Team of International Trade and Investment
Consideration of International Trade
【 Pride and Prejudice： iPhone promotion frustrated in China】
Chapter 1 Failure in reaching agreements with the provider
Chapter 2 Relationship with China Unicom: A failed strategy against China Mobile
Chapter 3 Difficulty in entering the Chinese market
1. Superiority of Apple
2. Troubles caused by overconfidence
3. Considerations and Analysis
Chapter 4 Suggestions and Conclusions
Viewing the world trade business situation, it's becoming more global and
internationalized as each day goes by. As world trade involves businessmen from all over the
world, it calls for good companionship and comprehension in order to achieve international
But as the matter of fact, not all efforts to achieve cooperation and interaction are
pleasant and smooth. There are always some disappointments and cases of frictions in the
international trading sector. Thus it is particularly important for us to study and to learn why
these conflicts happen and what should be done to avoid these situations and, consequently,
to develop better conditions.
Therefore we'd like to present our research and studies on the recent case involving
the unsuccessful attempts to introduce and promote the iPhone in China. We would also like
to offer some possible solutions to the problem.
iPhone and the present situation
With its gorgeous appearance, elegant shape, and unique texture, the Apple iPhone
can also functionally fulfill any need you can imagine for a mobile device. It would seem
that no one could resist the iPhone’s charm. Just the iPhone’s appearance, bright as the
lightning across the sky, makes all predecessors pale in comparison.
However, even though Apple has created the world's most appealing mobile
terminal, China Mobile has the largest population of mobile users worldwide. It would seem
no doubt that they could achieve great success if both sides would agree to do business
compatibly. It may be because of Apple iPhone’s arrogance, automatically assuming that all
countries should accept their conditions, that iPhone , which enjoys the praise of users world-
wide , but getting a cold reception in China. After some upsetting contacts with the Chinese
mobile company, Apple still has not been able to win over Chinese users officially in the way
they had hoped.
Chapter 1 Failure to reach an agreement
On June 29th, 2007, the first Apple iPhone was sold. This took place in America.
The fervent desire to own an iPhone surged from New York’s Times Square to Disneyland in
Los Angeles. As China Mobile witnessed this scene, it showed a tendency to cooperate with
Apple in August, 2007. Soon after, in mid-November, Wang Jianzhou, the president of China
Mobile, announced to the public for the first time that they were negotiating with Apple and
that the iPhone would appear in China soon This news greatly excited many Chinese Apple
However, perhaps because Mr. Wang was too confident or Mr. Jobs was too stingy,
both sides experienced a serious divergence in the negotiation process. At that time, Apple
had signed exclusive agreements with several mobile operators worldwide, including U.S.
ATT, UK O2 and so on. According to the agreement, Apple would charge users sharing costs
for the music, games, video downloads.
The IPhone price was not high, but consumers were obligated to sign an agreement
with their mobile providers so that Apple could take a substantial amount of revenue from the
providers.. Take ATT for example; Apple could extract a share of up to 11 U.S. dollars
monthly from each user who signed a service agreement with Apple, which created a miracle
in the history of the communication industry. This success in the U.S. and European markets
made Steve Jobs believe confidently that the model he created would suit everyone globally.
"I do not like this attitude of Apple." Wang Jianzhou said decisively, but China
Mobile also told reporters that they trusted mobile companies such as Apple and Wang
Jianzhou sent a high level commission, led by Gao Nianshu, the data Minister, to Apple's
headquarters in California, where they carried out arduous negotiations."We indeed have
been negotiating for a long time on the introduction of Apple's iPhone, but they propose 20%
to -30% of the share ratio, which we can not accept." Gao said. He additionally stated that
China Mobile did not agree with Apple’s way of controlling the profit chain.
On July 11, 2008, re-creating the wave of panic buying of the previous year, the 3G
version of the iPhone was first sold in 22 countries and regions around the world. On just the
first day of sales, the number of iPhones sold reached 270,000, and achieved record sales of
one million within the first week. However, with some European mobile providers, the
negotiations began to become somewhat complicated , so apple gave up the original policy,
switching to the way that most providers gave users an allowance, through which China
Mobile began to see hope.
In this regard, Wang Jianzhou said"China Mobile and Apple have removed the
biggest obstacle, because the other party will not engage in profit-sharing, and now only the
problem of the working level.must be resolved". China Mobile sent representatives to the
United States ,with Gao Niansheng as the leader,on behalf of the negotiations with Apple.
Wang Jianzhou and Jobs also held a number of long-distance video conference calls.
Surprisingly, Apple and China Mobile then encountered a new conflict in which
China Mobile was unable to reach a consensus with Apple regarding the subsidy. In addition,
China Mobile considered the iPhone price in China, $600, too high. In order to attract more
users, in other countries Apple reduced the price of the 3G mobile phones by half. For
example, the 8GB version is priced at 199 dollars, 16GB sells for 299 dollars. But before, the
16GB version was priced at 499 dollars. China Mobile was of the opinion that such different
treatment was an obvious form of discrimination and extremely unfair. This angered Wang
Jianzhou to the point that he said at the September, 2008 Davos Forum to the U.S.
representatives “iPhone is not our only option!”
As recently as February 11, 2009, while everyone thought that Apple was completely
out of China Mobile, Wang pointed out the negotiations were ongoing, yet still not in order.
However, Apple persists in selling software and applications directly to users through Apple's
online store, which bypasses China Mobile, directly gaining profits from the customers.
Wang Jianzhou thinks the application store should be operated by China Mobile. The
continuing conflict,in the mobile Internet strategy ,eventually led the negotiations to a dead
Another point of disagreement is regarding the operating regulations and provisions
in China.which require that the Wi-Fi wireless module be removed from all cell phones,
which means the loss of the majority of the functionality of an iPhone. This recommendation
was not adopted by Apple. For people in the industry, they had become dissatisfied with each
other starting in 2007. During the time when negotiations were in full swing, on November 6,
2007, Google announced that 33 companies and mobile phone providers joined an open
alliance for joint development to be known as open-source Android mobile systems. China
Mobile is on the list. This makes it apparent that China Mobile joined the line-up of Apple's
Today, China Mobile has obviously changed the eager attitude which it had toward
iPhone in the past. "China Mobile's door has been opened to Apple, but cooperation must be
based on the principle of mutual benefit." The meaning of these words of Wang Jianzhou is
that, unless Apple initiatives become more attractive, China Mobile will not attempt to
Chapter 2 Relationship with China Unicom: A failed strategy against
When, in November 2007, the GSMA (Global System for Mobile Communications
of Asia) meeting was hosted in Macao, the vice president of China Unicom, Li Zhengmao,
announced: “We have an open attitude on the introduction of iPhone.” The original
negotiations between China Mobile and Apple thus became more complicated because of the
participation of China Unicom.
China Unicom didn’t take itself as a spoiler, saying that their idea of introducing
iPhone had not emerged later than China Mobile. The popularity of iPhone had long
attracted the attention of Li Gang, another officer of the company. He immediately arranged
to discuss a coping strategy. By the end of 2007, after the news spread, stating that the
negotiations between China Mobile and Apple were at a deadlock, China Unicom reached out
its hand of friendship to Apple.
In January 2008, Yu Yingtao, the general manager of Unicom Huasheng, the core
member of the negotiations with Apple, said: “Although the mobile providers don’t want to
share with the mobile phone manufacturers, with these enterprises transforming the Internet,
we have to accept this fact.” From this statement it seems obvious that he was showing his
friendliness to Apple. However, at that time, on the decision of choosing who to collaborate
with, Apple was more inclined toward pursuing an alliance with China Mobile. This idea
changed on January 7, 2009 when Unicom got the WCDMA license.
Negotiations between China Mobile and Apple discontinued not only because of the
issues of revenue-sharing, terminal subsidies and internet strategy, but also because of China
Mobile’s requirement that Apple should develop a TD iPhone. Under such unpredictable
market prospects, Apple couldn’t accept this suggestion to develop a new kind of mobile
phone. Such a venture would have required a lot of labor and material resources. But Wang
Jianzhou insisted and repeatedly warned Apple: “If you don’t provide TD terminals, we will
refuse to purchase your 2G products.” If Apple cooperated with China Unicom, there would
be no such concerns; to produce a WCDMA version of iPhone, Apple would only need to
amend a small number of procedures to fit the Chinese market.
In mid-February this year, after the news that the negotiations between China Mobile
and Apple broke down again, China Unicom quickly set up a special panel to negotiate with
Apple. The focus of public attention began to shift. It was reported that the iPhone would be
officially sold by China Unicom beginning on May 17.
For China Mobile, which has more than 450 million users, the loss of the iPhone
doesn’t make much impact. However, China Unicom is different. It anxiously hopes that
there will be an influence on the kind of products developing high-techniques in order to
compete with China Mobile. On March 8 of this year, a group of people went to Apple
headquarters to open negotiations. The group included Li Gang, Yu Yingtao and Xie Guoqin,
et al. The members of the entourage are all important people in the China Unicom company.
The negotiations continued for 10 days. Obviously, from the composition of the team and the
focus of their discussion, China Unicom surpassed China Mobile. It is reported that in order
to come to a consensus, China Unicom made many concessions, including the granting of
certain subsidies, the underwriting of a number of iPhones and agreeing to create Apple
online software stores.
However, it seemed that Apple was more interested in attempting to persuade China
Mobile to agree to become its partner in China. This appears to be the reason why Apple
maintained an ambiguous relationship with China Unicom; Apple wanted to use this tactical
strategy to coerce China Mobile into making concessions. Because of this situation, Jobs had
more opportunities to bargain with China Mobile. But , he still maintained the increased
proportion of deductions at a level of 20% to 30%, whereas Apple has always asked for only
10% in foreign countries. Due to the inequity of such a requirement by Apple still persisting,
China Unicom also decided not to do business with Apple. This was also because China
Unicom may have been concerned that if they forged an alliance with Apple they might end
up being controlled and manipulated by outsiders.
Consequently, in April 1, 2009, in a report by WedgePartners, the market research
firm, it was stted that China Unicom had drafted a list to mandate some 3G mobile phones to
use its WCDMA network. They are Nokia, Samsung, Sony Ericsson, Dupod, ZTL, Huawei,
etc. Clearly, because iPhone was not on this list, it was out of the running for the Chinese
market. Then, on May 18, 2009, China Unicom suddenly announced that it would join
Google to make a mobile alliance, and would have a direct use of the mobile phone operating
system Google Android. The plan was to launch the Uphone this year. Some pundits also
speculate that China Unicom has been secretly developing its own mobile platform so it is
apparent that iPhone lost its previously important position. Apple, who thought they had a
strong foothold in both camps, had to finally face the embarrassment of gaining nothing.
Chapter 3 Difficulty in entering the Chinese market
Steve Jobs, Apple’s CEO, said “All of the users who like the iPhone are my
customers, not yours. Despite the use of your network, all things are downloaded from my
website, and the download fees are paid to me." This, indeed, appears to be the case. Apple's
advantages have resulted in almost every negotiation with foreign mobile providers ending
with an agreement and contract signed with Apple.
But China Mobile, as has been shown previously, refused to be swayed. No one
believes that Apple does not care about China Mobile’s refusal or that they don’t care about
the Chinese market, where there are sustained profits. China Mobile remains, of course the
most attractive provider in China to form an alliance with because it serves over 2/3 of the
mobile phone users in China. As of December 31, 2008, the total number of users had
already reached 457 million, which is well above other mobile providers worldwide,
including ATT, which has the largest number of subscribers in the U.S.A. with 65.7 million as
of the most recent count
In June of last year, 2008, at the conference where the iPhone 3G made its debut,
Steve Jobs typed the Chinese ideograph 果 (result) on the screen, suggesting that iPhone
would soon appear in China. He claimed: "Later this year, we will be able to see iPhone in
China and Russia.” In fact, the goal to enter the Russian market has already been realized.
But, as previously shown, the iPhone has failed to enter China. However, interestingly, today
there are two million iPhones in use in China, through unofficial channels of access. This
seems really extraordinary.
1. Superiority of Apple
On January 9, 2007, in Las Vegas, at the World Consumers Electronics Show, Steve
Jobs demonstrated the 2G version of the iPhone. Its sleek, contemporary, fashionable design
raised a great sensation. Participants were amazed that Apple was not just producing
computers and some said "Jobs also knows mobile phones?" At the time, Nokia, Samsung
and other mobile phone giants were cynical. After more than ten years of hard work in the
mobile phone industry, they obviously did not pay attention to this "freshman".
No one dreamed that only six months later, on June 29th, 2007, this freshman would
change everything, almost to the point of subverting the rules, in the mobile phone industry.
It was on this date that the iPhone was officially available for sale in the U.S. In order to
sample this delicacy, Apple fans began to line up to wait, both outside and inside Apple stores
nationwide. Even Apple co-founder, Steve Wozniak, and Philadelphia, Mayor, John F. Street,
waited in line in order to purchase the iPhone on the first day of sale. Mayor Street actually
waited in line 15 hours to buy his iPhone but said "It was worth the wait. I love it!”
In fact, in order to be assured of getting such a futuristic cell phone, some fanatical
Apple fans began to line up in front of the Apple Stores four days before the iPhone was
released. The iPhone’s powerful appeal derives from its technology and process innovation,
and attractive appearance. It was completely different from the traditional concept of mobile
phones with its cool appearance and powerful functions, including not only its use as a
mobile phone but its use as an iPod media player for photos and music and its wireless
Internet access capability. It is the perfect combination for 21st century people!
Jobs said "The iPhone is a revolution and magical product. Its technology is five
years ahead of other cell phones." He added, "Our finger is the ultimate pointing device, and
iPhone use them to create the most innovative user interface since the mouse was created.”
From the viewpoint of his peers, Steve Jobs is too arrogant; but in the eyes of users, Apple's
product truly is near-perfect. “Luxury fashion works of art”, is the brand new definition Jobs
gave to Apple’s mobile phones. Pattra telecommunications consulting analyst Du Juan
thought that the iPhone has realized almost all consumers’ requirements for mobile phones in
music, video, photos and design.
2. Troubles caused by overconfidence
Apple’s technological advancements which have progressed over the years makes it
believe it has a strong appeal and control power. It is this fascination with the psychology of
technology which seems to have made Apple decide it can only produce niche products.
Apple sold only 20 million products last year. This figure simply can not compete with sales
numbers for Nokia, Samsung, Motorola, Sony Ericsson, LG and other manufacturers. Nokia
is a prime example, showing sales figures in the fourth quarter last year alone reaching a
volume of 113.1 million. But, at the same time, analysts believe that if Apple could have
entered the Chinese market earlier, it might have been another situation. China reports more
than 150 million new mobile phone users each year. If iPhone could win 1 / 10 of this market
it would also greatly enhance it’s market share.
In the United States, Apple chose AT&T as the iPhone's exclusive vendor. The cost
for this business venture is enormous because there is no AT&T trademark on the iPhone, so
Apple must pay a hefty fee. However, despite this cost, Apple makes a good profit because
they can open shops selling only Apple iPhone products. This is also true in France, the
United Kingdom, Germany, Russia and Japan. Apple’s similar strategy in all these countries
ensures their success in every case. But why does Apple face so many difficulties in China?
In the IT Times magazine it is stated: "We do not see the iPhone in the Chinese
market, if Apple does not change its strategy. It is possible that its way into China will
continue to be blocked, and in China we may only see poor quality iPhone copies in the
Communications experts Li Gang said," It is easy to see that Apple's alliances are all
with emerging weaker providers worldwide. In the world’s telecommunications market, the
mainstream providers do not accept Apple's revenue share model. Only the emerging small
providers, in order to form a short-term market effect, will be reckless enough to accept
Apple's revenue sharing model. Apple’s model is obviously not attractive to the mainstream
providers which have tens of millions or even hundreds of millions of users." Therefore, in Li
Gang’s view, the domestic Chinese telecom providers will never accept Apple's harsh
Jobs and Apple are apparently poor at adapting to, or having an understanding of,
different cultural expectations. Despite Apple's products booming in the global market
(primarily in the Americas and Europe), they are not able to successfully enter the Chinese
market. Cultural pride and values seem to be out of step with those of Chinese providers.
Apple’s revenue in the U.S. market accounted for about 50%, while, in China, less than 1%.
Apple does not make much progress in the Chinese market and does not seem willing or able
to do anything to rectify the situation.
Compared with IBM, Microsoft, Intel, Nokia and Google and other such
multinational enterprises which build R & D centers in China, Apple’s movement in
mainland China is too quiet. In fact, Steve Jobs, who has not ever been to China, has almost
zero intuitive feelings about this. How could Apple expect to succeed in China?
Not only that, but also the attitude of Apple toward its foreign customers has been
disappointing. Apple products in the U.S. market have door-to-door service, but in China
there is no such thing. "After you buy Apple’s products, what you have to do is pray that
there will not be a problem." Apple fans told the IT Times. Although Apple products are
alluring and so attractive, the attitude of Apple towards the users of the products is very
callous. Also, Apple seems to believe in “planned obsolescence.” It has been found that most
iPod products can only be used for one year, longer than that, problems begin to develop.
Steve Jobs believes that Apple's fans are those who seek current style and fashion, so
products should be replaced by new ones after a short period of time. However, this is
obviously not welcomed by the Chinese market.
3. Considerations and Analysis
Some analysts have made the assumption that, if Jobs were more flexible, culturally-
sensitive and far-sighted, and if he had a deeper understanding of the Chinese market, iPhone
could have entered China just one year ago. In that case, the number of iPhones in China
would not currrently have 200 million unofficial users, but more than 20 million official
users. That would also make iPhone’s market share and reputation quite different.
Perhaps due to the good technical innovation of iPhone, Jobs has lost flexible
business acumen and far-sighted vision of the market. Instead, Jobs seems to be using iPhone
to sell its culture, reflecting today's outstanding achievements. Because of this cultural
arrogance and pride, Jobs may have ruined a good future in China for Apple and the iPhone.
The latest news confirms that the negotiations between China Unicom and iPhone
have, for all intents and purposes, failed. Meanwhile, as previously mentioned in this paper,
China Unicom will introduce a new kind of mobile phone called the Uphone, based on the
Google Android model. So far, China Mobile and China Unicom have chosen to develop
their own models. As a result, the market strategy of iPhone carriers in the Chinese market is
becoming less successful. Apple, on the other hand, has always been thinking that the
interests of the business model and distribution method are repeatedly rejected by the Chinese
market. That means, at present, its access to the Chinese market, not just for the iPhone but
also for more general merchandise, is limited, if not totally blocked.
Having apparently lost the campaign to form an alliance with either China Mobile or
China Unicom, iPhone may have finally realized that they blocked their own road leading to
China. However, at the time the third-generation of iPhone 3GS went on sale, the tide may
have begun to turn. On July 11th, 2009, the Chinese Ministry of Public Works announced on
its official website and the national radio show that one of the iPhone models for the A1324
phone has been approved. Equipment known as "GSM / WCDMA / Bluetooth mobile
phone," is valid for 5 years. In accordance with the relevant regulations, mobile phones listed
in our country need to go through two checkpoints, receive national radio transmitting
equipment and type approval. The official mobile phone network license does, however, still
need to be issued so the officially sanctioned iPhones are not yet available in domestic sales.
Concurrently, Apple has posted an announcement on China's official job vacancy website, for
the position of project manager, responsible for the management of training programs in Asia
From all the iPhone’s experience, the huge potential market in China, when
considered in terms of real money, there is still a long way to go. With the Chinese mobile
phone providers failing to reach a consensus on the iPhone, Chinese market for the iPhone
risks the fate of being marginalized. The ultimate result remains a mystery.
The more you near the customs, the more able to understand custom needs, in order to obtain
the right to control and gain more profits.
Last year, when Apple released the 3G version of iPhone it also launched an online
Apple Store. This online store is completely devoted to providing users with mobile phone
applications and such services as one-stop trading. Apple not only sells mobile phones, but
also programs, integration of contents and Internet applications. The online store has realized
an unprecedented success. This year, on April 24th, Apple announced that in just nine months,
AppStore downloads already exceed 10 billion mark. Now, the stores provide about 35,000
items of software. The investment bank, Piper Jaffray, has predicted that, through sales on
the online AppStore, Apple will bring in 777 million U.S. dollars of revenue this year.
This great success of the Apple AppStore is so unexpected, China Mobile is now in
the political arena to challenge its status, and argue the case in the negotiating process. It was
stated recently in the IT Times," After the breakdown of the talks with Apple, China Mobile
will accelerate the process of developing their own online stores. This seems to have been
one of the biggest differences encountered during negotiations. When Juniper Research
market research firm released their latest report, it showed that in 2014, mobile phone
application stores’ direct and indirect revenue would reach 25 billion U.S. dollars.
"Our customers like the fashion product iPhone, but we do not like the new mobile
market business model." Wang Jianzhou stated, when commenting on the Apple model. He
also said “It creates emotional and psychological conflict.” and "We can maintain the
operator-centric business model, because we have the mobile phone users."
China Mobile only wants Apple as a terminal and content provider, while Apple
hopes that China Mobile is only a "channel." China Mobile and Apple each want to enhance
and control the industrial chain. Continuing conflict between the two sides is unavoidable.
China Mobile stated to IT Times, "Mobile operators need more industry chain enterprises to
cooperate in. We need to keep a low-profile to seek for a win-win situation and cooperation
to build a harmonious working environment.”
In China's telecommunications market, the dominance of China Mobile, which has,
as stated previously in this paper, more than 450 million mobile phone users, seems like a
monopoly. It has also become the world's most profitable carrier. The next leading providers
in the Chinese mobile phone market, China Unicom and China Telecom, are in a similar
situation, controlling the Chinese market, as well as a large number of telephone users, so
that they have a sufficient source of profits.
In contrast, Europe and the United States have a more open telecommunications
market. ATT, Sprint Nextel, and Verizon Wireless are the top three but there are also ten other
active carriers, including some regional providers. As such, users have a wide choice and
Apple can ask for capital according to their own conditions.
Chapter 4 Suggestions and Conclusions
In reviewing the entire case which has been presented and discussed in this paper,
and sorting out the situations between the two sides; Apple and the Chinese providers, there
are several points to consider. The parties involved held three major periods of negotiation
during three important periods, which failed each time due to three primary differences. For
each of the three differences, there may be solutions if both sides could just be modest and
open-minded and use some mutually-beneficial schemes and strategies. A brief summary of
the periods and the problems encountered during the negotiations in each period.
Period 1...2007/06/29 This period began from the time of Apple's first sales of the iPhone in
the U.S.A. The difference of opinion regarding the profit sharing ratio of 20% to 30%
resulted in the negotiations during this period ultimately breaking down.
Period 2...2008/07/11 This period began at the time of the iPhone 3G model first being sold
globally. The difference of opinion during this period causing the inability to reach a
consensus was caused by differing views regarding the amount of subsidy, and also that the
iPhone's price, at $600, was too high for Chinese consumers.
Period 3...2009/02/11 This period of negotiations began just a few months ago, when China
Mobile stated that the negotiations were ongoing, but still not in order. The difference of
opinion during this period deals with the issue of ownership of the online store.
As we see China is a unique market, it's advisable to do business in a special way.
Concentrating too much on the brilliance of one’s product cannot help, and complacency can
only limit one’s perspective. If Apple could see this point, and could understand the features
of the Chinese market better, thinking about the importance of cooperation instead of some
small profits, and use proper strategies, this share ratio problem could be solved.
When it comes to the differences in opinion regarding the ownership of an online store, it
would be advisable for both sides to be more charitable and less stubborn. Both sides could
make some small compromises. Perhaps each, for example, could take half of the profits
from on-line shop. By employing compromise, both parties see benefits. If they would just
consider the ultimate advantages of successful cooperation, they would see how insignificant
and unnecessary their dispute is. The first thing Apple should think about is the path into the
huge Chinese market, not some minor details about small profits.
Strategy plays an important role in the functioning of human society. This has been
true throughout the ages, whether in doing business or even in daily life. As long as we use
proper, mutually beneficial, strategies and have the right attitude, we can predict that even the
current Apple iPhone case can be solved. From the case of iPhone, we can also infer that if
we are just willing to sacrifice small benefits, we might be able to get far greater profits. If
overconfidence and pride could be reduced just a little bit, we ccould earn far more respect.
Doing business is no longer a simple thing, just about the exchange of money for
services or products. It's advisable to think about the feelings of others and to consider the
situation and the features from the other party’s point of view. If some changes in attitude
can be made, then we can experience better progress. It must be realized and accepted by any
company involved in international trade of any sort that it is only in a situation of good
harmony that great international successes can be achieved. A company may have done a lot
of work on the perfection of its products. However, it is important that the company also
devotes time and effort to take into consideration cultural aspects as they affect negotiation
《IT Times》2009 July
《International Business Negotiation 》(5th Edition) Roy J.Lewicki. David M.Saunders
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