Microsoft Word - Document2

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Microsoft Word - Document2

  1. 1. Mobile Linux – Android 1.1. Changing Contexts within the Mobile Communications Business Chart 1.1 Rate of Mobile Data Revenue Growth 1.2. Emerging Priorities within the Operator, Content and Handset Domains 1.3 Shifting Business Models 2.1 Android: The Next Pillar of Google's Business Strategy? 2.2 The Open Handset Alliance and the Unveiling of Android 2.3 Android and Linux Standardisation 2.4 The Immediate Future 2.5 Focus of the Report 3. Linux - the Open-Source Technology 3.1 Origin of Linux Figure 3.1 Structure of an Operating System 3.1.1 Linux: The Free OS 3.2 The Initial Fight for Acceptance 3.2.1 Adaptability of Linux 3.3 Availability of Linux 3.4 Linux: Open Source Code 3.4.1 Formal Rules 3.4.2 Informal Rules 3.5 Roots of Linux 3.6 Popularity of Linux and its users 3.6.1 Where is Linux being used? 3.6.1.1 Linux Applications 3.6.1.1.1 Internet Servers 3.6.1.1.2 Desktop 3.6.1.1.3 Computation Server 3.6.1.1.4 Mail / Groupware Servers 3.6.1.1.5 Network Box 3.6.1.1.6 PDA 3.6.1.1.7 Smartphones 3.6.1.1.8 The One Laptop per Child (OLPC) Scheme Figure 3.2. The OLPC XO-1 3.6.1.1.8.1 Linux-based OS selected for the OLPC XO 3.6.1.1.8.2 Alternative $100 PC Projects Figure 3.3. TU-40 Figure 3.4. Intel Classmate PC 3.7 Linux: the Issue of Platform Fragmentation 3.7.1Debian-based Distributions Table 3.1. Debian-based Linux Distributions 3.7.1.1 Knoppix-based Table 3.2. Knoppix-based Distributions 3.7.1.2 Ubuntu-based
  2. 2. Table 3.3. Ubuntu-based Distributions 3.7.2 Gentoo-based Table 3.4. Gentoo-based Distributions 3.7.3 RPM-based 3.7.3.1 Fedora-based Table 3.5. Fedora-based Distributions 3.7.3.2 Red Hat Enterprise Linux-based Table 3.6. Red Hat Enterprise-based Distros 3.7.3.3 Other RPM-based Table 3.7. Other RPM-based Distros 3.7.4 Slackware-based Table 3.8. Slackware-based Distros 3.7.4.1 SLAX-Based Table 3.9. SLAX-based Distros 3.7.5 Other Uncategorised Distributions Table 3.10. Other Uncategorised Distributions 4.1 The Increasing Popularity of Mobile Linux 4.1.1 Mobile Linux Adoption in 2007 Chart 4.1. OS Embedded Smartphone Design Wins, Q3 2007 4.2 Barriers to Wider Mobile Linux Adoption 4.3 Mobile Linux Standardisation Initiatives 4.3.1 The LiMo Foundation 4.3.2 Linux Phone Standards (LiPS) Forum Figure 4.1. LiPs Positioning among OS Consortia 4.3.3 Mobile Linux Initiative 4.3.4 Consumer Electronics Linux Forum (CELF) 4.3.5 Android: Providing Greater Scope for Inter-Alliance Harmonisation 4.4 Mobile Linux SDKs 4.4.1 Qtopia/Qtopia Phone Edition Table 4.1. Qtopia Devices Figure 4.2. The Qtopia Greenphone 4.4.2 GPE 4.4.3 Hildon/Maemo Figure 4.3. Maemo Software Stack 4.4.4 OpenMoko Figure 4.4. Neo1973 4.4.5. MontaVista 4.5 Android poised to pre-empt and take mobile Linux forward 5.1 Mobile Phone Usage Chart 5.1 Global mobile subscriber growth 2007-2012 5.2. The Impetus for Mobile Phone Upgrades/ Replacement Cycles Chart 5.2. 3G Reported Global Subscribers, July 2002-July 2007 5.3. Adoption of New Technologies 5.4. Increased Mobile Data Usage
  3. 3. Chart 5.3. Global Mobile Data Revenue Growth 2007-2012 5.4.1 Increase in Mass-Market Devices Chart 5.4. 3G Handset Penetration, Western Europe Chart 5.5. Smartphone shipments as a percentage of total handset shipments 5.4.2 Growth of 3G services (pre-2006) 5.4.3 Evolving Business Models spur Anticipated Adoption Chart 5.6. Growth in UK Mobile Internet Users, May 2006-October 2007 5.4.4 Barriers to Greater Mobile Web-enabled Service Adoption Chart 5.7. Handset OS Market Share, January-November 2007 5.5. A Changing Equipment Market 5.6. Handset Markets by Device Operating System. 6. Mobile Devices 6.1 Handset Architecture 6.1.1 Layers and Functions of Mobile Device Figure 6.1. Operating Systems Architecture for Handsets 6.2 Types of Mobile Handsets 6.2.1 Low End Handsets 6.2.2 VAS and Multimedia Handsets 6.2.3 Smartphones 6.2.4 Wireless PDA Table 6.1 Comparison between Main Device Types 6.3 The Mobile Device Software Figure 6.2 Positioning and relative market size of handset OS 6.3.1 The OS Options 6.3.1.1 Proprietary OS for Mobile Devices 6.3.1.1.1 Examples of Proprietary OS for Mobile Devices 6.3.1.1.1.1 GEOS 6.3.1.1.1.2 Research in Motion (RIM) OS 6.3.1.2 The Problems with the Proprietary OS 6.3.1.3 User Interface 6.3.2. User Interface (UI) 6.3.3 Open OS for the Mobile Devices 6.3.3.1 Symbian 6.3.3.1.1 Symbian OS Versions 9.2 6.3.3.1.2 The Symbian Strategy Going Forward 6.3.3.1.3. Symbian's Competitive Advantage 6.3.3.1.4. Symbian: Consortium Members Figure 6.3. Symbian Ownership Structure 6.3.3.1.5 Symbian and its Licensees Figure 6.4. Symbian Licensing Partners 6.3.3.1.6 Challenges facing Symbian 6.3.3.2 Palm OS 6.3.3.2.1. Palm's Competitive Advantage 6.3.3.2.2. Keeping Up With Competition 6.3.3.3 Microsoft Windows Mobile
  4. 4. 6.3.3.3.1 New Software Releases 6.3.3.3.2 Microsoft Customises 6.3.3.3.3 Criticism of the Microsoft OS 6.3.3.3.4 Competitive Advantage 6.3.3.3.5 Challenges facing Microsoft 6.3.3.3.6 Motorola Embraces Microsoft 6.3.3.4 Apple OS X: Optimised for the iPhone 6.4. The Mobile OS Competitive Landscape 6.4.1 Symbian Market Leadership 6.4.2 Microsoft: PC Business Dominance Replication Unwanted 7.1 The Google Motivation for Entry into the Mobile Business 7.1.1 The Quest to Expand its Proven Business Models 7.1.2 Eradicating Perceived Barriers 7.2 The 2005 Acquisition of Android by Google 7.3 The Open Handset Alliance: the Formal Android Project 7.3.1 An Open Initiative: Emphasising Inclusion over Exclusion 7.3.2 Overcoming OS Market and Platform Fragmentation 7.3.3 Targeting the Mass Market 7.3.4 Bringing Key Players on Board 7.3.5 Competing against Symbian and Windows Chart 7.1. OS Market Share for all Devices 2007 Chart 7.2. Handset Market Share, Q3 2007 Chart 7.3. Smartphone Share of All Handset Shipments, 2004-2012 7.3.6. OHA-aligned Handset Manufacturers Chart 7.4. Global Handset Market Share Q3 2007 7.3.6.1 HTC Figure 7.1. HTC Touch Dual 7.3.6.2 Motorola 7.3.6.3 Samsung Chart 7.4. Global Handset Market Share Q3 2007 7.3.6.4. LG Mobile 8.1. Android Open Source Architecture 8.1.1 Breakdown of Architecture Figure 8.1. The Android Software Stack 8.2. Components 8.2.1 Linux Kernel 8.2.2 Application Framework 8.2.3 Libraries (C/C++ libraries) 8.2.4 Android Runtime: The Dalvik Virtual Machine 8.3 More on Android's Core Applications and the Potential Android Roadmap 8.3.1 Integrated WebKit Browser Figure 8.2. Nokia S60 Browser Architecture based on WebKit 8.3.2 User Interface Fig 8.3. Android GUI
  5. 5. 8.3.2.1 Insufficient Guidance for Android UI Development 8.3.2.2 Graphics Rendering Fig 8.4. Android Mapping GUI Fig 8.5. Android Browser Home Page Fig 8.6. Android Date Widget Fig 8.7. Satellite Image on Android 8.3.3 PacketVideo Multimedia Library Table 8.1. PacketVideo Media Formats and Protocols 8.4 Open Standards versus Operator Lockdown 8.5 Security 8.5.1 Android: Overcoming the Open-Source Security Risk? 8.6 Development 8.7 Conclusion: Android as a Platform and its Implementation 9. The Google Online Business 9.1 Google's Core Business Model 9.2 Current Business Strategy 9.2.1 An Effective Business Approach Chart 9.1. Google Revenue Growth 2002-2007 Chart 9.2. Google Annual Rate of Revenue Growth Chart 9.3. Google Quarterly Financials, 2007 Table 9.1. Google Revenue Sources 9.2.1.1 Google's Advantage in Web Search 9.2.1.2 Google AdWords 9.2.1.3 Google AdSense 9.2.1.4 Web-based Mapping and Location Services 9.2.1.4.1 Google Earth 9.2.1.4.2 Google Maps 9.2.1.5 YouTube Chart 9.4 Growth in YouTube Page Views, 2006-2008 Figure 9.1 YouTube Web Page 9.2.1.6 Google Checkout 9.2.1.7 Acquisition of DoubleClick 9.2.1.7.1 DoubleClick: Increased Market Leverage for Google 9.2.1.8 Rich Web Applications from Google 9.2.1.8.1 Gmail 9.2.1.8.2 Google Docs Fig 9.2. Google Docs Spreadsheets 9.3 Google Mobile Background 9.3.2 Google and Participation in the US 700MHz Spectrum Auction 9.3.2.1 Google Proposes Licence Conditions to the FCC Fig. 9.3. Licensed Areas in the 700MHz Bands Up For Auction 9.3.3 Google Mobile Internet and Image Search Fig 9.4 Mobile Search Page Fig 9.5 Google Image Search on the iPhone 9.3.3.1 Google Mobile AdSense
  6. 6. 9.3.3.2 Mobile AdWords 9.3.4 Google Maps on Mobile Figure 9.6. Google Maps Mobile 9.3.4.1 Google Maps versus GPS on Mobile Handsets 9.3.5 YouTube Mobile 9.3.6 Mobile Gmail 9.3.7 Google Checkout Mobile 9.3.7.1 GPay Figure 9.7. GPay Merchants Web Interface Figure 9.8. GPay WAP Form Figure 9.9. GPay SMS Notification 9.3.8 Google Product Search for Mobile 9.3.9. Investment in developing the .mobi domain 9.4 Android: Bringing down Barriers to Entry for Google services into Mobility 9.4.1 Android: Furthering the Google Advertising Model into Mobile 9.4.2 Android: Control over the Platform, Customisation and Downloadable Applications 9.4.3 Android: A Mobile Platform for Google Desktop Rich Web Applications 10. Conclusions: Impacts and Implications 10.1 Potential Conflicts within the OHA 10.1.1 eBay/PayPal versus Google Checkout/GPay 10.1.1.1 Positioning as a Crucial Factor between eBay and Google 10.1.2 Skype versus Google Talk 10.2 Smart Terminal versus Dumb Pipe 10.3 The Immediate Future

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