Copyright 2003, Paradigm Publishing Inc.


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Copyright 2003, Paradigm Publishing Inc.

  1. 1. Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence Chapter 13
  2. 2. Topics What Does Multimedia Mean? Going Digital Digitizing Graphics Digitizing Sound Digitizing Video Creating Multimedia Works Popular Types of Multimedia Works On the Horizon Artificial Intelligence
  3. 3. What Does Multimedia Mean? images video sound integration of multiple forms of communication in a single interface text
  4. 4. Going Digital digital media can be reproduced an infinite number of times with no degradation of quality digitizing turning analog data into a data file
  5. 5. <ul><li>Graphics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pictures or images </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Created on computer using special drawing software </li></ul><ul><li>Drawn or painted by hand; scanned onto disk </li></ul><ul><li>Digital camera </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional camera; scanned onto disk </li></ul>Digitizing Graphics
  6. 6. Early Painting and Drawing Programs <ul><li>Bitmap-graphics (raster image-based) programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>painting programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>create pictures by changing the pixels on the screen from white to black </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>great for free-form sketching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pixilated (jagged) look along slopes or curves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Object graphics (vector-based) programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drawing programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>construct pictures by creating, editing, and combining mathematically defined geometric shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limited in ability to produce free-form, irregular shapes </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Developments in Painting and Drawing Programs <ul><li>Painting Programs </li></ul><ul><li>RAM storage capacities increased </li></ul><ul><ul><li>programs could handle images with greater dpi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anti-aliasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pixels along edge of image are progressively lightened or darkened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>smooth edge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Drawing Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Bezier curve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>straight line or curve that is described by its tangents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>straight lines that are perpendicular to and bisect the line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Freehand tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>draw irregular line that transforms into bezier curves </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Painting and Drawing Programs Today Microsoft Paint CorelDraw! Canvas Adobe Illustrator Macromedia Freehand
  9. 9. Graphics File Formats native format standard format saving: exporting placing: importing specific to that application
  10. 10. Graphics File Formats…/2 Bitmap listing of every pixel draws a perfect image but it takes up a lot of space Image Compression recognizes repeating patterns a lot less space JPEG still images GIF simple animations
  11. 11. Vector Graphics stored as shapes series of
  12. 12. Clip Art Images GIF format
  13. 13. Photo Manipulation <ul><li>Raster image-editing programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>have evolved considerably </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adobe Photoshop, Corel Photohouse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stored as raster image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collection of black, white, or colored pixels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tag Image File Format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TIF or TIFF </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 3D Modeling Programs Shockwave Dreamweaver LightWave 3D 3D Studio
  15. 15. Computer Animation CG FX: computer graphics special effects
  16. 16. Digitizing Sound captured by sampling the sound stores the measurements in binary format
  17. 17. Digitizing Sound…/2 WAVE records sound by storing masses of binary numbers and measuring exactly how much voltage to send out to the speakers MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) simulates musical instruments MP3 takes a wave file and reduces it 90 percent
  18. 18. Digitizing Video frame each picture shows a fraction of movement frame rate combining series of images at a specified speed
  19. 19. Digital Movies high-quality sound and picture will not degrade with each showing
  20. 20. Movie Compression Techniques <ul><li>MPEG is equivalent of MP3 music format </li></ul><ul><li>Only stores portion of screen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>changes from previous frame </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AVI: older Windows format </li></ul><ul><li>MOV: Apple format </li></ul><ul><li>Flash: for Web pages </li></ul>
  21. 21. Increased Movie Piracy DVDs over the Internet
  22. 22. Digital TV wide selection of stations clearer picture scheduling tools
  23. 23. High-Definition TV more lines more pixels higher resolution + =
  24. 24. Creating Multimedia Works Adobe Acrobat PDF documents multimedia authoring software embed speech, graphics, and video clips into a document Example
  25. 25. Planning a Multimedia Work <ul><li>Consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>form </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sequential page-based multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertext page-based multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Movie-based multimedia </li></ul>prepare a storyboard
  26. 26. Creating the Content of the Work <ul><li>Text  word processor </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics  painting, drawing, 3-D modeling programs, clip art, stock sources </li></ul><ul><li>Images  scanned </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds  programs that capture and edit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may contain sound digitizing cards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video images  video editing software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may contain video digitizing cards </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Combining the Elements text video sound graphics word processor presentation program Adobe Acrobat QuickTime Macromedia Director Macromedia Authorware
  28. 28. Popular Types of Multimedia Works Multimedia Web Pages Educational Tools Computer Games game consoles multimedia PCs
  29. 29. Artificial Intelligence develop computers than can perform human functions think talk see feel walk learn Turing Test can the computer trick people?
  30. 30. Cognitive Science Applications <ul><li>Intelligent Agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intuitive assistants; utilize knowledge based on past experience, predictions of future behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expert Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge engineer builds knowledge bases; the inference engine asks questions and draws conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Mining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>find new ways to use masses of data stored in databases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genetic Algorithms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solve design problems; “survival of the fittest” method </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuzzy Logic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>model human reasoning by allowing for approximations and incomplete input data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neural Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>simulate the physical workings of the human mind </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Natural Interface Applications <ul><li>Speech Recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>voice commands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural Language Interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>read a set of news articles on any topic and understand what has been read; report summary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual Reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>creating a realistic world; immersiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mental Interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sensors mounted on the skull that read the alpha waves given off by the brain </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Robots as Androids <ul><li>Visual Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stereoscopic vision, understanding, processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audio Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sounds to listen to, correct voice to obey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tactile Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure, hand-eye coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locomotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>broad movements with changing variables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Navigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>related to visual or perception system </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. On the Horizon Sophisticated Natural Interfaces Intelligent Devices
  34. 34. Questions?