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Lecture Notes 12
 

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    Lecture Notes 12 Lecture Notes 12 Document Transcript

    • LECTURE NOTES Chapter 12 Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence Objectives After students complete this section, they will be able to do the following: • Define multimedia and identify the main types of information elements it includes • Compare the different digital formats used for images, sound, and video • Discuss the effect of digital media on Web page development and on the movie and music industries • Describe the process for creating a multimedia work and compare the different applications • Classify the main types of AI systems and discuss their applications The term ______________________ refers to the integration of multiple forms of communication in a single interface. Web pages are one type of multimedia interface that most people are familiar with. They are considered multimedia since they are capable of combining text, images, sound, and video. Computers store data in the form of long strings of 1s and 0s known as _____________ code. This means that there must be a process for reducing a picture, sound, text, or movie to a series of on-off (0 or 1) settings before they can be stored by computers. The process of taking analog data, such as a human voice, and turning it into a data file on a disk is called ________________, or going digital. A digital copy of any form of media, collectively called digital media, has one inherent advantage over analog data—it can be reproduced an infinite number of times with no degradation of quality. The term ________________ refers to pictures or images, such as illustrations and photographs. Illustrations can be created on a computer by using special drawing software. They can also be drawn or painted by hand and then scanned onto disk. Early Painting and Drawing Programs The quality of the graphic images produced by today’s computers represents perhaps the most dramatic improvement in PCs since they were first developed circa 1980. In the early days of personal computing, software developers created two types of programs for producing computer graphics. 1) ______________- or raster image-based graphics programs, commonly called painting programs, allowed users to create pictures by changing the pixels (picture elements or dots) on the screen. 2) ______________- or vector-based graphics programs, commonly called drawing programs, allowed users to construct pictures by creating, editing, and combining mathematically defined geometric shapes. Developments in Painting and Drawing Program • The _______________________ problem in painting programs was resolved in two ways. First, as the RAM and storage capacities of personal computers grew, it became
    • CSI 113 Chapter 12 Lecture Notes 2 possible to create raster image-processing programs that could handle images with a greater number of dots per inch. Today’s high-end raster image programs can handle full- screen images at 2400 dpi or higher in 16.7 million different colors. • The introduction of bezier curves (straight lines or curves that are described by their tangents) made it possible to create curved lines. • The next great innovation in drawing programs was the introduction of ______________ tools. • Contemporary programs combine drawing and painting features. Graphics File Formats Almost all graphics programs enable users to save files in a native format, one that is specific to that application. In addition, however, there are a number of standard graphics file formats that can be used in other applications. Saving a graphic in a standard file format is called ________________ the graphic. Placing a graphic in a standard file format into another document or file is called ___________________ the graphic. • Bitmap Graphics Files are the simplest form of image files. A _____________ file has a “.____” file extension and holds a picture that can be displayed and edited by programs such as Microsoft Paint. A bitmap file is basically a listing of every pixel the computer should draw on the screen to display an image. • Image Compression: Image files are one of the largest file types that computers have to deal with. For a comparison, consider that a single high-resolution bitmap image would take up roughly as much disk space as all the text in this textbook. The solution to this problem is something called data ___________________, in which programs such as WinZip find repeating patterns in the data and replace them with encoded shorthand that describes the data, thus reducing the amount of disk space required. Conversion programs typically reduce the original file size by 5 to 10 percent. • The two most common compression systems used for still images on the Internet are ____________ and _____________ files. These files can be identified by their file extensions, .________) and ._________ The primary difference between the two file types is that ______________ files can perform simple animations, while _________________s present superior still images. • Rather than looking at an image as a set of dots that the computer must reproduce on its screen, _______________ graphics store an image as a series of geometric shapes. • ____________________graphics are very useful for line drawings, but they do have one drawback: they cannot reproduce a detailed image such as a human face. In fact, any graphic texture (a bitmap that forms part of an image) that does not conform to some type of geometric shape is a problem for vector graphics. • The solution adopted by many graphic artists is to use a little of both systems. This works particularly well with computer games. For example, a character on a game screen might be moving through a building. The regular geometric lines of a three-dimensional space can be described using vector graphics, while the surfaces of the walls and characters are actually bitmaps drawn on top of the wire-frame. Clip Art Images Many word processing programs include clip art, which are icon-like images that are sizable, Computers Understanding Technology—Comprehensive, 2nd edition, Floyd Fuller & Brian Larson, EMC Paradigm, 2005.
    • CSI 113 Chapter 12 Lecture Notes 3 allowing them to be inserted into the text of reports and Web pages to liven up the screen. Photo Manipulation, or Raster Image-Editing Programs The high-end raster image-editing programs available today, such as _______________ Photoshop and Corel Photo House, can be used to produce computer paintings, but their most common use is for editing digitized photographs: • touching up photographs • moving objects around with the photograph • adding objects • combining photographs with other photos or artwork • incorporating text within photographic images • changing the hue or saturation of colors • changing the brightness or amount of contrast in the image • painting over parts of the image 3D Modeling Programs Objects can be manipulated in any direction, creating the perception of three dimensions, and made to cast shadows or reflect light. Users can also build objects out of regularly shaped figures known as _______________. There are many different 3D modeling programs that allow illustrators to create imaginary worlds and scenes, including Macromedia’s Shockwave and Dreamweaver, LightWave 3D by Newtek, and 3D Studio from Autodesk. Computer Animation More and more movies are made with the aid of CG FX (computer graphic special effects). Many animated movies, such as Disney’s Finding Nemo and Toy Story, were created entirely with computer graphics, with no pen ever touching paper to create the animated world. DIGITIZING SOUND Sounds can also be stored, edited, copied and reproduced by computers, with quality and speed equaling that of digital images. Rather than forming sets of pixels together to simulate images, sounds are reproduced by __________________ the pitch, frequency, and volume of a sound thousands of times a second, then storing these measurements using binary numbers. Two common technologies for digitizing sound include: • __________________ (.wav), which digitize sound using a process similar to the one used by bitmaps to digitize images. A wave file records any kind of sound by storing masses of binary numbers and measuring exactly how much voltage to send out to the speakers each fraction of a second in order to reproduce the sound. • Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) technique, which works by digitally simulating musical instruments. Simulating the sounds produced by a drum, violin, and flute, for example, means that a MIDI file only needs to know which notes to play on each instrument to reproduce music. ________________ Sound Compression Technique Sound files can be compressed just like graphic files, but with some sacrifice in quality. A wave file can be compressed in a number of ways, but by far the most popular is the ______________3 format. This format takes a wave file and reduces it by 90 percent, leaving behind a high-quality Computers Understanding Technology—Comprehensive, 2nd edition, Floyd Fuller & Brian Larson, EMC Paradigm, 2005.
    • CSI 113 Chapter 12 Lecture Notes 4 reproduction. DIGITIZING VIDEO Movies are made by quickly flashing a series of 20 still images per second on a screen. Each picture, or ____________________, shows a fraction of movement. Our eyes and brains are designed to fill in the blanks, and we perceive the images as a continuous flow of action. Combining a series of images at a specified speed called the ______________ ________ creates the illusion of fluid motion. Digital Movies Digital video is on the verge of permanently replacing analog movies. Its advantages include • high-quality sound and picture • will not degrade with each showing Movie Compression Techniques • __________________format is the movie equivalent of the MP3 music format. • Need for compressed movie files is driven by the demand for Web pages that provide interesting new moving images without forcing viewers to wait for excessively long downloads. • ______________ is a common format that provides good graphics without long download delays. Increased Movie Piracy • Like digital music, the digital-movie market is beginning to feel the pain of piracy, or illegal copying. • Industry analysts estimated that in the year 2002 illegal transfers of DVD movies over the Internet had increased to 600,000 downloads daily. Digital Cable Digital cable offers a wide selection of stations, typically more than 200, with the capability of expanding to 2,000 stations. Although it provides a clearer picture than analog sets, the screen often takes longer to come into focus compared to a traditional cable TV feed. Most existing TV sets don’t have the ability to handle so many channels, so the service generally comes with an extra box and controller. High-Definition TV • As the name implies, high-definition TV (HDTV) is simply television with more lines and more pixels—in other words, higher resolution. • HD screens are sometimes called 16 by 9 ratio screens, as they are 16 units wide for every 9 high. • Older sets are built on a 4 by 3 ratio, which is closer to a square in shape. CREATING MULTIMEDIA WORKS Several types of programs allow users to incorporate different multimedia elements: • Word processing documents and slideshow presentations usually accommodate embedded speech, graphics, and video clips. • The ____________ ______________ program allows users to create platform- independent files known as PDF documents (.pdf ), containing text, graphics, video, and sound in the QuickTime video format. Computers Understanding Technology—Comprehensive, 2nd edition, Floyd Fuller & Brian Larson, EMC Paradigm, 2005.
    • CSI 113 Chapter 12 Lecture Notes 5 • Many Web authoring programs allow people to incorporate multimedia elements into pages to be posted on the World Wide Web. Computers Understanding Technology—Comprehensive, 2nd edition, Floyd Fuller & Brian Larson, EMC Paradigm, 2005.
    • CSI 113 Chapter 12 Lecture Notes 6 • It is also possible to create stand-alone multimedia products using _______________ authoring software. Planning a Multimedia Work The process of planning a multimedia work involves making decisions about the content, audience, purpose, and form that it is to take. Three common ways to organize the work include: 1) ____________________ page-based multimedia: a sequence of pages or slides, appearing one after the other and incorporating various elements such as text, sound, graphics, and video. 2) ________________ page-based multimedia: a set of pages containing links that can be followed at will. In this type of work a user can generally move from page to page, or click on links to graphics, text, sound, or video files. 3) _____________-based multimedia: a movie, or series of movies that stop from time to time, enabling users to follow links. People usually prepare a ________________________ to plan sequential page-based multimedia or movie-based multimedia. Creating the Content of the Work Content for a multimedia applications can come from many different sources: • text from word processing • graphics created by drawing programs • sounds imported from files or input from a microphone through the soundcard • video; video digitizing cards allow users to capture and digitize video images and sound from such sources as television, videotape recorders, and camcorders. Video editing software allows users to edit sound and video and output it in various digital formats. Combining the Elements The various elements of the multimedia application—text, graphics, and video and sound clips— must be combined to produce the finished product. The simplest multimedia works are documents produced using standard office software such as word processors or presentation programs. More complex works can be produced using Macromedia Director or Authorware. Popular Types of Multimedia Works Perhaps the most popular types of multimedia works created today are: • Multimedia Web Pages: Flash and Shockwave, both from Macromedia, are the leading source of Web movies and games. _________________ is a more intensive format, requiring more time to download the larger, 3D movies. ___________________ is faster, hence the name, and is commonly used for imagery that is more cartoon-like. • Educational Tools: Online multimedia courses and supplementary CDs packaged with textbooks are becoming common as valuable teaching and learning media. Multimedia tutorials are especially helpful for addressing different learning styles by presenting the material in various forms. Computers Understanding Technology—Comprehensive, 2nd edition, Floyd Fuller & Brian Larson, EMC Paradigm, 2005.
    • CSI 113 Chapter 12 Lecture Notes 7 • Computer Games: The business of making games and game consoles is far from child’s play. A short while ago most computer game players were teenage boys, but the demographics have shifted drastically in the past five years. According to the Entertainment Software Association, 50 percent of Americans play some type of computer game on a regular basis. The average age of a gamer is 29. o Game Consoles: Modern game consoles such as the Sony Playstation® 2 and Microsoft’s Xbox™ rival personal computers for power. They use a TV set as a monitor and game pad controllers for input. Priced at around $200, they are less of an investment for consumers than a full home computer system. o Online Games: One of the fastest growing areas of computer applications are MMORPGs (Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games). These virtual reality games involve thousands of players and enable to them to chat, adventure and interact in virtual worlds. Considered some of the most advanced programs ever written, in that they meld together the fields of graphics, online interaction and artificial intelligence, these highly addictive games are keep millions of bleary-eyed players engaged for more hours than most like to admit. o Multimedia PCs: Multimedia PCs and gaming PCs are the most costly and high- powered computers on the consumer market. They generally have the fastest CPU available, lots of high-speed RAM, and an expensive video card for advanced 3D effects. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) Artificial intelligence (AI) is another computer application that has fueled the continual effort to create faster and more powerful machines. The goal of artificial intelligence is to develop computers that can perform functions normally reserved for humans: thinking, talking, seeing, feeling, walking, and learning from their mistakes. Will computers ever pass the ___________________ Test? (See Figure 12-23, page 573.) English mathematician Alan Turing proposed in 1950 that a computer is intelligent if it can trick people into thinking they are communicating with a real human being. So far, no computer has passed the test, although futurists predict that by 2030 a computer will be able to meet the Turing standard. AI Technology Trends The current trend in AI development is moving toward limited, focused applications. Rather than attempting to perform the broad range of tasks humans can perform, modern AI systems focus on simulating specialized human functions. The three primary areas of AI applications are 1. Cognitive Science Applications Cognitive science is the study and simulation of the human mind. Based on biology, neurology, psychology, and other disciplines, it focuses on researching how the human brain thinks and learns. o _________________agents (software robot or bot): provide an intuitive assistant (agent) that can utilize knowledge based on past experience and predictions of likely future behavior. They can then use that knowledge to assist computer users. Computers Understanding Technology—Comprehensive, 2nd edition, Floyd Fuller & Brian Larson, EMC Paradigm, 2005.
    • CSI 113 Chapter 12 Lecture Notes 8 o ______________ Systems: attempt to embody human expertise in a particular field, such as law or medicine. Because the expert system might encompass the knowledge of an entire group of experts, the software theoretically “knows” more than any single luminary about a specific topic. o ____________ Mining: a relatively new application of artificial intelligence that focuses on finding new ways to use masses of data stored in the databases of large corporations. o _______________ Algorithms: used to solve design problems by applying a Darwinian (survival of the fittest) method to problem solving. This technology uses a computer to create thousands, or even millions, of slightly varied designs, and then tests and selects the best of them. Examples of problems: the curvature of a jetliner wing, the structure of a walking robot, or almost any other design task. The best of these programs have evolved to another generation, where more random variations are made (called ______________). This process of selection is enhanced by the use of ______________________, which means the most successful mutations are mixed to produce a new generation of “offspring.” o ___________________ Logic: attempts to model human reasoning by allowing for approximations and incomplete input data. Instead of demanding precise yes/ no or numerical information, _______________ logic systems allow users to input “fuzzy” data. The terminology used by the system is deliberately vague: very probable, somewhat decreased, reasonable, or very slight. o ___________________ Networks simulate the physical workings of the human mind, and present the ultimate attempt to model human intelligence. While our brains have in excess of 100 billion neurons, computer-based neural simulations are comprised of hundreds of neurons. However, they operate in much the same way as the human brain. A neural network generally starts off with only an input source, some form of output, and a goal. The system will learn by trial and error how a given output affects the input. 2. Natural Interface Applications Another major area of artificial intelligence has the goal of creating a more natural interface between human and machine. This area deals with four sub- areas: o ______________ Recognition: With this technology, users direct the computer with their voice rather than needing to type information on the keyboard or click with the mouse. A computer that can take dictation and perform requested actions is a real step forward in convenience and potential. o __________________ Language Interfaces: In the not-too-distant future computers will be able to read, write, speak, and understand many human languages. Language translators already exist, and they are getting better all the time. o ______________ ______________________ (VR) describes the concept of creating a realistic world within the computer, a concept at the core of contemporary online games in which people can take on a persona and move about a virtual landscape, adventuring and chatting with other players. People become friends, are “virtually” married, and in a sense have entire virtual lives in Computers Understanding Technology—Comprehensive, 2nd edition, Floyd Fuller & Brian Larson, EMC Paradigm, 2005.
    • CSI 113 Chapter 12 Lecture Notes 9 ____________________. The quality of a virtual reality system is typically characterized in terms of its immersiveness, which measures how real the simulated world feels, and how well it can make users accept it as their own and forget about reality. o _________________ Interfaces use sensors mounted around the skull to read the alpha waves given off by our brains. The computer measures brain activity and interprets it as a command. Well suited for assisting people with disabilities, the technology also is being explored by military researchers to produce an interface for pilots. 3. Robots as Androids Robotic factories are increasingly commonplace, especially in heavy manufacturing, where tolerance of repetitive movements, great strength, and untiring precision are more important than flexibility. Most people think of robots in science fiction terms, which generally depict them as ____________________, or simulated humans. Real robots today do not look human at all, and judged by human standards they are not very intelligent. The task of creating a human-like body has proved incredibly difficult. The development of intelligent robots involves six main technologies: o ________________ perception is an area of great complexity. Sight is our most powerful sense, and a large percentage of the human brain is dedicated to processing data coming from the eyes. Two cameras are needed to give __________________________ vision, which allows depth and movement perception. Even with two cameras, visual perception also involves understanding what the cameras are seeing, which is the difficult part. o ___________________ perception is less complex than visual perception, but no less important. People respond to audible cues about their surroundings and the people they are with without even thinking about it. To simulate humans, computers would need to identify an individual voice within a group and against background noise plus interpret what is being said. Programmers and technology have a long way to go to achieve this milestone. o _________________ perception, or touch, is another critical sense. Robots can be built with any level of strength, since they are made of steel and motors. How does a robot capable of lifting a car pick up an egg in the dark, without dropping it or crushing it? The answer is through a sense of touch. o ________________________ includes broad movements such as walking. Getting a robot to move around is not easy. It requires balance within an endlessly changing set of variables. o _________________ deals with the science of moving a mobile robot through an environment. Navigation is not an isolated area of AI, as it must work closely with a visual system or some other kind of perception system. Computers Understanding Technology—Comprehensive, 2nd edition, Floyd Fuller & Brian Larson, EMC Paradigm, 2005.
    • CSI 113 Chapter 12 Lecture Notes 10 ON THE HORIZON  Sophisticated Natural Interfaces: As computers continue to shrink in size and grow in power, it only makes sense that we will eventually be wearing our PCs. Key to their success will be the type of interface used. Keyboards, mice, and monitors are far too cumbersome to hang from a person’s body. Wearable computers will require a natural interface to operate, most likely speech-based.  Intelligent Devices: As was fictionalized earlier in this chapter’s Cyber Scenario, we may soon have cars and homes that can interact intelligently with us. The concept of driving to work may change to riding to work in a single-person vehicle, forming one tiny part of a massive, automated transit system. Homes will “talk” to us, and all kinds of robotic devices will handle daily chores. The most difficult obstacle to overcome in creating these new technologies is developing a sophisticated speech recognition interface that mimics human capabilities. Computers Understanding Technology—Comprehensive, 2nd edition, Floyd Fuller & Brian Larson, EMC Paradigm, 2005.