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  • 1. Welcome to Biology of Women
  • 2. What are some health issues for women?
    • Heart disease
    • Breast cancer
    • Colorectal cancer
    • Osteoporosis
    • Menopause
    • Cervical cancer
    • Uterine cancer
    • Pregnancy and childbirth
    • Nutrition
    • Exercise
    • Etc.
  • 3. Some Recent CAD Research in Women
    • Women tend to develop CAD later than men
    • Some risk factors are similar for both sexes
      • Women: elevated triglyceride levels and low HDL levels
      • Men: elevated total cholesterol and LDL
  • 4. External Genetalia
    • Vulva - all the visible external genetalia
    • Labia majora
    • Labia minora
    • Clitoris
    • Urethra
    • Hymen - membrane; location; occlusion?
    • Vagina - tough lining, changes with time, discharge, lubrication, self-cleansing, referred pain, Bartholin’s glands
  • 5. Internal Female Reproductive Anatomy
    • Uterus - external os, cervix, internal os, body, fundus ( http://www-medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/FEMHTML/FEM082.html)
      • muscular, hollow, position varies
    • Oviducts (Fallopian Tubes)
    • Ovaries
    • What is ectopic pregnancy?
  • 6. The Pelvic Girdle
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
    • Sacrum
    • Coccyx
  • 7. Variations in Pelvic Structure
    • Anthropoid: Deep pelvis (common in men, 20-30% white women, 50% black women
    • Android: heart-shaped (also common in men, one - third white women, 10-15% black women
    • Gynecoid: 50% of women
    • Platypelloid: least common (pelvis is shallow but widens at the pelvic outlet)
  • 8. Support of Pelvic Organs
    • Spinal curvatures and the ilia
    • Peritoneal lining attachments
    • Underneath muscles and connective tissues
    • Perineal muscles
    • Levator ani muscles
  • 9. Urinary Control and Incontinence
    • Pubococcygeus muscle
    • Exercises to help treat incontinence
      • Kegel Exercises
      • Bladder Training
    • Other possible causes of incontinence:
      • neurological disorder
      • obstruction to the bladder
      • obstruction to the urethra
  • 10. Hormonal Control of the Female Reproductive Cycle
  • 11. Hormones
    • Part of the endocrine system - definition
    • Have an effect on a part of the body other than where it was produced
    • Chemical messengers
    • Composition
    • Target cells
    • Control of secretion: nervous system, blood composition, feedback
  • 12. Hormone Action
    • Receptor binding - location
    • Signal Transduction
    • Steroid hormone effect in the nucleus
  • 13. Prostaglandins
    • Fatty acid derivatives
    • Can be synthesized by almost all cells of the body
    • Have regulatory effects - examples
    • Why not technically hormones?
  • 14. Pituitary Gland
    • Location
    • Examples of hormones it produces:
      • Growth hormone
      • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
      • Prolactin
      • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
      • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  • 15. Pituitary Gland, Continued
    • Examples of hormones that it stores but does not produce
      • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
      • Oxytocin
    • How is the pituitary involved in the female reproductive cycle?
  • 16. Steroid Hormones
    • Produced by what structures? POTA
    • The basic building block is cholesterol.
    • Categories: estrogens, androgens, progesterone, corticosteroids
  • 17. Estrogen
    • Any of a group of hormones (a general term)
    • Physiological effects (vaginal lining, glycogen, cervical secretion, uterine lining, oviducts, breasts, bone formation, epiphyseal cartilage, fat deposition, cholesterol, LDLs, liver, hypothalamus, lower body temperature)
  • 18. Effects of Progesterone
    • Endometrial lining
    • Inhibits uterine contraction
    • Reduced motility of the oviducts
    • Cervical mucus becomes viscous
    • Body temperature
    • Increase in excretion
  • 19. Testosterone
    • Produced by testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands
    • Responsible for characteristics associated with males
  • 20. Puberty
    • Physical changes in body
    • Menarche
    • Ovulation
  • 21. Female Reproductive Cycle
    • Ovarian Cycle - follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase
    • Endometrial cycle - menstrual (proliferative) phase and the secretory (progestational) phase
  • 22. Menstrual Problems
    • What is normal?
    • When is there an indication that there may be a problem?
  • 23. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Causes
    • Endocrine disturbance
    • Physical disturbance
    • Estrogen level changes just before LH surge
    • Spontaneous abortion
    • Ectopic pregnancy
  • 24. Treatment of Abnormal Bleeding
    • Surgery
      • hysterectomy
      • endometrial ablation
    • Steroids
  • 25. Amenorrhea Causes
    • Cryptomenorrhea (“silent”)
    • Emotional Factor
    • Prolactin overproduction
    • Nutrition
    • GnRH inhibition
    • Anorexia nervosa and bulemia
  • 26. Dysmenorrhea
    • Definition
    • Normal?
    • Etiology (cause) theories: blood supply to uterus, too much estrogen, not enough estrogen, imbalance in the E/P ratio, too much progesterone, food allergy, prostaglandin
    • Treatments: prostaglandin inhibitors, oral contraceptives, surgery, heat, relaxation
  • 27. Toxic Shock Syndrome
    • Possible symptoms - fever, rash, skin-peeling, low blood pressure, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches or damage, irritation of mucous membranes, urinary abnormalities, liver enzyme levels, CNS problems
    • Possible treatment - fluid replacement, antibiotics
  • 28. Toxic Shock Syndrome, Continued
    • Cause? - Staphylococcus aureus toxin investigated
    • Can your body be protected by developing antibodies against the toxin?
    • Relationship to age?
    • Relationship to polyester and carboxymethylcellulose
    • Relationship to tampon absorbency
  • 29. Endometriosis
    • Definition
    • Can it cause infertility?
    • What causes endometriosis?
    • Symptoms?
    • Diagnosis - blood levels of a certain molecule found on endometrial cells, pelvic exam, laparoscopy, tissue biopsy
  • 30. Endometriosis, continued
    • Treatments: hormonal treatment (oral contraceptives, testosterone derivative, progestin, FSH and LH inhibitors), surgery
  • 31. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
    • Symptoms - psychological, physical, cyclic (same time each menstrual cycle)
    • Etiology - Edema? Elevated estrogen levels of estrogen/progesterone levels? Abnormality of levels of other hormones? Vitamin B6 deficiency (estrogen clearance, needed for production of certain neurotransmitters)?
  • 32. PMS, Continued
    • Possible treatments: diuretics, painkillers, prostaglandin-inhibitors, high doses of vitamins, tranquilizers, reduction of salt and/or sweets and/or caffeine in the diet, exercise
  • 33. Genetic Differences Between Males and Females
    • Genetic material is house within the nucleus of each eukaryotic cell.
    • What else is it found in cells?
    • How is the genetic material of human males different from human females
    • Why does this genetic difference cause other differences between males and females?
  • 34. Meoisis
    • Duplication of DNA and nuclear membrane breaks down
    • Homologous chromosomes pair, exchange of genetic material
    • Chromosomes move to equatorial plane of the cell
    • Homologous chromosomes separate
  • 35. Meoisis, Continued
    • Chromosomes again move to the equatorial plane of the cell
    • Sister chromatids separate
    • Nuclear membrane reappears, genetic material becomes uncoiled again
    • Cytokinesis
    • How many sperm/ova produced from one cell?
  • 36. Comparison of the X and Y Genes
    • Size
    • Genes in common
    • Genes not in common
  • 37. More Questions
    • Are there females with only one X Chromosome?
    • Are there males with two or more X chromosomes?
  • 38. Amniocentesis
    • Procedure
    • What information is gained?
    • What are the risks? Rupture of membranes, bleeding, puncture of baby, puncture of mother’s organs
    • If done, usually done in second trimester, if
  • 39. Chorionic Villi Sampling
    • Insertion of catheter into the uterus
    • A small amount of tissue is taken from what will be the baby’s contribution to the placenta
    • Can be done earlier than amniocentesis (between 7th and 10th weeks of pregnancy)
    • Risks: higher miscarriage rate, cramping, vaginal bleeding, infection
  • 40. Chromosomal Disorders
    • Down’s Sydrome
    • Turner’s Syndrome
    • Klinefelter’s sydrome
  • 41. Sex Differentiation in Humans
    • Completed mostly before 12th week of development
    • Primordial germ cells
    • Genital tubercle - 4th week
    • Gonads become visible - 5th week
    • Gonads have zones - 7th week
  • 42. Male Sex Differentiation
    • Y-chromosome TDF
    • Seminiferous Tubules develop
    • Testosterone secreted (Masculinization)
    • Epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct all from mesonephric duct
    • Mullerian duct regresses
  • 43. Female Sex Differentiation
    • Location of ovary-inducing genes not known
    • Testosterone not secreted by baby
    • Mullerian duct inhibitor not secreted by baby
    • Mullerian tubes become oviducts, uterus, and part of vagina
  • 44. The Male and Female Brain
    • Are there gender differences ?
      • Communication
      • Sexual arousal
      • Size of “sexually dimorphic nucleus” of hypothalamus
      • Size of corpus callosum
  • 45. Female Sexuality
  • 46. Alfred Kinsey
    • Who was he?
    • What did he do?
    • What were the flaws of his research?
  • 47. Physiology of the Female Sexual Response
    • Vagina - dilation, lubrication, (vasocongestion), then constriction, contractions
    • Uterus - vasocongestion (engorged with blood), contractions
    • Clitoris - vasocongestion, change in position
    • Labia - swelling or flattening out
  • 48. Physiology of the Female Sexual Response, Continued
    • Bartholin Glands - secrete a small amount of fluid
    • Breasts - swelling and nipple erection
    • Skin - flush in 75%
    • Muscle Tension - increases, then can decrease
    • Cardiovascular - heart rate goes up, blood pressure increases
  • 49. Physiology of the Female Sexual Response, Continued
    • Respiratory - respiration rate eventually increases
    • Sweat Glands - perspiration
  • 50. Physical Disabilities and Sex
    • Safety Concerns
    • Spinal Injury
      • - 50% to 70% of men still capable of having an erection
      • in women, there is a period of amenorrhea, but then capable of conceiving and delivering a child
  • 51. Pregnancy and Sex
    • Some concern about spontaneous abortion during first trimester
    • Some concern about premature labor and infection in last trimester
  • 52. Drugs and Sex
    • Alcohol - Depresses the central nervous system
    • Anticholinergic - block action of parasympathetic nerve fibers
    • Antiadrenergic - block action of sympathetic nerve fibers
  • 53. The Mammary Glands
  • 54. Breast Morphology
    • Variance - fatty tissue, connective tissue, glandular tissue
    • What causes this variance?
    • Lobes, lobules, alveoli cells and lactiferous ducts
    • Muscle only in areola-complex
    • Blood supply
  • 55. Lymphatic Drainage of the Breasts
    • What is tissue fluid? Lymph? Edema?
    • What is the purpose of the lymphatic system?
    • What are lymph nodes, and what is their role in fighting cancer?
  • 56. Changes in the Breasts
    • During puberty of a female
    • During Pregnancy - colostrum
    • During menstrual cycles
      • Cell proliferation
      • Dilation of Ducts
      • More cells become secretory
      • Blood flow
      • Fluid Retention
  • 57. Fibrocystic Disease
    • Cysts
    • Fibroadenoma
    • Symptoms
    • Significance
    • Treatments investigate (what worked?)- estrogen/progesterone balance, androgen, avoid caffeine, vitamin E, vitamin B complex, reduction in salt intake, surgery
  • 58. Cancer
    • Definition
    • The cell cycle and checkpoints
    • Etiology
    • Why avoid smoking, chewing tobacco, sun, mutagens?
  • 59. Breast Cancer
    • gender***
    • age
    • previous breast cancer
    • genetic predisposition
    • hyperplasia in breast, lobular carcinoma in situ, late menopause, late age of first childbirth, breast density, early menstruation, estrogen prescriptions, breast radiation, obesity, high fat diet
  • 60. Detection
    • BSE - How to do it? What to look for?
    • Mammography (X-rays) - What to look for?
    • Thermography
    • Ultrasound
    • Radionucleotides
    • Biochemical Markers
  • 61. Treatment
    • Surgery - radical mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, total mastectomy, partial mastectomy
    • Radiation
    • Chemotherapy - page 259
  • 62. Are Hormones Implicated in Some Cases of Breast Cancer?
    • Estrogen
    • Progesterone
    • Tamoxifen use as an anti-cancer drug
  • 63. How Does our Immune System Fight Cancer?
    • B - cells
    • T - cells
    • Natural killer cells
    • Phagocytes
    • Lymphokines
  • 64. Stages of Breast Cancer
    • Stage 0 - noninvasive abnormal growth
    • Stage 1 - early invasion of nearby tissue
      • Location
      • Size of tumor
    • Stage 2
      • Location
      • Size of tumor
    • Stage 3 - Larger than 2 inches with spread to lymph nodes
    • Stage 4
  • 65. Internet References
    • http://cancernet.nci.nih.gov/clinpdq/therapy/Questions_and_Answers_About_Tamoxifen.html
    • http://cancernet.nci.nih.gov/cancer_types/breast_cancer.shtml#toc9
  • 66. Recent Advances in Breast Cancer Research
    • T-scan: electricity
    • MRI scan - Magnetic Resonance Imaging (looking for vascularity)
  • 67. Gynecological Difficulties
  • 68. Candidiasis
    • Caused by a yeast (a type of fungus)
    • Etiology: yeast not kept in check (perhaps because it has lowered competition, more food present, etc), corticosteroid therapy, being rundown, malnourished, too-frequent douching
    • Symptoms
  • 69. Candidiasis, continued
    • Diagnosis - see picture on page 288
    • Treatment
  • 70. Trichnomonas vaginalis
    • Protozoan - picture page 291
    • Symptoms of infection
    • Treatment
  • 71. Bacterial Vaginosis
    • Gardnerella vaginalis (a bacterium)
    • Symptoms: usually no itching or burning; odor; discharge
    • Treatment
  • 72. Herpes Genitalis
    • Caused by two types of viruses (What’s a virus?)
    • HSV-1 causes roughly 15-20% of genital herpes
    • HSV-2 causes about 80% of genital herpes, and greater chance for recurrence
  • 73. Herpes Genitalis, Continued
    • Symptoms: tingling, itching, burning, pain, blisters, ulcers, headaches, body aches, tenderness, swollen lymph nodes
    • Can be asymptomatic
    • The virus can remain latent after first infection and may cause later subsequent infections
  • 74. Genital Herpes, Continued
    • Transmission
    • Diagnosis - viral culture and/or a Tzanck smear test
    • Treatment - dryness, cleanliness, possible local anesthetic and/or painkiller, possibly antiviral drugs
    • No cure
  • 75. Genital Herpes, Complications
    • Miscarriage or premature delivery if active infection during pregnancy
    • Infection of baby during delivery is possible if mom is infected
  • 76. Hepatitis
    • Inflammation of the liver
    • Caused by a group of viruses
    • Transmission - many bodily fluids, polluted water and foods, mother-to-baby transmission
    • Vaccine for hepatitis-B and hepatitis-A
  • 77. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
    • Clinical symptoms rare
    • Complications - lungs, liver, pregnancy, babies
    • Transmission - some bodily fluids
  • 78. Genital Warts
    • HPV
    • Some forms linked with cervical cancer
    • Transmission
    • How are the warts removed?
    • Usefulness of interferon
  • 79. Gonorrhea
    • Bacterial infection (hard to culture)
    • Can be asymptomatic in women and in a few men
    • Symptoms in women - discharge, painful urination
    • Complications: abscesses; inflamed fallopian tubes, ovaries, and peritoneum; liver problems; joint problems; heart infection; brain infections; eye infections in babies
  • 80. Gonorrhea, continued
    • Antibiotic resistance is becoming a problem
    • Protective immunity?
  • 81. Syphilis
    • Caused by a bacterium
    • Complications can be severe
    • Transmission: sexual intercourse, open lesions
    • Disease progresses in stages
    • Complications in pregnancy
    • Immunity?
  • 82. Chlamydia
    • Complications that can result: PID, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, tissue inflammation around liver
    • One type is a contagious eye disease
    • One type is sexually transmitted and can cause genital sore and elephantiasis.
    • Another type is sexually transmitted and can cause genitourinary infections, eye problems, pneumonia in newborns
  • 83. Chlamydia
    • Diagnosis
    • Treatment
  • 84. Pubic lice
    • Symptoms
    • Treatment
    • Avoiding reinfection
  • 85. Scabies
    • Caused by a burrowing mite
    • Symptoms
    • Treatment
  • 86. Urinary Tract Infection
    • Symptoms
    • Complications
    • Causes
    • Treatments
  • 87. Benign Conditions of the Cervix
    • Erosion
    • Nabothian cysts
    • Laceration
    • Cervicitis
    • Polyp
    • Cervical incompetence
  • 88. Cervical Cancer
    • What is an indication of possible cervical cancer?
    • Dysplasia - risk factor
    • Carcinoma in situ
    • Invasive cancer
    • Treatments
    • DES - Diethylstilbestrol
  • 89. Tumors of the Uterus
    • Fibroids - links to genetics, links to hormones, location, size, composition, complications, treatments
    • Cancerous uterine tumors - risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment
  • 90. Ovarian Growths
    • Follicular cysts and corpus luteum cysts - causes, symptoms, treatment, complications
    • Benign neoplasms
    • Cancerous tumors - symptoms, detection, genetic link, treatment
  • 91. Gynecological Exam
    • Medical history, including gynecological history, obstetric history, contraception history, any complaints
    • External exam - breast, abdomen, external genetalia
    • Internal exam - cervix, vagina, Pap smear, digital exam, bimanual exam, rectal exam
  • 92. HIV and AIDS
  • 93. Life Cycle of HIV-1, The Beginning of a Cycle
    • Binding
    • Fusion
    • Entry
    • Uncoating
  • 94. Life Cycle of HIV-1, Continued
    • Reverse Transcription
    • Formation of Partner Strand
    • Entry into Nucleus
    • Integration
  • 95. Life Cycle of HIV-1, The End of a Cycle
    • Proteins coded for by the virus are made.
    • Virion Assembly
    • Virion Release
  • 96. Some Characteristics of Retroviruses
    • The genetic material is RNA.
    • A DNA copy of the RNA can be made by host cell.
    • The DNA copy then can be integrated into the host cell chromosome.
  • 97. Examples of Enzymes Within the Core of HIV
    • Reverse Transcriptase
    • Integrase
    • Ribonuclease
    • Protease
  • 98. HIV Resistance
    • CCR5 gene is mutant in some cases
    • The CCR5 delta 32 gene seems to code for a coreceptor that HIV-1 cannot use
    • At least three people with two mutant genes are HIV positive
  • 99. What causes AIDS?
    • Depletion or inactivation of T-helper cells? (proposed by many to be the predominant cause of AIDS)
  • 100. HIV Infection
    • Diagnosis
    • Transmission
    • Opportunistic infections
    • Treatment
  • 101. Childbearing
  • 102. Pregnancy
    • Fertilization - barriers, prevention of an ovum being fertilized by more than one sperm, meiosis completes, nuclear material combines
    • Morula, blastocyst, invasion of uterine lining
    • Amniotic sac, yolk sac, chorion, allantois
    • Placenta - sythesizes fats, carbohydrates , and proteins; hormone production
  • 103. Pregnancy, continued
    • Twins - fraternal and identical
    • Diagnosis of pregnancy
    • Maternal changes during pregnancy - uterus (size, blood flow, contractions); cervix (softens, pH, secretion, plug); ovaries; oviducts; vagina; breasts; digestive system; circulatory system; excretory system; musculoskeletal changes; skin changes
  • 104. Pregnancy, continued
    • Complications: Preeclampsia-eclampsia; placental bleeding, gestational diabetes
    • Spontaneous abortions
    • Weight gain
    • Nutrition - vitamins, calcium, proteins, iron, folic acid
    • Effects of certain drugs: alcohol, tobacco, caffeine
  • 105. Labor and Delivery
    • First stage - condition of cervix
    • Second stage - episiotomy?
    • Third stage - delivery of placenta and membranes
    • Fourth stage - period following birth
    • The concern about group B streptococci
    • Pain relief during labor - systemic drugs, regional blocks, psychoprophylaxis
  • 106. Intervention in the Birthing Process
    • Administration of drugs
    • Induction of labor
    • Artificial rupture of membranes
    • Use of forceps
    • Episiotomy and repair
    • Massage of fundus of uterus to hasten the expulsion of the placenta
  • 107. Intervention, continued
    • Manual removal of placenta
    • Stress tests
    • Heart rate monitoring of the baby
    • Cesarean Sections
    • Ultrasounds
  • 108. Breastfeeding
    • Anti-infective properties of human milk
    • Effects on mother - uterus, infertility
    • What negative components might breast milk contain?
  • 109. Infertility
  • 110. Possible Causes of Infertility or Difficulty in Conceiving a Child
    • Increasing Age
    • Low number of sperm
    • Decreased viability of sperm
    • Volume of ejaculate
    • Viscosity of semen
    • Motility of sperm
    • Shape of sperm
  • 111. Conception Problems, Continued
    • Clumping of sperm
    • Diseases
    • Temperature
    • No ovulation
    • Abnormal ovum
    • Blocked oviducts ( hydrosalpinx, etc.)
    • Location of egg
  • 112. Conception Problems, Continued
    • Viscosity of cervical mucus
    • pH of Cervical mucus
    • Immune reactions against sperm
    • Possible immune reactions against ova
    • Displaced cervix
  • 113. Problems of Sustaining a Pregnancy
    • Not enough hormone production
    • Scars
  • 114. In Vitro Fertilization
    • Ovulation Induction
    • Retrieval of Oocytes
    • Fertilization
    • Transfer to the uterus
    • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
  • 115. GIFT
    • What is it?
    • How is it done?
  • 116. ZIFT
    • What is it?
    • How is it done?
  • 117. Fertility Drugs
    • What kinds of drugs are used to enhance fertility?
    • How do these drugs work?
    • Multiple births a factor?
  • 118. Contraceptives
    • Physical barriers
    • Chemical means
  • 119.
    • Some methods considered as “birth control” by some actually prevent the continued development of a baby (IUD, “morning after pill”, “minipill”, progestin implants, progestin shots, abortion, etc.
  • 120. Oral Contraceptive Side Effects
    • Breast cancer risk factor?
    • Cervical cancer risk factor?
    • Lowers risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer
    • Liver and gall bladder disease risk factor
    • Risk to unborn baby
    • Blood clot risk factor
    • Risk factor for other cardiovascular problems
  • 121. Abortion Procedures
    • Suction
    • Dilation and Curettage
    • Dilation and Extraction
    • Partial Birth Abortion
    • Injection of saline or prostaglandin
    • RU-486 (Mifepristone!!): similar in structure to natural progesterone, but acts as an antiprogesterone; also antiandrogenic
  • 122. What Factors Lead to Menopause?
    • Number of follicles
    • Hormones
    • Frequency of ovulations
  • 123. The Question of Estrogen Replacement
    • How much estrogen is secreted during menopause?
    • What kind of estrogen is secreted during menopause?
    • What are the known risks of estrogen replacement?
    • What are the known benefits of estrogen replacement?
  • 124. Biological Changes During Menopause
    • Menstrual cycles gets increasingly irregular and eventually stops
    • Coronary disease risk increases
    • Osteoporosis incidence higher
    • Hot flashes and flushes
    • Genital atrophy
    • Mood swings reported by some
  • 125. Health concerns that sometimes may have an occupational factor
  • 126. Migraines
    • What are migraines?
    • What are some possible symptoms of migraines?
    • Possible Causes
    • Possible Treatments
    • Are any types of migraines linked to occupational work?
  • 127. Stress
    • What are some symptoms of stress?
    • What are some causes of stress?
    • How can one cope with stress?
  • 128. What are some workplace health concerns?
    • Lung problems
    • Cancer
    • Hearing problems
    • Physical injury
    • Reproductive problems
    • Chemical exposure to skin
    • Nervous system problems
    • Ionizing radiation
  • 129. Workplace health concerns, continued
    • Nervous system problems
    • Ionizing radiation
    • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • 130. Skin Structure and Care
  • 131. Epidermis
    • Location
    • How thick? How many layers?
    • What kind of cells?
    • Ridges, pores
  • 132. Dermis
    • Location?
    • Much thicker than the epidermis
    • What type of cells?
  • 133. Skin Questions
    • What is a blister?
    • What is a scar?
    • How is new skin formed?
    • How is the skin anchored to the rest of the body?
    • What are freckles?
    • What are “goose bumps”?
    • What are the effects of sun exposure?
  • 134. Skin Pigmentation
    • Melanin
    • Carotene
    • Red blood vessels
  • 135. Skin Functions
    • Temperature
    • Protection
    • Respond to stimuli
    • Excretion
    • Participation in vitamin D synthesis
    • Immunity
  • 136. Epidermal Derivatives
    • Hair
    • Nails
    • Glands
  • 137. Skin Cancer
    • Types
    • Causes
    • Treatments
    • Prevention
    • Who is most at risk?
  • 138. Skin Wrinkling
    • Causes
    • Treatments
  • 139. Oily, Dry, or “Combination” Skin
    • Definitions of these skin conditions
    • What causes these skin conditions?
    • How can these conditions be treated?
  • 140. Acne
    • What is the cause of the acne?
    • How does acne develop?
      • Microcomedo, whiteheads and blackheads, nodes, and cysts
    • Treatments? Benzoyl peroxide (kills bacterium, may reduce oil production); salicylic acid, resorcinol and sulfur break down blackheads and whiteheads; antibiotics; tretinoin stops the development of new comedones and increases cell turnover, isotretinoin, androgen reduction
  • 141. Hair
    • Hair loss
    • Hair growth
    • Hair structure
    • Hair care
    • Artificial hair curling
  • 142. Multiple Sclerosis
  • 143. What is Multiple Sclerosis?
    • Myelin destruction
    • Neuron function can be altered
  • 144. Causes of MS
    • Genetics?
    • Autoimmune disease?
    • Environmental factor?
  • 145. Symptoms of MS
    • Are they always severe?
    • Are they long in duration?
    • Vision problems, muscle weakness and spasms, ataxia, pain, impairment of some senses, etc.
  • 146. Treatments Used in Some MS Patients
    • Immunotherapy - drugs, radiation, antibodies, plasma, marrow
    • Nerve impulse conduction therapy - potassium channel blockers
    • Antigen targeting therapy - copolymer 1, T-cell vaccine
    • Cytokines - TGF (transforming growth factor), IL-4 (an interleukin)
    • Remyelination - oligodendrocytes
    • Diet
  • 147. Other Treatments for Some MS Patients
    • Muscle relaxants
    • Tranquilizers
    • Physical therapy
    • Physical support aids
    • Avoid excess activity and heat
    • Antidepressants
    • Aspirin or acetominophen
  • 148. Treatments, Continued
    • Anticonvulsants
    • Electrical stimulation
    • Codeine
    • Catheterization
    • “ Bladder pacemaker”
  • 149. How are nerve signals conducted?
    • Charge distribution
    • Depolarization - what is it and how does it occur?
    • Repolarization - what is it and how does it occur?
    • Sodium-Potassium pump
    • What is the role of myelin?
  • 150. Nutrition
  • 151. Carbohydrates
    • Building block?
    • Sources
    • How are they used by our body?
  • 152. Proteins
    • Building block?
    • Sources?
    • How are they used by our body?
  • 153. Lipids
    • What are they composed of?
    • Sources?
    • How are they used by our body?
  • 154. Vitamins
    • Definitions
    • Examples: B vitamins important for formation of some coenzymes, as is niacin and biotin; folic acid (blood cell formation); C and E are antioxidants; A; D; K
  • 155. Minerals
    • Definition
    • Examples - Sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium, Iron

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