believe that reality is basically nature and that ethics therefore involves acting according to what is natural. Pragmatists believe that reality is not fixed but is in process and that ethics therefore is practical (that is, concerned with what will produce socially-desired results). Existentialists believe reality is self-defined and that ethics therefore is individual (that is, concerned only with one's own conscience). Idealism and Realism can be considered ABSOLUTIST worldviews because they are based on something fixed (that is, ideas or nature, respectively). Pragmatism and Existentialism can be considered RELATIVIST worldviews because they are based or something relational (that is, society or the individual, respectively). "Thus ethical judgments will vary, depending on the judge's world-view." executive information system ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 28
    • EIS. Real-time computer access to internal and external business information by executives for comprehensive decision making. Sometimes the data is captured at fixed intervals to provide data that can be more accurately compared. executive support system ESS. Computer system that contins data and that performs analytical processes to support decision making. expert system ES. A programmed system containing the collective knowledge of experts in a given area. Expert systems also employ "reasoning" methodologies or models to emulate an expert decision making process. Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code EBCDIC. Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. An old andoutdated character set used on IBM computers. EBCDIC lacked codes for some important characters and punctuation marks. EBCDIC was adapted from punched card code. -F- fiber optics Glass fibers used to transmit digital data infra-red or visible light a the carrier (usually a laser). The fiber are very thin, smaller than a human hair. Light does not escape from the fibers because they are made to give complete reflection inside the fibers. Fiber optics can carry very large amounts of data over long distances at great speeds and without distortions. In one test, AT&T transferred the equivalent of the entire Encyclopedia Britannica a distance of approximately 160 km (100 miles) in one second! file conversion The conversion of files formatted for on application into a from that can be used by another application. Typical file conversions are processed to permit the exchange of files between similar types of software but from different vendors. An example: The conversion of word processor documents created using Microsoft Word into a from for processing with WordPerfect word processor. field A single element of data in a single record within a database. File Transfer Protocol A protocol used between clients and servers and allows one computer to transfer files to and from another computer over a TCP/IP network firewall A software program or a or machine device that prevents unauthorized access to computers or computer files. Firewalls are sometimes specific machines containing security software and devices; these machines are provide connection to networks from dial-in lines. These special machines protect the computers on a network "behind" the firewall. Computers behind the firewall can connect to an outside network but the firewall protects these computers from unauthorized access from the outside network. flame Electronic mail or Usenet news messages that insult or provoke. As a verb, it is the sending such messages. flat-file, flat file An ASCII file containing data and usually serving as a database file. Flat file records may be single "line" or several records may occur in a line of or block of data. Flat-files are less useful for high speed searches or for linking tow or more sources of data. They are easily transferred among various operating systems and database managers. folder See directory. FTP File Transfer Protocol. A method of transferring files from one computer to another over a network. Connections require a user identification which may be open to "guest" or "anonymous" users, or the connections may restricted to specific persons. The connections may require public passwords, e-mail addresses, or secret passwords. Users many be permitted only to download files or they maybe given permission to both upload and download files. freeware ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 29
    • Software, often copyrighted, produced for free distribution and use. There often are restrictions regarding the sale or modification of the software. Sometimes referred to as public domain software. See commercial software,public domain software, and shareware software. fuzzy logic A type or set of Boolean logic used to process conditions of partial truth, that is for values that lie between being completely true and being completely false. Fuzzy logic was developed in recognition that conditions exits that cannot be easily described as belonging to a binary classification: 1 or 0, + or -, true or false. The term (and concept?) was introduced in 1960 by Dr. Lotfi Zadeh. See Boolean logic. Fuzzy logic attempts to treat degrees of truth or probabilities of truth as opposed to declaring that a condition is either always true or always false. Practical applications in computer controlled systems include the control of fuel and air mixtures in internal combustion engines, the proportional slowing of the speed of objects as they approach a given state or target, the heating and cooling of objects or spaces to prevent overheating, the mixing of two or more ingredients to achieve a defined final condition (especially when the components and their properties are constantly changing). Fuzzy logic uses weighted algorithms in computer programs to simulate human thought or "life-like" responses to external conditions. -G- GIF 1. A file name extension. 2. Graphics Interchange Format. A file compression method developed byCompuServe. The method reduces file sizes by counting repeating pixels and storing the pixel color and the number of repetitions. GIF compression is well suited for line art and simple images. GIF compression reduces image colors to no more than 256 colors. Most old computers and many computers in current use only display 256 colors. See JPEG, PIC, PIX, TIFF, and WPG.A more complete discussion of GIF compression is given in another document. gigabyte 1000 million bytes. Actually, 1,073,741,824 bytes or 1024 megabytes. (See byte.)Abbreviated "Gb" or "GB"The fact that a Gb is not exactly 1 billion is because digitalsystems are binary, based on a system to base 2. Thus, 2 raised to the power of 30 = 1,073,741,824. In non-computer systems and where the number system is to the base of 10, then 1 GB = exactly 1 billion. See megabyte. Global Positioning System (GPS) A sytem using satellites to accurately determine the location of any place in the earth's surface. Gopher 1. A document retrieval system. 2. Programs for retrieving network files. Gopher was developed at the University of Minnesota (USA) for use on their Campus Wide Information System. Gopher servers present document menus. The documents can be text, sound, image, program, or video files. Submenus may direct users to other Gopher file systems. The menus form a hierarchal file location system. The Web is replacing Gopher as the primary Internet system for finding, displaying, and downloading files. GPS Global Positioning System. Graphical User Interface GUI. A graphically-based computer monitor interface in which images, icons, dialogue boxes, and standard "widgets" are used to facilitate communication between humans and machines. GUI See graphicluiGraphical User Interface. -H- hertz Cycles per second. A unit of frequency. One hertz is equal to one cycle per second. Abbreviated as Hz. hacker ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 30
    • A person who enjoys details of programming, often obsessively and quickly. The term cracker should be used for negative application of programming skills. hard disk, hard drive A device for the storage of digital data. These are standard devices in most personal computers and may also exist outside a computer and used by cable connections. See tape drive. hardware Computer and network equipment consisting of transistors, circuit boards, wiring, connectors, disk drives, cables, and similar physical or tangible components. See software. host computer A computer connected to a network. Host computers are sometimes also called nodes on the network. HotJava A World Wide Web browser from Sun Microsystems that can execute programs "applets"written in the Java programming language. HSV A method of describing colors using Hue, Saturation, and Value when used to describe colors. Hue is the tint or basic color; saturation is degree of lightness or darkness; value is the intensity or the "amount" of color. Saturation is sometimes called the "shade" of color. Value is sometimes referred to as "tone". See BGR and CMYK HTML Error! Hyperlink reference not valid.. A set of tags or commands used by World Wide Web browsers to format and display text and images, to play sound or video, or to run programs. HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol. HTTPS -- HyperText Transmission Protocol, Secure. See Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Hyperlink Links or references within Web documents that upon selection (clicking the mouse with the cursor located over the document link) cause jumps to another location within the document, to other documents, or to programs that process images, sound, videos, operate upon databases, or preform other functions. Hyperlink objects may be words, phrases, images, or parts of images. Hyperlinked objects are usually displayed in a manner to distinguish them as links. Image maps may not show obvious linked portions and many areas of an image can be linked to different targets. Hypermedia like hypertext but includes graphics, sound, video and other kinds of data. See also Error! Hyperlink reference not valid.. Hypertext a document or set of documents with "links" that aid users in navigating among links and their references. Links may reference and facilitate jumps to places with a single document, to other documents in the same computer, or to documents in any computer on a network. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) Hypertext document format used World Wide Web documents.HTML tags tell Web browsers how the document should be displayed. HTML documents may include forms used for data capture; the values from HTML forms are processed by CGI programs on a Web server. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) The client-server TCP/IP protocol used on the World-Wide Web for the exchange of HTML documents. -I- icon Images, often very small, that represent an idea or object. Selecting an icon usually causes a program or document to open or a program to run and perform a set of operations. image maps Images in which portions have defined as linked to other documents orobjects. See hyperlink. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 31
    • information Data combined with units of measure or data with accompanying meaning. See data, knowledge, andwisdom. information economy An economy that is highly dependent upon the collection, storage, and exchange of information. many businesses now deal in managing and adding value to data and by selling information derived from the data. Data and information have economic value, Examples, include sales, production costs, potential customers and markets, crop yield predictions, weather forecasts, credit ratings, buying patterns, census and demographic data, and levels of education, and indicators of life styles.. information highway information superhighway information retrieval system A computer system used to store data and from which data may be selected and retrieved for use in reports and for analysis. Abbreviated IRS. See information system. information superhighway The Internet and its subset, the World Wide Web. (Also called "Infobahn" and "Info Strada".) The term "information superhighway" was first used in 1990 by Al Gore, US Vice-president. Mr. Gore was referring to the high-speedglobal communications network that carries voice, data, video data aroundthe world. The information superhighway is mediated by copper cables,satellites, fibre optics, and cellular telecommunications. information system A system (usually computer based) into which data is placed , in which data may be processed, from which data is selected and may analyzed, and from which reports may be produced. Abbreviated IS. See information retrieval system. information technology Any set of machines or programs used to store, retrieve, transmit or otherwise process data and information. Abbreviated IT. Informationtechnology includes systems that control machines or processes or that assist in making decisions. See information system. INpg Internet Protocol next generation.(also called IPv6) The most likely protocol or addressing method to replace the current Internet Protocol. Its main purpose is to provide a solution to the shortage of IP addresses. IP Internet Protocol. The network part of the TCP/IP protocol that is widely used on Ethernet networks. This protocol facilitates the routing of packets of data by routing, fragmenting and re-assembling of data files. institution For the ITGS course, any community or collection of persons with common interests, objectives, or goals, or that provide related services. Examples include businesses, schools, universities, governments, governmental agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGO), churches non-profit agencies. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Communications standards for a single wire or optical fibre to carry voice, digital network services and video. ISDN is offered by telephone systems in Australia, France, Japan, Singapore, the UK and in the USA. Europe is phasing to Euro-ISDN. intellectual property An original creation by a person, often non-tangible (not necessarily an object). These may include ideas, discoveries, writings, works of art or literature, collections and presentations of data. intelligent system A computer based system programmed to process data input by humans or machines and emulating human decision making. These systems may respond to respond to external stimuli, e.g., temperature, pressure, weight, time, strain, radio signals, acceleration, velocity, vectors. See artificial intelligence interface ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 32
    • A boundary between two systems. In IT, machines or humans communicate across these boundaries. An interface may be as simple as a hardware connectors, it may include communication protocols, or programs and features by which humans enter commands into and receive information from machines. Internet The Internet is usually capitalized to indicate that it a special set of connected computers. It is the largest network in the world and consists of many different physical networks around the world. These networks use various protocols including the Internet Protocol to communicate. Internet Protocol (IP) The network part of the TCP/IP protocol set. It supports routing, vfile fragmentation and re-assembly. Intranet A network that uses the tools of the World Wide Web but often with access restricted to within an organization or office. The Web tools that support an intranet are a Web server and client browsers. HTML forms and CGI programs also are often used in intranets. IS See information system. ISBN International Standard Book Number. The last character of an ISBN is a check digit. See a supplementary document for more details about ISBN ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network. ISDN lines may vary in their capacity to transmit data as shown in the following table. Transmission Type Channels Transmission Speed DS-0 1 64 kbps T1 or DS-1 24 1.54 Mbps T1C or DS-1C 48 3.15 Mbps T2 or DS-2 96 6.31 Mbps T3 or DS-3 672 44.37 Mbps T4 or DS-4 4032 274.1 Mbps ISO International Organization for Standardization. A voluntary, organization that creates international standards, including the standards for computers and communications. National standards groups from nearly 90 countries belong to the ISO. The American National Standards Institute, ANSI is a member of ISO. An example of an ISO set of standard codes is the two-character code set to denote countries, e.g., AR = Argentina, AT = Austria, AU = Australia, DE = Germany, SG = Singapore, and US = United States of America. (ISO is not one of the thousands of acronyms used by computer and communications workers! It is actually a pun based on the prefix "iso" which means "same" in Greek.) -J- Java An, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language developed by Sun Microsystems and that supports programming platform-independentJava "applets"or the Internet . JIC Just In Case. A situation where a company keeps on hand a small stock of rare components or those that require long production times, just in cae of a rush order. JIC is implemented to more fully serve customers. Do not confuse JIC with JIT ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 33
    • JIT Just In Time. A manufacturing method in which the raw materials aredelivered to the factory just before they are needed in the production. JIT is facilitated by information technology in which inventories are monitored and purchases are made using EDI, electronic data interchange. See JIC. JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group file compression method that modifies the original data and stores information on the shapes and colors that will represent the image upon decompression. JPEG is well suited forphotographic images, those with shading and gradual merging of colors, and those with many colors. JPEG compression methods do not decompress to the exact original image, but for most practical uses, humans cannot distinguish the expanded JEPG images from the original images. JPEG compression can store thousands or even millions of colors. See GIF, PIC, PIX, TIFF, and WPG. A more complete discussion of JPEG compression is given in another document. jpg 1. A file compression method. 2. A file name extension for <JPEG files. (This shortened version of JPEG is required by DOS systems that can only accept file extensions with a maximum of three characters.) -K- kilobyte 2 raised to the power of 10 = 1024 bytes. Abbreviated as Kb. Knowbot Information Service (KIS) Netaddress. Provides a uniform user interface to many remote directory services (e.g., whois, finger, X.500, MCIMail). knowledge An understand that humans derive by reasoning based upon data and its associated information. Examples of data are simple numbers, such as 123 and 456. Examples of information are $1.23 per dozen eggs and $4.56 per dozen eggs. Knowledge is an understanding that the $1.23 price is a better buy than is the $4.56 price. Wisdom may include judgements about the nutritional and health value of eggs or about the relative value of eggs as a source of protein compared to other sources. See <A, HREF="#data"data, information, and wisdom. knowledge base A collection of data representing related experiences and their results or related problems and their solutions. Knowledge bases include programs for searching and retrieving information. Knowledge bases are used to assist persons in making decisions. -L- LAN See local area network and network LCD liquid crystal display. LINUX A UNIX style operating system for personal computers. LINUX is freeware and can be installed at low cost, usually the cost of the delivery media, eg/., CD-ROM. Listserv (Note spelling, only eight characters.) An electronic discussion support system. Users can subscribe and unsubcribe by e-mail. All messages sent to the discussion list are automatically sent to all subscribers. Most list servers support archiving of the messages by day, week, month, or year. local area network A computer based communications network limited to approximately 1 km radius and often within a single office, building, or single company location. See network logic bomb ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 34
    • Code secretly inserted into an application or operating system causing it to perform some destructively. loop, endless See endless loop. Lynx A Web browser developed at the University of Kansas. -M- markup language / markup tags A set of codes inserted I documents and used by print or browser programs to format the output. Markup tags are independent of the vendors' programs and devices that print or display the document. The code does not constitute a programming language, but some markup "languages" include codes that permit the optional printing or displaying or the merging of data. The original and primary intent of markup tags was to facilitate the printing of documents, independent of the printer or print formatting programs used. megahertz 1 million hertz. See hertz. megabyte 1000 bytes or actually = 1,048,576 bytes or 1024 kilobytes. See gigabyte. <DT menu A list of choices. In IT, users select from the choices presented. Selections are usually made using a mouse. Selections may also be controlled by keyboard selections. Menus may be presented within dialogue boxes, on the central portion of a computer monitor, or as pull-down menu lists that display choices when one of several choices is selected on a menu bar, usually displayed at the top of a window or top of a monitor display. MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface. A hardware specification and a protocol used with synthesizers, computers, keyboards, and other devices for producing music. model A description of an event, behavior, or condition in the real world. Models help in understanding complex systems. Models are useful only to the extent that they explain the real conditions they describe. Models are used to develop simulation programs. Mosaic A World Wide Web browser developed and distributed free by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) in the United States. mouse A hand-held device for moving the cursor and for pointing on computer monitors. The device may have one or two keys that, when pressed, will cause objects under the cursor to be selected or activated. Later versions of the mouse include small pads upon which a moving finger will cause the cursor too move. Other versions of pointing and selecting devices (in place of a mouse) are "track balls", laser or microwave mediated mediated devices, and "joy sticks". MPEG Moving Pictures Experts Group. MUD Multi-User Dimension or Multi-User Domain. A network of servers that support discussions. Similar to IRC. multimedia Documents that contain information in than one form: text, sound, images, video. multitasking A method by which an operating system supports the sharing of a single processor with tow or more jobs or programs. -N- NC Network Computer. A system designed to use high speed networks or cable TV systems to connect to centrally stored data. NC machines tend to have less memory and very small or no hard disk and are less ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 35
    • expensive than non-NC computers. NC machines depend upon the external machine to which they are connected for data storage and often for complex data processing. NCSA National Center for Supercomputing Applications in Urbana, IL, USA. netiquette Acceptable use and behavior in using network resources, especially the use of e-mail and news groups. Poor netiquette involves "flaming", "spamming", and posting rude and degrading messages, resending entire long messages when responding, and failure to include useful subject lines. network Any set of computer systems connected by cables, phone lines, or radio communication methods and which share data. news groups Internet and World Wide Web discussion groups to which persons may subscribe. An message posted to the group is sent to all subscribers. A very few news groups are moderated; that is, the messages are first reviewed by a person who may censor or restrict what is posted. The news groups are processed by news or discussion group server which receive and store the messages for distribution to subscribers. The messages are usually stored for only one or two weeks. Subscribers must actively request downloads of unread messages; the messages are not automatically sent to a subscriber's e-mail mail box. Node 1. An device on a computer network and which can be addressed so it can be contacted by other computers. 2. A "host" computer on a network. -O- OCR Optical Character Recognition. Refers to using devices and software to "read" characters and translate the into ASCII characters that can ten be processed by computer programs. Applications of OCR include the scanning of printed documents to convert the text into digital data as ASCII text; the text can then be edited in word processors. OOP Object Oriented Programming. A method of programming or programming languages in which portions of code, called objects, are reused. Program objects have defined properties which are transferred to (inherited from) similar "parent" objects. OOP has facilitated rapid development of complex programs. operating system A program that manages the files in a computer, controls internal orconnected devices (peripherals), and runs other selected programs.Abbreviated OS. operators A symbol that denotes an action. These may classified as o arithmetic: substraction, multiplication, division, or exponentiation; o text: concatenation,LIcomparison or relational: equal, greater than, less than, greater than or equal to, less than or equal to, not equal to, or o reference: in the case of spreadsheets, to combine cell identifiers. e.g., the colon, ":". OS Operating System -P- Packet A unit of data sent across a network. paradigm An example, a model. A way of thinking about a problem, condition, or situation. When persons discover a new way of viewing a problem and its solutions, they are said to have made a "paradigm shift". ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 36
    • parse 1. To scan text. In IT the parsing is with a computer program that searches for specific character sequences or syntax. Parsers also respond to the parsing by formatting the text, processing functions, running other programs, or performing other specific processing based upon the text parsed. 2. To break a sentence into component parts of speech. 3. To describe words with respect to form, part of speech, or relationships in a sentence. password A character string that must be entered into a computer system to open documents and databases, or to otherwise gain access to a system. Passwords should (1) be long; (2) contain mixed case characters, numbers, or special characters; (3) be changed often; (4) never be real words or proper names, and (5) never given to other persons or left written where others might have access to them. Alternatives to passwords may include scans of finger or hand prints, retinal scans, facial scans, voice recognition, mechanical (real) keys, magnetic strips on cards, or answers to specific questions. path A series of hierarchical directories (or folders) that define the location of a file in a storage device. peripheral Any hardware device, other than the CPU and its integrated components, attached to a computer. The devices may include hard disk, tape drives, CD-ROM drives, sound systems, still camera, video cameras, or any equipment that process digital data. PGP See Pretty Good Privacy. PDF Portable Document Format. PIC An image file format. Used mostly in Apple Macintosh® systems. SeeBMP, GIF, JPEG, PIX, and WPG. piracy As applied to IT, the stealing of intellectual property by illegally coping, distributing, or selling software and documents. Piracy extends to the illegal copying of music, books, and programs. PIX An image file format. SeeBMP, GIF, JPEG, PIC, and WPG. pixel Picture element. A single dot on a monitor or printed document. The smallest rectangular area of an image that can be manipulated on a monitor or printer or stored in memory. The simplest pixel is a black and white unit that is either white or black. If 8 bits are used to describe a pixel, its brightness can range from 0 to 255 and shades of gray or colors can be represented. In color images, the data describing the pixels has both brightness and color information. Pixels of 24 bits can represent millions of colors. See GIF and JPEG. Portable Document Format (PDF) The file format for Adobe Systems' Acrobat to display or print documents independent of the original application, hardware, or operating system used to create those documents. PDF files are becoming popular on the World Wide Web and some browsers will automatically display them. Acrobat readers are distributed free by Adobe. PDF files must be created with Adobe Systems' Acrobat® document editor. Adobe Systems distributes PDF reader programs free of charge. Point of Presence (PoP) A site with telecommunications equipment, (modems,leased lines, routers). Internet network access providers operate one or more PoPs. PoP Point of Presence Point-to-Point Protocol PPP. Provides an Internet standard method for transmitting IP packets over serial connections. PPP was designed to operate over both asynchronous and synchronous connections. SLIP was developed for serial connections, e.g., modem connections over standard asynchronous phone lines. Postscript A Page Description Language (PDL) that describes pages for printing text, drawings, and pictures independent of the printing device PPP ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 37
    • Point-to-Point Protocol. private key encryption An encryption method in which the documents must be opened (decrypted) using the same key as was used in the encryption. Pretty Good Privacy A high security public-key encryption method for most computer systems. First written by P. R. Zimmermann, it has been enhanced by other programmers. PGP was distributed as freeware." See Public Key Encryption. program A collection of instructions in binary code, read by computers, and that process data from external sources or stored within the program. protocol A rules that describes how data is transmitted and how computers"communicate". Protocols are essential for communications amongcomputers using different operating systems or different character code sets. Protocols may define (1) the electrical standards to be observed, (2) the orders of bits and bytes, (3) error detection, and (4) error corrections. Protocols also define data formatting, and the syntax of electronic commands and messages. Protocols may define how terminals communicate with to computers or clients with servers. Character sets and and how machine command messages are sequenced. public-key encryption An encryption scheme, in which each person has a pair of keys: one public and one private. Public keys may be published. Private keys must be kept secret. Documents are encrypted with a recipient's public key . Thesedocuments can only be decrypted using the recipient's private key. Sendersand receivers do not need to share secret keys. public domain Software or other intellectual material that is free and available to the public without restrictions. With regard to software, this is usually the same as freeware; however, freeware may be copyrighted and often carries the identity of its creator. See freeware software, commercial software,and shareware software. <DT pull-down menu A list that displays choices when one of several choices is selected on a menu bar, usually displayed at the top of a window or top of a monitor display. -Q- query An inquiry. A question. A "query" is used in SQL when formulating a question to submit to a data base manager that uses the SQL language. quicktime video A standard developed by the Apple Computer company and used in integrating full-motion video (also sound) in computer programs. -R- RAM 1. Random Access Memory. 2. (Meant to be humorous.) Rarely Adequate Memory, from the fact that programs and data expand to fill the memory available. reengineer re-engineering, reengineer To make change in organizational (company, school) structures that influence production, communication, processing, or services. Information technology often facilitate re-engineering by improving ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 38
    • communications, giving access to management data, or helping workers process information. Computers and robots can perform some human tasks and allow workers to conduct higher level tasks. relational database A database consisting of files than be viewed as collections of tables of rows and columns. Each table row is a record of one entity. Each column represents a specific field of data, e.g., name, age, weight, height. The tables usually contain a unique identifier (key) for each record (row). Data from two or more tables may be combined by matching the unique identifiers. See flat-file record A single entry for an entity in a database and may be composed of more than one data field (item of data or data element). relational operators Operators that show the relationship between two entities. See operators. RFC Request For Comments. RGB A method of defining colors by the amounts of red, green, and blue contained in each pixel. Red, green, and blue are the primary colors and can be mixed to produce any non-primary color. See CMYK RISC Reduced instruction set computer. The opposite of CISC. Processor chip using a reduced set of instructions but executing them at high speed. These chips contain most commonly used instructions and pass requests for others to external chips. Typical RISC chips provide high performance at low power consumption. robot 1. A mechanical device controlled by computer processors and programs and that perform human-like tasks. See cyborg andandroid. 2. A computer program that "explores" the World-Wide Web without humanintervention. These programs automatically follow links on World Wide Web documents. ROM Read Only Memory. A storage device made with contents that do not change. ROM usually holds programs. router An item of equipment that directs communications among networks. The device contains programs that determine where to forward files. These forwarding decisions are based on tables of data about the structure of the networks and by network protocols. RSA a public-key encryption system invented by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman. RSI Repetitive Stain Injuries. See ergonomics. -S- search engine A program that searches for informationon the World Wide Web using key words. Search engines may look only at document titles, headers, or URLs; others may conduct searches of the complete text (full text searches). See Web Crawler Secure Sockets Layer -- (SSL) A protocol from by Netscape Communications Corporation designed to give secure communications on the Internet. SSL operates below the HTTP,Telnet, FTP, and Gopher protocols. SSL is layered beneath applicationprotocols such as HTTP. Working above the TCP/IP protocols it "protects" the applications that are transmitted over TCP/IP connections. This secure transmission method is used by HTTPS. Serial Line InternetProtocol (SLIP) Software that allows the Internet Protocol (IP), to be used over a serial line connected to a modem. SLIP does not support error detection. SLIP connections need IP address configurations set before the connection is established. Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) can determine the address automatically after the connection is started. serial number A unique number or character string assigned to an item of equipment or to a copy of a software program. server ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 39
    • 1. A program which provides services requested by client programs. 2. A computer which provides services to other computers connected over anetwork. SGML Standard Generalized Markup Language. shareware Software that is distributed freely and for which users voluntarily pay a fee for its use. All users are ethically obligated to pay for shareware if it is used beyond the implied or implied evaluation period. See freeware software,public domain software, and commercial software. simulation A system that emulates, by computer, real mechanical or natural systems and then outputs the predicted results of real world conditions. Models that describe these conditions are used to develop simulation programs. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. This communication works over asynchronous telephone lines. See also PPP smiley A simple character code used to convey expressions of feeling within text messages. Examples are :-) (happy) and :-( (sad). Another document with a more complete set of smiley codes may be available. social domain Any of the groupings into which social issues may classified: economic, political, cultural, legal, environmental, historical, ergonomic, medical/health, or psychological. software Computer programs. The programs may be stored in non-volatile circuits (e.g., ROM, read only memory) or in files of code on hard disk, floppy disk, or tapes. Software programs are often classified as operating system, applications (productivity), utilities, or games. Software may be either the source code written by humans or the executable machine code produced by assemblers or compilers (from the source code). Other classifications include freeware, shareware, -T- teletext A communications system that broadcast test information by a television signal to receiving equipment equipped with software or chips that perform decoding. text format The placement of text in printed or displayed documents. Text formatting includes the setting of margins, typefaces, font sizes, text alignments (left, center, right, or justified), style, (bold, italic, underline, outline, shadowed), table construction, and the flow of text around images. TIFF Tagged Image File Format. SeeBMP, GIF, JPEG, PIC, PIX, and WPG. training software Computer programs that training, usually job related, e.g., how to perform tasks, about company procedures or policies. Training programs may also be used to teach basic knowledge and skills. They permit users to learn at a pace determined by the user, easy repetition of material, and some give information in response to answers or choices made by the users. See tutorial software and computer aided learning. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) The common transport part of the protocol used on the Internet. Trojan horse A malicious program disguised to appear as something benign. See virus and worm. TrueType An outline font standard developed by Apple Computer, and embraced by Microsoft. A competitor to Adobe's popular PostScript. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 40
    • Turing test A test for deciding whether a computer is intelligent and proposed in 1950 by Alan Turing. Turing preferred to consider if machines can be intelligent as opposed to whether "Can machines think?" In a Turing test, human(s) converse in writing with an unseen person or machine. If the human(s) cannot distinguish between an unseen human and an unseen machine (computer) then the machine is said to have passed the test and is intelligent. tutorial software Computer programs that give instruction in how to use the software program or system that they support. These programs simulate the capabilities of the system. See training software and computer aided learning. -U- UNIX A widely used operating system, especially in servers and other non-personal computers. Although a technically excellent and powerful operating system, many UNIX commands are not easily understood by the uninitiated. upload The transfer files from one computer to another. Uniform Resource Locator See URL URL Uniform Resource Locator as used by the World Wide Web. Examples: ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/mirrors/msdos/graphics/gifkit.zip gopher://www.w3.org/default.html http://www.w3.org/default.html http://wombat.doc.ic.ac.uk/?Uniform+Resource+Locator http://www.w3.org/default.html#Introduction news:alt.hypertext mailto:dbh@doc.ic.ac.uk telnet://dra.com utility programs or software Programs used to manage files or repair damaged files or to otherwise enhance the operations of computer system. As examples, utility programs are used to recover erased files, to organize files, to repair damaged files, or to detect and remove viruses. Utility software should be distinguished from applications programs. Usenet Users' Network. A distributed bulletin board system that has becomeinternational is the largest decentralized information utility in existence. -V- vector graphics A drawing method that uses shapes such as lines, polygons and text and groups of these objects to create a picture. The other primary method stores bitmaps of the image. The vector graphics advantages are that changes to one part of the picture does not change other parts, the parts are stored independently, and vector graphics are easily scaled without losing resolution. Veronica - Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives. It supports keyword searches of gopher menu titles in all gopher web sites. While Archie searches FTP archives, Veronica searches Gopher files. A Veronica search yields a menu of Gopher items. Veronica functions havebeen largely replaced by Web Search Engines on the World Wide Web. Direct Veronica and Archie searching has been largely replaced on the World Wide Web with more sophisticated search engines. video-conference A conference in which the participants are at various locations and in which television type images and sounds are simultaneously exchanged among the participants. Each participants is able to hear and see the participants at each of the other sites. See tele-conference. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 41
    • video-on-demand A system that delivers compressed video files upon a request form a user. The file is then expanded and "played" on the users computer system. Video-on-demand requires high speed communications to deliver the large video files within an acceptable time. virus A program that "infects" other programs or files by embedding a copy of itself into the the target files. Viruses are propagated by trading programs. See worm and Trojanhorse. virtual presence The simulation of the presence of one or more persons in places or situations. The simulated condition may be from or at a remote location and may be facilitated over networks by telecommunications and tele- conferencing. Virtual presence also may be implemented in a single machine, e.g., from CR-ROM based programs and databases. virtual reality Computer simulation of 3-dimensional systems of sight, sound, or touch. These simulations are intended to give users of the impression or feelings of being present within the scenes or conditions being simulated. voice recognition 1. An IT system in which the voices of individuals is recognized. Some systems use vice recognition as a security feature to permit access to the system. 2. An IT system that can respond to voice commands, often without regard to the person speaking. voxel Volume element. The smallest distinguishable part of a three-dimensional space. A voxel is identified by x, y and z coordinates or sometimes by its centre. See pixel VR Virtual reality. A system that simulates real situations and which participants sense sounds and images similar to real life conditions. Advanced and future systems can include sensations of touch and even odors. VRAM video random access memory. Video Random Access Memory VRAM. Fast memory to store images to be displayed on a computer's monitor. -W- W3 1. World Wide Web. 2. A World Wide Web browser for Emacs computers. WAIS Wide Area Information Servers. An information retrieval system in which clients retrieve documents using keywords. The search results are ranks in order of the frequency of occurrences of the key words in the documents. WAN See wide area network. Web World Wide Web, see definition at World Wide Web. Web Crawler A specific search enginedeveloped by Brian Pinkerton at the University ofWashington. It is a freeware program that "roams" the World Wide Web and collects URLs. Users can then perform searches by entering keywords. web page A document on the World Wide Web. These documents are used with browsers to display text and images and to play sound, video, or animation programs. Web page files contain HTML codes to control the display and playing of their associated components. web server A computer program that receives and processes requests from clientbrowsers. Web Search Engines ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 42
    • systems that search the World Wide Web, index document contents, and permit keyword or full text searches. white space Space without images or text in documents. White space may make printed or displayed documents more attractive or interesting. Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS) A distributed information retrieval system. Clients can search for key words in documents and read or download the documents. Wide Area Network A computer network larger than a local area network (LAN), serving more than one geographical location, e.g., several company sites, an entire state or country, several countries. Abbreviated WAN. See local area network. windows, Windows A method of presenting the output from computer programs in frames on a display monitor. Several operating systems support the use of windows. On computers using Intel® processors (x86 and Pentium®), Microsoft's Windows, Microsoft Windows® 95®, and Windows NT® are the most popular systems using a windows environment. The word is capitalized when referring to one of the Windows bases systems of the Microsoft Corporation. On machines running under a UNIXoperating system, the windows system called "X" is the most common windows environment. The Macintosh® operating system makes extensive use of windows. Many programs present information or forms within window frames. widget 1. In graphical user interfaces, any of several graphic symbols or "tools" used to aid in communication or to collect data in forms. Widgets include: (a) check boxes in which more than one choices may be made, (b) a set of two or more radio buttons from which only one choice can be made, (c) selection lists from which either one or multiple selections may be made, (d) text entry areas for the entry for text or numbers, (e) scroll-bars on selection lists and test areas, and (f) and buttons for specific functions (next, previous, exit, cancel, process). Some systems also provide slide bars and similar representation of similar mechanical devices familiar in non-computer environments. GUIwindows systems often provide a "standard" or commonly used set ofwidgets providing a consistent set of tools for computer users. 2. A word used to refer to real objects in examples. wisdom Knowing what is true, correct, proper, or fair. The application of common sense and good judgment. The sum of human learning through all times.See <AHREF="#data"data, <AHREF="knowledge"knowledge, and<AHREF="information"information word processor A program for creating documents for printing or display. Features include formatting, typeface and font selections. Most word processors include spell checking. World Wide Web (WWW, W3, The Web) An Internet client-server system of hypertextdocuments. The Web was introduced in 1991. By September 1993, theNSFNET transmitted 75 gigabytes per month of web documents. By July 1994 the traffic was one terabyte (10 raised the power of 36) per month. workstation A general-purpose computer designed to be used by one person at a time and offering higher performance than is normally found in a personal computer. worm, WORM 1. A program that propagates itself over a network. See virus and Trojan horse. 2. Read Once Write Many. A type of disk drive and compact disk on which one can write only once but read many times. WPG An image file format. SeeBMP, GIF, JPEG, PIC, and PIX. WWW World Wide Web, see definition at World Wide Web WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get. A system that displays on a computer monitor a nearly exact representation of documents as they will appear in printed form. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 43
    • -X- X The name of a window system for displaying information on computer monitors. (The system is not correctly called "X Windows" or "X windows".)See windows Windows. -Y- Yahoo 1. A very large and popular hierarchical index of the World-Wide Web. It was originally located at Stanford University. Yahoo's World Wide Web URL ishttp://www.yahoo.com (you must be connected to the World Wide Web for this link to work). 2. A crude, unrefined, awkward, clumsy, or ungraceful person. (Not an IT term!.) -Z- zip 1. A file compression method and the compressed file format. 2. The file extension for filed compressed using the zip program. 3. The process of compressing and achieving files using PKWare's PKZIP or a compatible file compressing and archiving program. Zip Drive A disk drive for removable 3.5 inch floppy disks that can store approximately 100 megabytes of data. ITGS FAIRPORT HIGH SCHOOL 44