Lecture 6 - Software 2
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Lecture 6 - Software 2

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Lecture 6 - Software 2 Lecture 6 - Software 2 Presentation Transcript

  • Software - 2 Operating Systems
  • Objectives
    • The objectives of this session are to:
    • Describe what an operating system is;
    • Define the main functions of operating systems;
    • Describe the leading operating systems in use today;
    • Outline current trends in operating system technology.
  • Operating Systems
    • The operating system ‘runs’ the computer. It is the program used to control the hardware of the computer directly.
    • Without such programs the hardware would be useless.
    • Systems software is often said to form the bridge between the applications’ software and the hardware.
  • Operating Systems
    • Operating systems may be:
      • Proprietary.
      • Open
    • There is a shrinking range of operating systems in use today.
    • It is important to be aware of:
      • the different types of operating system;
      • what the leading products are;
      • the business implications of selecting different operating systems;
      • current trends.
  • Operating System Services
    • Key services include:
      • File/disk management;
      • Screen management;
      • Recovery;
      • Peripheral management;
      • Resource management;
      • Access and security control .
    • We will look at each of these.
  • OS Services: File/Disk Management
    • Physical location management;
    • Housekeeping;
    • File names;
    • Directories and directory structures;
    • Underpinning of other data management systems.
    • Maximum number of files supported.
    • Compression and fragmentation management
  • OS Services: File/Disk Management Disk Fragmentation
    • Text;
    • Graphical User Interface (GUI);
      • Icons;
      • Pull down menus;
      • Action buttons;
      • Scroll bars;
      • Drag and drop.
    OS Services: Screen Management
  • OS Services: Screen Management
    • Browser.
      • Hypertext linking;
      • Action buttons;
      • Forms;.
    • The GUI is not necessarily part of the O/S
    • The operating system must manage devices such as:
      • Printers;
      • Modems;
      • Scanners;
      • External disk drives;
      • CD drives;
      • Tape drives;
      • Plug and play technology.
    OS Services: Peripherals
  • OS Services: Recovery
    • It must handle problems such as
      • Crash management;
      • File recovery;
      • Rollback;
    • It must handle a variety of security issues:
      • Authorised user lists;
      • Logon ids;
      • Passwords;
      • Directory permissions;
      • File access permissions:
        • Read;
        • Write;
        • Append;
        • Execute.
      • Encryption
      • Auditing logs
      • Accounting logs
    OS Services: Access and Security Control
  • OS Services: Resource Management
      • The Operating System must manage the machine resources including :
      • Job management and scheduling;
      • Resource allocation;
      • Conflict resolution;
      • Managing the flows of data throughout the system
      • Start up and shut down;
  • Operating Systems Evolution
    • System Developer Approx. Year
    • OS/360 IBM 1964
    • Unix Bell Labs 1969
    • VMS Digital 1978
    • DOS Microsoft 1981
    • MacOS Apple 1984
    • OS/400 IBM Mid 1980s
    • OS/2 1.0 Microsoft/IBM 1987
    • Windows 3 Microsoft 1990
    • Linux Open Source 1991
    • Windows NT Microsoft 1993
    • Windows 95 Microsoft 1995
  • Operating Systems Evolution
    • System Developer Approx. Year
    • Windows 98 Microsoft 1998
    • Windows 2000 Microsoft 1999
    • MacOSX Apple 1999
    • Windows XP Microsoft 2001
    • Windows Vista Microsoft 2007
  • The Major Operating Systems
    • Outside of the IBM world, there are four key operating systems in use today:
      • Linux .
        • Open-source alternative to other more expensive operating systems. Gaining popularity.
      • Unix
        • Dominates large server and scientific/engineering world
      • MacOS/ X
        • Has about 7-8% of market world-wide. Strong in education, publishing and graphics.
      • Microsoft Windows 95/98 , NT, 2000, XP or Vista
        • Dominant desktop technology today
        • Rising fast in the server market.
  • Microsoft Windows NT/2000/XP
    • Proprietary
    • Low end server and desktop operating systems.
    • Primarily 32 bit system
    • Supports preemptive multitasking.
    • Supports multiprocessing up to a point.
    • Memory hungry
    • Large storage requirements
    • GUI front end
    • NT not Plug and Play, 2000/XP is Plug and Play
  • Microsoft Windows Vista
    • Proprietary
    • Released January 2007
    • Biggest upgrade since Windows XP
    • Hardware Implications
      • At least 1.5 GHz processor
      • 512 Mb RAM
      • Good graphics card (64Mb)
      • HD Monitor
      • http://www.microsoft.com/windowsvista/default.mspx
  • Apple MacOS
    • Proprietary
    • Currently at version - 10.5 (Leopard)
    • 64 bit system
    • Runs on PowerPC.
    • Preemptive multitasking;
    • Generally recognised as having the best GUI;
    • Windows emulators are available (e.g. Connectix);
    • Now limited to a niche market.
  • Unix
    • Vintage (1969) operating system with many derivatives.
    • Both proprietary and open systems available
    • Written in the C programming language
    • Both 32 and 64 bit versions
    • Runs on a vast range of platforms.
    • Supports preemptive multitasking.
    • Supports multiprocessing.
    • Stable
    • Free versions such as Linux available and spreading rapidly.
    • Problem with standardisation
    • X Windows
  • Linux
    • Developed in early 1990s as an alternative for MS Windows
    • Open system
    • Runs on a vast range of platforms.
    • Both 32 and 64 bit versions.
    • Supports up to 4 processors.
    • Stability, security and remote management
    • Applications becoming available
    • Not as user friendly as MS Windows or Mac.
    • http://www.ubergeek.tv/article.php?pid=54
  • Operating System Hierarchy Mainframe ESA Unix Others Large Server Unix Smaller Server Windows NT /2000 Unix OS/2 Linux Desktop Windows 95/98 Windows 2000 Mac OS Linux Unix
  • Mobile Device Operating Systems
    • Windows CE
    • Pocket PC
    • Palm OS
    • Embedded Linux – Google’s Android
  • Operating Systems
    • Provide an interface between application programs and the hardware.
    • Steady move away from mainframes.
    • Increasing standardisation.
    • Consolidation is occurring:
      • Proprietary systems disappearing
      • Microsoft building long term dominance.
      • IBM dominate mainframe world.
      • Apple very much at a cross-roads
      • UNIX for high end servers
      • Linux serious contender for Microsoft?