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  • University, Community College, and High School
  • What is the benefit of technology in the classroom?
  • Now we want to talk a bit about classroom response system. Here is how they work.
  • And these are the types of exercises that are enabled by these systems, start with simple multiple-choice questions, and more to more complex digital ink questions
  • Need to make it clear why you are showing this slide
  • Pedagogy relies on aggregated results and discussion with neighbor Used for attendance and keeping people awake (these are wrong reasons).
  • Showed that their technology was preferred to raising hands or cards in class
  • Whole Slide and Post-It can be used for ? Asking, Short Answer, Numeric, and Multiple-choice. This just shows the primary types of exercises that they are used for.
  • Whole Slide and Post-It can be used for ? Asking, Short Answer, Numeric, and Multiple-choice. This just shows the primary types of exercises that they are used for.
  • Brecht  41 Activity Patterns (Question Posing, Multiple Representations, Simultaneous Annotation, Image Mapping) DiGiano  Moon Phases Pattern (partial knowledge), mostly deals with communication in small groups I am interested in patterns of activities styles based on the information that instructor wants to gain from the activity.
  • Transitions to next slide: Let’s look at some of the dimensions that we need to consider for our device First input, Also, screen size
  • Multi-device data to test on

PPT PPT Presentation Transcript

  • Craig Prince General Examination Talk January 17, 2008
  • Motivation
    • Goal: Improve education by integrating computing devices into classroom.
    • Do in low-cost, sustainable way.
    • One way, leverage devices students carry!
  • Before I Begin…
    • Who has a laptop or Tablet PC with them?
    • Who has a cell phone or PDA with them?
    College Students: 86.1% Cell Phone 12.0% Smart Phone 11.9% PDA 56.3% Digital Gaming Device 73.7% Laptop Source: The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2007
  • My Talk – In Three Parts
    • Part I: Background
      • Active Learning
      • Classroom Responses Systems (CRSs)
      • Different CRS activities
    • Part II: Systems
      • Tablet PC-based
      • Handhelds
    • Part III: Future Work
      • Improve type of exercises on handhelds
      • Integrate diverse handhelds into class
    • Part I: Background
      • Active Learning
      • Classroom Responses Systems (CRSs)
      • Different CRS activities
  • Active Learning
    • Active Learning = teaching pedagogy were best way to teach students is to have them be active in the learning process
    • Abrahamson’s “Socratic teaching” method
    • “ Constructivism” vs. “Behaviorism”
    • Student needs to:
      • Build on existing mental framework
      • Incorporate existing knowledge and ideas
    Abrahamson A. L. “Teaching with Classroom Communication System – What it Involves and Why it Works”. Mini-Course presented at the VII Taller Internacional "Nuevas Tendencias en la Ensenanza de la Fisica". Puebla, Mexico, May 27-30, 1999.
  • Quantitative Evidence
    • Hake’s study
      • 62 physics courses
      • >6000 students
      • Set taught interactively
      • Set taught traditionally (lecture focus)
    • Students in interactive courses had learning gains 2 std. dev. greater than traditional courses
    Hake R. “Interactive-engagement Versus Traditional Methods: A Six-thousand-student Survey of Mechanics Test Data for Introductory Physics Courses”. American Journal of Physics , 66 (1), Jan. 1998.
  • Active Learning in the Classroom
    • Mazur’s “Peer Instruction”
      • Mechanism for Active Learning
      • Basis for many classroom technologies
    • Promotes:
      • Discussing/collaborating between students
      • Integrating student work into lectures
    Mazur, E. Peer Instruction: A User's Manual . Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1997.
  • Classroom Network Public Display Instructor Students A A A B B C D Classroom Network
  • Classroom Technology Cooperative Note-taking e.g. LiveNotes PowerPoint Slides Digital Whiteboards Digital Ink Presentation Tools Digital Whiteboards Classroom Response Systems Classroom Feedback Systems Public Display Instructor Students Classroom Network
  • Classroom Response System (CRS): Learning Cycle Public Display Instructor Students Classroom Network Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity B Activity
  • Multiple-Choice Example Clickers
  • Multiple-Choice Example 2 Classtalk
  • Textual Example
  • Diagrammatic Example
  • Diagrammatic Example
  • Image Example
  • Brainstorming Example
  • What Activity Types are Best?
    • No quantitative studies showing digital ink makes for better activities in CRSs
    • Advantages of Digital Ink
      • Strictly more expressive
      • Some activities clearly easier with Digital Ink
      • Instructors like using these types of activities
    • Disadvantages of Digital Ink
      • Harder to aggregate/understand
    • Part II: Systems
      • Tablet PC-based
      • Handhelds
  • Tablet PC CRSs
    • General Properties:
      • Support many types of exercises
    • Examples:
      • Classroom Presenter
      • Ubiquitous Presenter
      • DyKnow
      • GroupScribbles
  • Classroom Presenter
    • Devices:
      • Tablet PC
      • Laptop
    • Activities:
      • Whole Slide, Ink/Text
    • Features:
      • Anonymous Submissions
      • Push Model
    • Limits:
      • Cost
    Anderson R. J., Anderson R., Simon B., Wolfman S. A., VanDeGrift T., Yasuhara K. “Experiences with a Tablet PC Based Lecture Presentation System in Computer Science Courses”. SIGCSE '04 , pp. 56-60, 2004. Site: http://classroompresenter.cs.washington.edu
  • Ubiquitous Presenter
    • Devices:
      • Web-browser
    • Activities:
      • Whole Slide, Text
      • Multiple-choice
    • Features:
      • Same as Classroom Presenter
    • Limits:
      • Requires Web Server
    Wilkerson M, Griswold W. G., Simon B. “Ubiquitous Presenter: Increasing Student Access and Control in a Digital Learning Environment”. SIGCSE ’05 . 2005. Site: http://up.ucsd.edu/
  • DyKnow
    • Devices:
      • Tablet PC
      • Laptop
    • Activities:
      • Whole Slide, Ink/Text
      • Multiple-choice
    • Features:
      • Integrated System
      • Instructor Control
      • Pull Model
    • Limits:
      • Cost
    DyKnow Website: http://www.dyknow.com
  • GroupScribbles
    • Devices:
      • Tablet PC
      • Laptop
    • Activities:
      • Post-It Note, Ink/Text
    • Features:
      • Multi-part Activities
      • Multiple Subs.
      • Editing/Moving Sub.
    • Limits:
      • Cost
    Brecht J., DiGiano C., Patton C., Tatar D., Chaudhury R., Roschelle J., & Davis K. “Coordinating networked learning activities with a general-purpose Interface”. To appear in the International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning .
  • Handheld CRSs
    • General Properties:
      • Many types of small devices
      • Activities more limited
    • Examples:
      • Clickers
      • Classtalk
      • Pebbles
      • ActiveClass
      • PLS TXT UR Thoughts
      • Ubiquitous Presenter (Mobile)
  • Clickers
    • Devices:
      • Custom
    • Activities:
      • Multiple-choice
    • Features:
      • Small and Affordable
      • Scales to 100s
    • Limits:
      • Limited Utility HW
      • Used for Wrong Reasons?
    Duncan D. “Clickers: A New Teaching Aid with Exceptional Promise”. Astronomy Education Review, 5(1), 2006.
  • Classtalk
    • Devices:
      • PDA
      • Calculator (TI-83)
    • Activities:
      • Multiple-choice
      • Short Answer
      • Numeric
    • Features:
      • Binning (All Responses)
    • Limits:
      • PDA Cost/Popularity
    Dufresne R. J., Gerace W. J., Leonard W. J., Mestre J. P., Wenk L. “Classtalk: A Classroom Communication System for Active Learning”. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 7, 3-47, (1996).
  • Pebbles
    • Devices:
      • PDA
    • Activities:
      • Multiple-choice
      • Question Asking
    • Features:
      • General Framework
      • PebblesDraw
      • Shared Whiteboard
    • Limits:
      • PDA Cost/Popularity
    Myers B. A. “Using Hand-Held Devices and PCs Together”. Communications of the ACM. Volume 44, Issue 11. November, 2001. pp. 34 – 41.
  • ActiveClass
    • Devices:
      • PDA
    • Activities:
      • Multiple-choice
      • Question Asking
    • Features:
      • Voting on Questions
      • Results Always Avail.
    • Limits:
      • PDA Cost/Popularity
    Ratto M., Shapiro R. B., Truong T. M., Griswold W. G. “The ActiveClass Project: Experiments in Encouraging Classroom Participation”. Computer Support for Collaborative Learning, 2003.
  • PLS TXT UR Thoughts
    • Devices:
      • Cell Phone
    • Activities:
      • Question Asking
    • Features:
      • SMS Communication
      • Anonymous
    • Limits:
      • Recurring SMS Cost
      • SMS Length (160)
    Markett C., Sanchez I. A., Weber S., Tangney B. “Using short message service to encourage interactivity in the classroom”. Computers & Education, 46 280-293, 2006.
  • Ubiquitous Presenter (mobile)
    • Devices:
      • Cell Phone
    • Activities:
      • Multiple-choice
      • Short Answer
      • Camera-based
    • Features:
      • SMS  Abbreviations
      • Anonymous
    • Limits:
      • Recurring SMS/MMS Cost
    Lindquist D., Denning T., Kelly M., Malani R., Griswold W. G., and Simon B. “Exploring the Potential of Mobile Phones for Active Learning in the Classroom”. SIGCSE ’07 , March 2007.
  • Summary of All Systems Ubiq. Pres. DyKnow Pebbles ActiveClass Pebbles Ubiq. Pres. DyKnow DyKnow DyKnow Custom Phone Calculator PDA Laptop Tablet PC Clickers Ubiq. Mob. Ubiq. Mob. PLS TXT Ubiq. Mob. Classtalk Classtalk Classtalk Classtalk Classtalk Classtalk ActiveClass DyKnow CP Grp. Scrb. CP DyKnow CP Grp. Scrb. CP Multiple-choice Numeric Short Answer ? Asking Whole Slide Post-It Whole Slide Textual Digital Ink
  • Summary of All Systems Grp. Scrb. Grp. Scrb Ubiq. Pres. Ubiq. Pres. Ubiq. Pres. DyKnow DyKnow Grp. Scrb. Grp. Scrb. DyKnow DyKnow DyKnow Pebbles ActiveClass Pebbles Ubiq. Pres. DyKnow DyKnow DyKnow Custom Phone Calculator PDA Laptop Tablet PC Clickers Ubiq. Mob. Ubiq. Mob. Ubiq. Mob. PLS TXT Ubiq. Mob. Classtalk Classtalk Classtalk Classtalk Classtalk Classtalk ActiveClass DyKnow CP CP CP Grp. Scrb. CP DyKnow CP CP CP Grp. Scrb. CP Multiple-choice Numeric Short Answer ? Asking Whole Slide Post-It Whole Slide Textual Digital Ink
    • Part III: Future Work
      • Improve type of exercises on handhelds
      • Integrate diverse handhelds into class
  • Enabling Adoption? Integrate Existing Devices $ $$$ Expressiveness Cost Digital Ink Multiple Choice Increase Mobile Interaction
  • Challenges
    • “Increasing Mobile Interaction”
      • Understand types of activities
      • How to do them on mobile devices
    • “Using Existing Devices”
      • Dealing with heterogeneous mix of devices
  • Steps to Tackle Challenges
    • Look at styles of activities supported on different devices esp. what interactions are needed
    • Look at how well each device feature performs on these activity styles
    • Explore techniques for making activity styles feasible on mobile devices and test
    • Develop application that supports multiple device types
    • Develop tool for designing activities to suit multiple devices – design activity once, translate to several devices
    • Develop tool for taking responses of different forms and interpreting/aggregating them
  • Step 1: Activity Styles Taxonomy
    • What:
      • Activity Patterns:
        • Brecht et al.,
        • DiGiano et al.
        • Classroom Presenter observations
        • Other Education Work
      • Focus on CRS activities
      • Hierarchical Taxonomy
      • Goal: Benchmark
    • How:
      • Large Corpus of Activities
      • Compile Taxonomy Manually
      • Expand as needed
  • Step 1: Potential Activity Styles
    • Locate Item On Image
      • Single/Multiple items?
      • Location?
      • Scale?
      • Boundaries?
    • Create a Diagram
      • Elements?
      • Labels?
      • Connectivity?
    • Modify/Complete a Diagram
      • Structure?
      • Labels?
    • Highlight a Diagram
  • Step 2: Existing Techniques
    • What:
      • Given device capabilities, quantize performance
      • Test feasibility of activity for each device
      • Use existing research where avail.
        • Text input speed on different devices
        • Pointing task research
      • Focus on diagrammatic/image responses
    • How:
      • Literature review
      • Implement techniques
      • Lab studies to test performance on benchmarks
  • Device Input Capabilities Mobile Phone, iPhone Camera iPhone, Tablet PC (some) Touch-screen Tablet PC, PDA Stylus/Pen Mobile Phone, PDA Accelerometer Gaming Device Joystick Laptop Touchpad (relative motion only) Laptop (external) Trackball Laptop (external) Mouse Mobile Phone, PDA, Gaming Device Directional Pad (2-way, 4-way, or 8-way) Mobile Phone Keypad Laptop, Tablet PC (hybrid) Keyboard Example Mobile Devices Input Modality (Hardware)
  • Device Screen Sizes
  • Step 3: New Techniques
    • What:
      • No adequate techniques?
      • Try to invent new ones
    • How:
      • Identify gaps from prev. step
      • Examples:
        • Stylus drawing on small screen w/ large virtual canvas
        • Drawing arbitrary regions without stylus
      • Test performance using lab tests
  • Step 3: Example Arbitrary Regions
    • Rubber-band?
  • Step 4: Develop Application
    • What:
      • Base on Classroom Presenter
      • Requirements:
        • Identify device type/capabilities
        • Screen size/resolution
        • Open platforms? Android?
    • How:
      • Use existing standards:
        • Ubiquitous Presenter uses HTML and JavaScript
        • Wifi or SMS for networking
      • Support for:
        • Stylus Devices (Tablet PC, PDA, Smart Phone, Nintendo DS)
        • Touch Screen
        • Keypad
      • Success = deployment & support for devices
  • Step 5: Instructor Design Tools
    • What:
      • Consider classroom issues with different devices
        • Envy
        • Equality
      • Given benefits/drawbacks of different modalities,
        • Recommend alternative activity types?
        • Balance activity types given?
    • How:
      • Tool Input
        • Instructor activity (PowerPoint?)
        • Activity metadata
      • Tool Internals
        • Determine activity type
        • Optimizes interaction for each device in class
      • Tool Output
        • Recommendations for activity types
      • Evaluate with user-study of tool
  • Step 6: Instructor Class Usage
    • What:
      • Use activity metadata
      • Use salient regions of responses
      • Understand and aggregate results
      • Finding common misconceptions
    • How:
      • Unsupervised/semi-supervised clustering
      • Evaluation
        • Test data from real classes
        • Measure success on data
        • User-study to observe utility
  • Step 6: Example Tic-Tac-Toe X, X, O O, O, X X, X, O == ?
  • Conclusions
    • Two Problems
      • Increasing Mobile Interaction
      • Using Existing Devices
    • Solution
      • Activities and devices
      • Tools:
        • Enable multiple devices
        • Help instructor
    • Goal
      • Make deploying CRSs a reality
      • Improve Education
  • Questions?