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Adolescent Case Presentation Kelli L. McDermott LT  MC  USNR
Case history <ul><li>14 y/o female  </li></ul><ul><li>CC: 3-6 months of irregular periods and unexplained weight gain </li...
Case History <ul><li>HEADS interview negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home: lives with parents, no sibs, gets along fine </l...
Case History <ul><li>Drugs: never smokes, drank, or tried any drugs, no friends hace either </li></ul><ul><li>Diet: parent...
Case History <ul><li>Menstrual hx-  </li></ul><ul><li>menarche at age 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Regular periods over past year ...
Case History <ul><li>FHx- NC, no female family member with abnormal periods, no problems with cycle, fertility.  No cancer...
Physical Exam <ul><li>VS: HR 65; RR18;  BP112/80; wt 93.5kg (>99 th %); ht 160cm (50 th %); BMI= 36 </li></ul><ul><li>HEEN...
Physical Exam <ul><li>Ext: FROM, nl muscle tone, 2+ cap refill, pulses normal </li></ul><ul><li>Skin- dry but no lesions, ...
<ul><li>QUESTIONS on H& P??? </li></ul>
<ul><li>How about a differential for  </li></ul><ul><li>secondary amenorrhea? </li></ul>
Differential Diagnosis <ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>PCO </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>Ovarian ...
Less likely differential <ul><li>CAH </li></ul><ul><li>Female Athlete Triad (hypothalamic amenorrhea) </li></ul><ul><li>Tu...
<ul><li>Which labs would you think about at this initial presentation? </li></ul>
Laboratory Tests <ul><li>B-HCG </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>LH/FSH </li></ul><ul><li>Prolactin  </li></ul><...
Laboratory Tests <ul><li>Fasting glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting Insulin level </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting Lipid profile <...
Our patient <ul><li>Nl TFT’s </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose 81 </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid profile all WNL </li></ul><ul><li>LH 4.1...
What is PCOS? <ul><li>Increased androgen production from ovaries and adrenal glands </li></ul>
<ul><li>What does it mean to have PCOS? Well, unfortunately, it means a lot of difficult things for many women. I started ...
<ul><li>I was diagnosed when I was 17 and immediately went on birth control pills to control my symptoms. This was the onl...
PCOS <ul><li>Spectrum of clinical d/o’s not diagnosed by lab </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical presentation includes: </li></ul><...
 
PCOS <ul><li>Pituitary gland is heightened to GnRH </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Exaggerated pulsatile LH release ...
<ul><li>Androgens are converted to estrone and estradiol </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogens secreted tonicall...
Other interesting findings <ul><li>Androgens    SHBG;    free testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Anovulation and insulin res...
 
Problems associated with high levels of sex hormones: <ul><li>Anovulation results in amenorrhea & infertility </li></ul><u...
Problems associated with high levels of sex hormones: <ul><li>Insulin resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperinsulinemia </li><...
Theories to etiology of PCOS <ul><li>Genetic predisposition is most likely although no gene isolated; believe in 2-hit hyp...
Treatment <ul><li>Cosmetic interventions </li></ul>
<ul><li>OCP’s:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>suppress LH      androgens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> SHBG      free testoster...
Treatment <ul><li>Cyclic progestins </li></ul><ul><li>GnRH agonists </li></ul><ul><li>Weight control </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Treatment- controversial <ul><li>Insulin sensitizing drugs: biguanides & thiazolidinediones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>   insu...
Metformin <ul><li>Reduces hyperinsulinemia </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases risk factors for CHD </li></ul><ul><li>Improved wei...
Resources and Websites <ul><li>www.pcosupport.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.pcosupport/pcoteen </li></ul><ul><li>www.obgyn.net...
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Polycystic Ovarian Disease

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Transcript of "Polycystic Ovarian Disease"

  1. 1. Adolescent Case Presentation Kelli L. McDermott LT MC USNR
  2. 2. Case history <ul><li>14 y/o female </li></ul><ul><li>CC: 3-6 months of irregular periods and unexplained weight gain </li></ul><ul><li>In USOH, has not been ill in last few months </li></ul><ul><li>PMH- not significant </li></ul>
  3. 3. Case History <ul><li>HEADS interview negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home: lives with parents, no sibs, gets along fine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education: 9 th grade, A-B student, has good group of friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities: rows for school crew team, movies & hanging out with friends </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Case History <ul><li>Drugs: never smokes, drank, or tried any drugs, no friends hace either </li></ul><ul><li>Diet: parents MD’s and help her eat a balanced diet, she reports no increased eating habits since weight gain </li></ul><ul><li>Sex: never been active, never had a girl/boyfriend </li></ul><ul><li>Suicide: no h/o depression </li></ul>
  5. 5. Case History <ul><li>Menstrual hx- </li></ul><ul><li>menarche at age 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Regular periods over past year and then irregular for about 6months; no periods for about 3 months now </li></ul><ul><li>Never been sexually active </li></ul>
  6. 6. Case History <ul><li>FHx- NC, no female family member with abnormal periods, no problems with cycle, fertility. No cancers </li></ul>
  7. 7. Physical Exam <ul><li>VS: HR 65; RR18; BP112/80; wt 93.5kg (>99 th %); ht 160cm (50 th %); BMI= 36 </li></ul><ul><li>HEENT: fat pad behind neck, thickening & slight hyperpigmentation of posterior neck skin, nl thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>CV: S1+S2, no R/G/M, RR </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs: CTA bilat </li></ul><ul><li>Abd: obese, soft, +BS, striae across abdomen and lower hips </li></ul>
  8. 8. Physical Exam <ul><li>Ext: FROM, nl muscle tone, 2+ cap refill, pulses normal </li></ul><ul><li>Skin- dry but no lesions, rashes, acne noted over face, chest, back, no excess hair. </li></ul><ul><li>GU- no external abnormalities, Tanner 5, normal clitoris </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>QUESTIONS on H& P??? </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>How about a differential for </li></ul><ul><li>secondary amenorrhea? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Differential Diagnosis <ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>PCO </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism </li></ul><ul><li>Ovarian tumor </li></ul><ul><li>Pituitary tumor </li></ul>
  12. 12. Less likely differential <ul><li>CAH </li></ul><ul><li>Female Athlete Triad (hypothalamic amenorrhea) </li></ul><ul><li>Turner’s syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Testicular Feminization </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Which labs would you think about at this initial presentation? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Laboratory Tests <ul><li>B-HCG </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>LH/FSH </li></ul><ul><li>Prolactin </li></ul><ul><li>Free/total testosterone </li></ul>
  15. 15. Laboratory Tests <ul><li>Fasting glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting Insulin level </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting Lipid profile </li></ul><ul><li>Androstenedione </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting 17-OPH and cortisol </li></ul><ul><li>DHEAS </li></ul><ul><li>Karyotype </li></ul>
  16. 16. Our patient <ul><li>Nl TFT’s </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose 81 </li></ul><ul><li>Lipid profile all WNL </li></ul><ul><li>LH 4.17 </li></ul><ul><li>FSH 6.8 </li></ul><ul><li>PRL 5.75 </li></ul><ul><li>Andro 181 </li></ul><ul><li>17-OHPS 58 </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin 5.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Ttest 36 </li></ul><ul><li>Free test 6.7 (only abn lab) </li></ul>
  17. 17. What is PCOS? <ul><li>Increased androgen production from ovaries and adrenal glands </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>What does it mean to have PCOS? Well, unfortunately, it means a lot of difficult things for many women. I started to have facial hair growth in early highschool -- this was pretty embarassing, especially when I realized that it wasn't &quot;normal&quot; compared to my other friends. Of course, I had lots of hair on my legs and arms too, at an even younger age -- growing up in Southern California meant that I was doing a lot of hair removal all the time so as to not look like a freak in shorts or a bathing suit. My skin just didn't ever seem to clear up -- I spent many hours at the dermatologist. I also &quot;learned&quot; early on that I couldn't eat very much at all -- if I did, I immediately gained a lot of weight and it didn't want to come off. My cycles were horrible, when I had them, I understood why some women called it &quot;the curse&quot;. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>I was diagnosed when I was 17 and immediately went on birth control pills to control my symptoms. This was the only practical &quot;treatment&quot; known at that time. Later on, PCOS was the reason I couldn't easily conceive and then miscarried the 2 times I did conceive naturally. I think this is the most acutely painful aspect of this syndrome, and it is certainly the focus of many women's pain. Wanting a child and being unable to have one was one of the most difficult times of my life. Needing to take in order to conceive and carry a pregnancy can have some very subtle effects on how a woman thinks about herself, and when she has a condition that already makes her feel less attractive, less desirable and less feminine (at least by our culture's standards), she can end up seeing herself as pretty defective. Later in life, PCOS presents some serious health problems. Women with PCOS are significantly more likely to have type II diabetes and heart disease and there appears to be a link to breast and colon cancer, so it isn't just a &quot;cosmetic&quot; or &quot;infertility&quot; condition -- it can be ugly. </li></ul>
  20. 20. PCOS <ul><li>Spectrum of clinical d/o’s not diagnosed by lab </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical presentation includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hirsuitism & acne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oligomenorrhea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anovulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infertility </li></ul></ul>                                                                                                                                                 
  21. 22. PCOS <ul><li>Pituitary gland is heightened to GnRH </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Exaggerated pulsatile LH release </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>LH/FSH ratio may be elevated </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> LH stimulate ovary to secrete  androgen </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Androgens are converted to estrone and estradiol </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogens secreted tonically </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Augment pituitary sensitivity to GnRH </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>And vicious cycle continues to  LH </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>ovaries overproduce androstenedione and testosterone </li></ul>
  23. 24. Other interesting findings <ul><li>Androgens  SHBG;  free testosterone </li></ul><ul><li>Anovulation and insulin resistance- exact pathogenesis unclear </li></ul><ul><ul><li> in basal insulin secretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> in hepatic uptake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B-cell dysfunction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> insulin has direct effect on pituitary in  LH secretion and the ovary for androgen production </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Problems associated with high levels of sex hormones: <ul><li>Anovulation results in amenorrhea & infertility </li></ul><ul><li>Hirsuitism, acne </li></ul><ul><li>Male pattern baldness/thinning </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity- android-type with  waist-hip ratios </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer- endometrial </li></ul>
  25. 27. Problems associated with high levels of sex hormones: <ul><li>Insulin resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperinsulinemia </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease </li></ul>
  26. 28. Theories to etiology of PCOS <ul><li>Genetic predisposition is most likely although no gene isolated; believe in 2-hit hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Premature adrenarche (<8 y/o) </li></ul><ul><li>Heterozygosity for CAH </li></ul><ul><li>IUGR </li></ul>
  27. 29. Treatment <ul><li>Cosmetic interventions </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>OCP’s: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>suppress LH   androgens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> SHBG   free testosterone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> adrenal production of androgen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> 5alpha-reductase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spironolactone </li></ul>
  29. 31. Treatment <ul><li>Cyclic progestins </li></ul><ul><li>GnRH agonists </li></ul><ul><li>Weight control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low carb diets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise to reduce weight and CV risk factors </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Treatment- controversial <ul><li>Insulin sensitizing drugs: biguanides & thiazolidinediones </li></ul><ul><ul><li> insulin R </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> hirsuitism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>restore nl ovulatory patterns </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Metformin <ul><li>Reduces hyperinsulinemia </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases risk factors for CHD </li></ul><ul><li>Improved weight-loss </li></ul><ul><li>Normalization of circulating androgens </li></ul><ul><li>Resumption of normal ovulatory menses and therefore reversal of infertility </li></ul>
  32. 34. Resources and Websites <ul><li>www.pcosupport.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.pcosupport/pcoteen </li></ul><ul><li>www.obgyn.net/pcos/pcos.asp </li></ul>
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