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  • 1. Robotics Introduction
    • Course Structure
    • Etymology
    • Definition Robot
    • Definition Robotics
    • OK So what is a robot?
    • How new is robotics?
    • What do I need to know to work in robotics
      • Math and language is mostly common
      • Vocabulary
      • Matrix Algebra
    • Types of Robots 
  • 2. Etymology
    • The Word Robot has its root in the Slavic languages and means worker, compulsory work, or drudgery. It was popularized as a word for intelligent machines by the Czechoslovakian playwright Karel Kapek in Rossum’s Universal Robot 1921
    • 1950s Isaac Asimov Came up with laws of robotics in I Robot
    • 1. A robot may not injure a human being, or through inaction allow a human being to come to harm.
    • 2. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the first law.
    • 3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the first or second law.
  • 3. Definitions
    • Robot: Many Definitions
    • American Heritage Dictionary: ro·bot (rbt, -bt) n.
      • 1: A mechanical device that sometimes resembles a human being and is capable of performing a variety of often complex human tasks on command or by being programmed in advance.
      • 2: A machine or device that operates automatically or by remote control.
      • 3: A person who works mechanically without original thought, especially one who responds automatically to the commands of others.
    • Websters:
      • 1 a : a machine that looks like a human being and performs various complex acts (as walking or talking) of a human being; also : a similar but fictional machine whose lack of capacity for human emotions is often emphasized b : an efficient insensitive person who functions automatically
      • 2 : a device that automatically performs complicated often repetitive tasks
      • 3 : a mechanism guided by automatic controls
    • RIA defines a robot as: "A programmable multi-function manipulator designed to move material, parts, or specialized devices through variable programmed motion for the performance of a variety of tasks " (RIA)
    • McKerrow, in 1986 used "A robot is a machine which can be programmed to do a variety of tasks in the same way a computer is an electronic circuit which can be programmed to do a variety of tasks”
  • 4. OK so what is a robot?
    • Is it R 2 D 2 ?
    • Is it an industrial welding robot?
    • A pick and place machine?
    • A Machine Tool?
    • A Back Hoe?
    • A car on cruse control?
    • A robot is an integration of mechanical electrical and software components that can be reprogrammed to perform a variety of tasks both with and without human intervention.
    • Robotics: The study of robots design, programming and control.
  • 5. So is robotics a new field?
    • 800 BC Homer describes walking tripods in the Iliad
    • 350 BC Aristotle envisions mechanisms that work by "obeying or anticipating the will of others"
    • 1801 Joseph-Marie Jacquard invents an automated textile loom controlled by punched cards
    • 1892 Seward Babbitt designs a motorized crane and gripper to remove steel ingots from a furnace
    • 1890s Nikola Tesla, after working briefly for Edison, demonstrates various radio-controlled vehicles, including a submersible boat
    • 1926 Fritz Lang's movie Metropolis features Maria, a robot seductress
    • 1939 For the New York World's Fair, Westinghouse Electric Corp. builds a mechanical man and dog: Electro danced, counted to 10, smoked, and described Westingouse's products -- and his dog walked, stood on its hind legs, and barked
    • 1954 Devol designs a programmable factory robot (patent granted in 1961) aimed at "Universal Automation," later trimmed to Unimation. First commercial industry robot goes online in 1961 (Engleburger)
  • 6. New Continued?
    • 1976 NASA provides Mars landers with robot arms for its Viking I and II missions
    • 1977 Asea Brown Boveri Ltd. introduces microcomputer-controlled robots
    • 1977 Star Wars stars an android, C3PO, and a mobile robot, R2D2. By the early 1980s, R2D2 lookalikes are vacuuming floors and singing songs in
    • 1978 Brooks Founded
    • 1982 PRI Automation, founded in
    • 1983 A six-leg walking robot is unwrapped by Odetics Inc.
    • 1984 Brooks Introduces Frog Leg
    • 1986 Honda Motor Co. launches a secret project to build a humanoid robot
    • 1990 Robodoc, developed by Dr. William Bargar and Howard Paul of Integrated Surgical Systems Inc. and the University of California at Davis, performs a hip-replacement operation on a dog -- and in 1992, on a human patient
    • 2000 At RoboCup 2000, three humanoid robots meet for the first time: Johnny Walker from the University of Western Australia, the Mk-II from Japan's Aoyama Gakuin University, and Pino from Kitano Symbiotic Systems Project
  • 7. Vocabulary
    • DOF: Degree of Freedom. Free space has 6, a plane 3 , the surface of a sphere 3. A point in space is defined by 3. A line of unit length in space can be defined by a point and 3 angles.
    • Joint: Same as a human joint.
      • Revolute: Rotational Joint similar to elbow or wrist. 1DOF
      • Prismatic: Like an elevator 1DOF
      • Knuckle: Universal Joint 2DOF
      • Spherical: Ball and Socket 3DOF Not Common.
    • Kinematics: The relationship between the positions, and the positions derivatives of the robot and its links. Kinematics is motion without forces or mass.
    • Forward (direct) Kinematics: Given the joint trajectories find the link’s or end-effector’s.
    • Inverse Kinematics: Given a path calculate the motion of the joints.
  • 8.
    • Kinetics: Relates motion and forces 
    • Statics: Study of forces without motion
    • Dynamics: Study of motion and forces contain both kinetics and kinematics. Still have inverse and forward.
    • Force or Torque: Four Types
      • Coriolis: Coupling between Axes
      • Centripetal: Like a ball on a string.
      • Inertial: Due to acceleration of deceleration of a mass.
      • Gyroscopic: Changing the angle of a quickly spinning mass. Drill or Router.
    Vocabulary 2
  • 9. Vocabulary 3
    • Manipulator: A robot arm.
    • Manipulation: The act of grasping and or moving an object.
    • Gripper: Attaches to a robot to allow an object to be picked up 
    • End-Effector: Part of robot that affects the world. This can be a gripper, a welding torch, a light, or a sensor.
    • Cartesian Coordinates: X Y Z 
    • Right Hand Rule: Standard for defining coordinate frames and positive motion.
      • Point Fingers of right hand down positive X axes, thump down positive Z axes, Curl fingers by 90 degrees. They will point in the Y direction.
      • Point thumb of right hand down any axes. Positive rotation is indicated by curling you fingers around the axes
  • 10. Vocabulary 4
    • Reference Frame: Coordinate system. Can be stationary or in motion.
      • Tool: Coordinate system that is attached to the tool or end-effector.
      • World: Coordinate system that the robot is relative to.
      • Global: Coordinate system that is stationary.
    • DH Parameters: Denavit-Hartenberg Parameters. Robot parameters obtained by a convention for defining the coordinate frames of a robot.