To comply with the Open Standards Requirement, an "open standard" must satisfy the following criteria. If an "open standard" does not meet these criteria, it will be discriminating against open source developers.
No Intentional Secrets: The standard MUST NOT withhold any detail necessary for interoperable implementation. As flaws are inevitable, the standard MUST define a process for fixing flaws identified during implementation and interoperability testing and to incorporate said changes into a revised version or superseding version of the standard to be released under terms that do not violate the OSR.
Availability: The standard MUST be freely and publicly available (e.g., from a stable web site) under royalty-free terms at reasonable and non-discriminatory cost.
The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale.
2. Source Code
The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost preferably, downloading via the Internet without charge. The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program. Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed. Intermediate forms such as the output of a preprocessor or translator are not allowed.
The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software.
4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code
The license may restrict source-code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of "patch files" with the source code for the purpose of modifying the program at build time. The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code. The license may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software.
The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons.
6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor
The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor. For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research.
7. Distribution of License
The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties.
The rights attached to the program must not depend on the program's being part of a particular software distribution. If the program is extracted from that distribution and used or distributed within the terms of the program's license, all parties to whom the program is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original software distribution.
9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software
The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software.
10. License Must Be Technology-Neutral
No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface.
– Open Source Initiative, http://opensource.org/docs/osd
Allows the author of the work to safely release their software without having to worry about the responsibilities of selling software. (Maintenance, troubleshooting, etc..)
The GPL requires that software distributed under its license must have widely available source code. The software also must be free and cannot be linked with code from a different license.
GPL has something called copyleft (play on copyright). Copyleft is the opposite of copyright, where copyright allows the author to prohibit others from modifying their work and redistributing. Copyleft allows modifying and distribution as long as any subsequent modifications follow the copyleft rule.
Like the GPL but allows the code to be used in commercial software that can be distributed for a profit
Mozilla Public License (v1.1)
Allows use and distribution of Mozilla Firefox source
This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
Developer(s) get an idea for a program that they feel is something worthy enough to be a community effort
The original developer(s) writes some code laying the basic framework for the project. This code is made available to the world using places like codeproject.com and sourceforge.com where communities work on projects together.
Most communities do not communicate by sharing modified source, but posting ideas for new features or ways to improve old features.
Eventually the software becomes popular and attracts a user base or it fades away and is forgotten
In 1991 Linus Torvalds, a student in Finland adapted a derivative of Unix to his liking.
He called it Linux and released version 0.2 under the GNU General Public License
In 1994, version 1.0 was released with the help of developers across the world. During these three years, people sent Torvalds ideas and code for their new features.
In 1994 Red Hat Software was created and took on the role of charging for Linux. They took “free” software and were able to charge for it by adding technical support to the package. Tech support greatly appeals to the business sector.
If an OSS business model became very successful, more companies would follow suit and have OSS models.
Basically - it doesn’t exist because not many have tried, and where some have tried, none have succeeded to the point to influence the rest of industry to shift.
Example companies who have made it by offering ‘services’ for OSS
Google pays 80% of each add click revenue to have embedded search in the browser
MySQL – SunMicro
Start by building a large user base. Then companies who need larger scale RDBMS’s can buy direct support from mySQL. So the free software users essentially spread the word of mySQL and companies will buy the services.
StarOffice – SunMicro
Free word processing suite but they charge for extras like Clipart, new fonts, or templates.
$60,000,000,000 (billion) per year-estimated loss from proprietary software to open source software
1997- Eric Raymond wrote an essay called “The Cathedral and the Bazaar” where he suggests proprietary software is analogous to building a Cathedral, where small bands of people work in isolation. Open source software is like a Bazaar where there are many people working together.