Briefing Sheet 6
Briefing sheet 24
Robotics in the UK
Robotics in the UK
Robotics in the UK is exciting, vibrant, and at the cutting-edge. Evidence of UK creative and technical
abilities can be found in the established research groups of universities, but also in the garages of
individual enthusiasts who put spare parts from discarded machinery to innovative uses. Robots
created in the UK vary from the well-engineered aggressive combatants of Robot Wars, to robots
designed to emulate living organisms, from simple ants to humans, and robots designed to solve real
problems, such as gaining access to otherwise inaccessible sites. Robots can be found in UK
research environments, art galleries, schools, space, and even farms. Amongst these pages you can
find examples of all of these, characterised by the impressive resourcefulness and ingenuity of the UK
The UK has had a strong world presence in robotics for a very long time. Currently one of the world
leaders in biologically inspired robotics, the UK was the birthplace of this modern trend as long ago as
the 1940s. A researcher at Bristol University, William Grey Walter, with his wife, began building small-
scale robots. By 1948 he had constructed two autonomous turtle robots that were almost self-sufficient.
Controlled by good old fashioned circuitry – there were no computers or transistors on the robots. Yet
they could leave their hutches, go out performing their simple tasks in the laboratory, and then return to
their hutches to feed on electricity as required. This tradition of artificially intelligent robots is still very
strong in the UK University research groups.
Another great strength in UK robotics is the construction and building of the robot vehicles. It is not only
happening in our world-class universities but is being driven to a large extent by the general public.
Robotics has become a national pastime thanks to Television Robot competitions that are watched by
between four and seven million people every week.
To give some idea of the growth of public interest, when the first series of Robot Wars was recorded in
late 1997, there were not enough competitors to make up the 32 places for the competition and so two
other robots (ringers) belonging to the technical staff had to be brought in.
Nowadays, there are 96 competitors for a series and these have to qualify by competing with
thousands of applicants. This means that thousands of teams, families and workmates are spending a
lot of time in their garages designing and testing all sort of new mechanical oddities. And these are only
a small number compared to the many children and parents struggling to understand and build robots
who do not enter the qualifiers.
What is robotics?
The word ‘Robot’ is one of those elusive terms that has defied unique definition. One reason for this is
that its use changes all the time. Initially, a robot was a humanoid or human-like being. The word
‘Robot’ was derived from the Czech word meaning ‘slave labour’ and was coined by Kapec in his play,
Rossum’s Universal Robots in 1921. These robots were biochemical – what we would now call
androids. This was followed soon after by a number of films featuring robots such as Fritz Lange’s
1922 Metropolis that excited the imagination of both the public and the science and engineering
communities. Science fiction books such as Asimov’s ‘I Robot’, from where we got the term robotics,
were also popular at this time. These robots were easy to define as non-living machines that looked
and acted like humans.
In the real world of industry and academia, however, robots were not anything like humanoids. In the
academic world, the most advanced robot in the 1970s was the Stanford Cart which had a body made
up of what looked like a shallow rectangular box on wheels from an old fashioned baby carriage
(pram). In those days the idea was to go for human modes of reasoning, rather than human shapes.
Unfortunately, because of the complexity of the models of human, perception-inference-reasoning, this
type of robot would move about one meter every 15 minutes. So the 1980s saw a shift towards robot
controllers being modelled on insects and other animals and this enabled the sort of fast reactive
responses that you can see in modern day toy sensing robots and robot pets.
The major uses in industry, e.g. painting cars, required only robot arms rather than whole robots.
Initially these were considered to be ‘part of’ a robot’s body but they eventually became known as
robots in their own right. The major distinction is now between non-mobile robots such as arms and
actuators and mobile robots which may be wheeled, legged or may even be propelled through water or
Another important distinction is between autonomous and non-autonomous robots. Originally, robots
would only be considered to be a robot if it was autonomous. That is, they could operate on their own
without human intervention. It is now perfectly acceptable to call any autonomous vehicle a mobile
robot even if it looks like a car, a plane or a horse. It is also becoming increasingly acceptable to use
the term robot for remote controlled vehicles. This started off with tele-robotics, robots operated at a
distance, like those used by emergency services for bomb disposal and firefighting. Then came the
remote controlled robot used in television contests like Robot Wars, TechnoGames and Mechanoids.
In the UK many people focus on the mechanical aspects of robots while others focus on the artificial
intelligence aspects – or how to make their robot smart and autonomous. Both are needed to develop
effective mobile robots.
Key research groups and institutions
University of Bath: The Centre for Biomimetics and Natural Technology, Department of Mechanical
Engineering works on ‘Synthetic Evolutionary Psychology’, a term used to name the project of using
computer simulations and evolutionary robotics to test hypotheses about the evolution of the human
mind. They also do work on the development of energetically autonomous artificial agents. In
response to the problem of the limited life of the batteries used to power autonomous robots,
consideration is being given to the use of deployable solar panels in mobile robots, currently in
Centre for Biomimetics and Natural Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath,
Bath BA 7AY United Kingdom
University of Birmingham: The Intelligent Robotics Laboratory specialises in techniques for the
control of mobile robots. The focus is on robot learning and evolutionary robotics, and they have
• reinforcement learning implementations on real robots
• probabilistic position tracking algorithms for navigation
• exploration control in reinforcement learning
• reinforcement learning in continuous state spaces
• new model-free reinforcement learning with probabilistic graphical models
• evolution of sensor placement
• evolution of perceptual processing
• task driven hidden Markov modelling
• continual learning using constructive neural networks
• learning in neural network ensembles.
Intelligent Robotics Lab, School of Computer Science, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham,
B15 2TT United Kingdom
University of Edinburgh: The Mobile Robotics Research Group is described as a ‘loose collection of
staff and students who share a broad approach to AI’ and who consider that intelligence will be best
understood through the construction of agents which live autonomously in the real world, using non-
symbolic logical tools that include behaviour-based architectures, neural networks, genetic algorithms,
ethology and control theory. Their current research projects include:
• Evolutionary robotics, where a simulated evolution process is used to develop adaptive
• Biological models, where projects include the RoBat project which has the dual purpose of (i)
providing a platform form which to investigate echolocation in bats, and (ii) to engender
artificial navigation systems with some of the sophisticated performance and robustness of
those biological systems. Another set of projects look at control of locomotion: investigating the
possibility of controlling a legged robot with a structure based on the Central Pattern
Generators of vertebrates; models of the neural networks controlling the anguilliform swimming
of a lamprey.
• Social robots, and learning by imitation.
• Artificial life projects such as neuroethological robotics, speciation via habitat specialisation,
and an artificial painter.
Mobile Robotics Research Group, Institute of Perception, Action and Behaviour, Division of Informatics, University
of Edinburgh, 5 Forrest Hill, Edinburgh, EH1 2QL United Kingdom
University of Essex: The Robotics and Intelligent Machines group pursues basic and applied research
in the areas of mobile robotics, soft computing, computer vision and distributed robotic systems.
• Agent-based vehicle scheduling for dockyard operation, addressing the question of routing
carriers or vehicles during loading and unloading operations in a dockyard by designing a
multi-agent architecture for a team of autonomous vehicles, based on a decentralised
• The investigation of the communication of multiple robots to in order to achieve
• RobotCup challenge; adopting multi-agent and evolutionary computation techniques.
• Multisensor-based navigation and map building.
Essex Robotics, Department of Computer Science, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ
University of Hertfordshire: This group has a research profile in
• Artificial Life
• Socially Intelligent Agents
• Artificial Intelligence
Their projects include the AuRoRA Project which studies how a mobile robot can become a ‘toy’ and a
therapeutic tool for getting children with autism interested in co-ordinated and synchronised
interactions with the environment.
Contact: Dr Kerstin Dautenhahn, and Dr Chrystopher L. Nehaniv, Adaptive Systems Research Group, Department
of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane,Hatfield Herts AL109AB United Kingdom
Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine: The Intelligent Interactive Systems group
contains research groups devoted to Cognitive Robotics and to Biologically Inspired Robotics. The aim
of the Cognitive Robotics group is to endow robots with a capacity for high level cognition by deploying
the traditional AI concepts of representation and reasoning. The particular interests of the group are
visual perception, spatial reasoning and reasoning about action. In the past, they have used a variety
of mobile robots, but their current work is based on an upper-torso humanoid.
Intelligent Interactive Systems, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology and
Medicine, South Kensington campus, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom
University of Lancaster: The Mechatronics Research Group works on Mobile and Construction
Robotics. They are particularly interested in the use of mobile robots on construction sites, and in the
enhancement of mobility for the disabled. With support from JCB, a robot excavator has been
developed which is capable of autonomously digging a trench in virgin ground. This work involves
fundamental research in computer control, sensor systems, drives and the development of intelligent
Mechatronics Research Group, Engineering Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Lancaster University,
Lancaster, LA1 4YR, United Kingdom
University of Leeds: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Intelligent Systems
Group works on developing innovative mobile robots for a variety of applications, building on work
carried out at the University of Portsmouth. The systems are for hazardous environments, biomedical
and healthcare and construction. They have built climbing robots for nuclear environments, smelling
robots, and biomedical assistive systems.
Intelligent Systems Group, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
University College London: The Department of Anatomy has used robots to explore the role of the
rat hippocampus in its ability to navigate. The Department of Computer Science has used the Elvis
Robot to research methods for evolving hand-eye co-ordination for a humanoid robot with machine
code genetic programming.
Dr Neil Burgess, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Anatomy, University College London,
Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square London WC1N 3AR United Kingdom
University of Manchester: The Department of Computer Science robotics research focuses on mobile
robotics, emphasising subsymbolic and behaviour-based approaches to the control of autonomous
mobile robots. A major aspect of recent research has been the problem of robot navigation, using
evidence-based methods to determine the robot’s location within its environment, using natural
Manchester Robotics, Department of Computer Science, University of Manchester ,Kilburn Building, Oxford Road,
Manchester M13 9PL United Kingdom
Nottingham Trent University: The Digital Research Unit has collaborated with the School of
Cognitive and Computer Sciences at the University of Sussex on a project that involves the
development of an intelligent insect-like robot large enough to support a human.
The Digital Research Unit, Victoria Studios, The Nottingham Trent University Burton St, Nottingham NG1 4BU
Open University: The Beagle 2 project is the British led effort to land on Mars as part of the European
Space Agency’s Mars Express Mission to be launched in June 2003.
Robotics Outreach Group, Faculty of Technology, The Open University Walton Hall Milton Keynes MK7 6AA ,
University of Oxford: There are eight robotics research groups whose interests range from medical
imaging to producing scheduling tools for manufacturing. The groups include The Active Vision Lab,
whose members research methods of motion understanding for a variety of applications from robot
navigation to human motion understanding, and the Medical Vision Laboratory, whose research
involves the development of 2D and 3D image processing techniques for quantifying disease
progression and regression and organ function.
Robotics Research Group, Ewert House, Ewert Place, Summertown Oxford OX2 7BZ, United Kingdom
University of Plymouth: The Robotic Intelligence Lab focuses on several key problems in the design
of domestic and helper robots. These include artificial vision for object recognition and vision for
spatial navigation, actions planning and sequencing and natural language instruction dialogues
between user and robot. The laboratory has close links with the Centre for Neural and Adaptive
systems and with the Plymouth Institute of Neuroscience. Awareness of biological solutions is an
important factor enabling the design of new technical solutions.
The Robotic Intelligence Lab, Contact: Dr Guido Bugmann, School of Computing, University of Plymouth,
Plymouth PL4 8AA United Kingdom
University of Reading: Cybernetic Intelligence Research Group has researched multiagent learning,
and methods of increasing rates of learning within groups of reinforced learning agents. In particular,
the sharing of experiences between groups of learning autonomous mobile robots is shown to produce
faster learning rates and more robust solutions than learning without experience sharing. The research
group constructed a group of five autonomous mobile robots, which they use to research flocking.
Cybernetic Intelligence Research Group, Department of Cybernetics, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AY
University of Salford: The School of Acoustics and Electronics Engineering has a research group in
Advanced Robotics which focuses on telepresence and the control of walking robots. The School of
Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineering researches fundamental issues in machines and kinematics
and the application of those fundamentals to robotics.
Ruth Aylett is professor of Intelligent Virtual Environments. One of her research interests is in mobile
robotics, and she worked on the MACTA project which aimed to produce cooperating mobile robots
carrying out complex tasks.
School of Acoustics and Electronic Engineering, University of Salford, Salford, Manchester M5 4WT, United
Contact: Ruth Aylett, The Centre for Virtual Environments, Business House, University of Salford, Salford,
Manchester M5 4WT United Kingdom
University of Sheffield: There are groups in both Psychology and in Computer Science.
The Adaptive Behaviour Research Groups projects include EPSRC funded Whiskerbot: A robot
whisker system modelled on Rat Mystacial Vibrissae (face whiskers), the aim being to design and
implement a sensory system modelled on that of the rat, capable of supporting surface texture
analysis. And a project on Robot control using a model of central structures in the vertebrate brain, with
the aim of reverse engineering the systems that underlie animal behaviour.
Adaptive Behaviour Research Group Department of Psychology University of Sheffield Sheffield S10 2TP United
Neurocomputing and Robotics Group focuses on machine learning (neural network learning and
evolutionary methods) for developing robot controllers to operate in unknown environments. More
recently, they have also focussed on some high profile museum and public awareness projects funded
by the millennium commission, the Arts Council of England, and the Engineering and Physical Science
Research Council of the UK.
Neurocomputing and Robotics Group, Department of Computer Science, Regent Court, Portobello Rd, University
of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 4DP
Silsoe Research Institute develops automation techniques for machines which interact with natural
and biological objects. Examples of projects:
• The Robot Sheepdog was collaboration between SRI and the Universities of Bristol, Leeds and
Oxford. An autonomous robot that can gather and safely manoeuvre a flock of ducks to a
predetermined goal. The system was developed in simulation, and tested with a real robot and ducks.
The system consists of a robot vehicle, a computer and a camera. The next step would be to have the
camera on the robot itself, rather than at a fixed position.
• A voluntary milking system has been unveiled on a farm in Sweden. The system revolves around
the cows' natural system of milking, feeding and resting.
• Automated mushroom harvesting: a pilot mushroom harvester which uses several handling
systems. Mushrooms are located and sized, and an expert selection algorithm decides which picking
action should be used. A suction cup mechanism attached to a Cartesian robot is used to detach
individual mushrooms and place them gently into a conveyer.
Silsoe Research Institute, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4HS United Kingdom
University of Southampton: The BioRobotics research group, that includes Bob Damper, whose
interests encompass a range of practical and theoretical issues. These range from grasping and
manipulation, to learning methods, and the implications of embodied AI and autonomous systems for
issues in the philosophy of mind.
Biorobotics Research Group, Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Highfield, Southampton SO17
1BJ United Kingdom
University of Stirling: The Cricket Robots Lab research projects include the Morphological and Neural
Modelling of the Orthopteran Escape Response (the escape response of crickets and cockroaches),
through the construction of a robot model.
The Cricket Robots Lab, Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Scotland FK9 4LA, United Kingdom
University of Surrey: The Mechatronic Systems and Robotics Research Group projects include the
intelligent control of debris clearance systems on sweeping vehicles, leading to semi-autonomous
sweeping vehicles, and the development of a haptic interactive system.
Mechatronic Systems and Robotics Research Group, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University
of Surrey, Guildford , Surrey GU2 7XH United Kingdom
University of Sussex The Centre for Computational Neuroscience and Robotics contains the following
research groups: Modelling Neural Systems; Evolutionary and Adaptive Robotics, Evolutionary
Electronics, Insect and Robot Navigation, the Theory of Natural and Artificial Evolution, and the
Computational Creative Research group.
Centre for Computational Neuroscience and Robotics, Room 3D8, School of Biological Sciences, University of
Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9RH, United Kingdom
Evolutionary and Adaptive Systems Group The Department of Informatics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton
BN1 9RH United Kingdom
University of Wales, Aberystwyth: The Intelligent Robotics group’s key areas of research are
innovative algorithms for dynamics and force control; autonomous operation for real world applications
including the food industry, mobile robotics, including space applications, and skeletal kinematic
Intelligent Robotics Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Wales
University of West of England: The Intelligent Autonomous Systems Engineering Laboratory
researches ways in which autonomous robots – large and small, walking, climbing and flying – can be
developed to ‘do the right thing at the right time’. Researchers at UWE are developing robots to assist
humans in dangerous situations, including detecting land mines, inspecting and sorting mail, and risk
assessment or maintenance of hazardous or inaccessible plant machinery, or locating the sources of
pollution. SlugBot: This project was undertaken at University of West of England, where it is described
as the first stage of a study in energy autonomy, a proof-of-concept vehicle capable of detecting and
Intelligent Autonomous Systems Laboratory, University of West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY
A growing number of UK companies are now specialising in robotics production and robotics kits. Quite
a few companies sell robot parts and kits as a small part of their inventory. The companies below are
The Shadow Robot Company has made the world's first fully dextrous hand.
Their objective is to build a humanoid robot ‘which should be genuinely useful to anybody and
everybody, at a cost which ordinary people can afford.
The Shadow Robot Company, 251 Liverpool Rd, London, N1 1LX, UK
Total Robots sell robot kits, components, control products and accessories to Educationalists,
Hobbyists and Industrialists
Total Robots Ltd, Global House, Ashley Avenue, Epson, Surrey, KT18 5AD, UK
Merlin Systems Corp. Ltd. The primary goal of the company is the development of service robots
designed to work for or with people.
Merlin Systems Corp. Ltd, ITTC Tamar Science Park, 1 Davy Rd, Derriford, Plymouth, PL6 8BX
Sixaxis Ltd. A dedicated industrial robotics and automation company whose main service is the supply
of robot programmers.
www.sixaxis.ltd.uk (no address given)
Kawasaki Robotics (UK) Ltd is the UK robotics division of Kawasaki
Heavy Industries Japan
Kawasaki Robotics (UK) Ltd., Units 6 & 7, Easter Court, Europa Boulevard, Warrington, WA5 7ZB
OC Robotics: a UK based manufacturer of snake-arm robots
OC Robotics Ltd, 5 Fallodon Way, Henleaze, Bristol, BS9 4HR
Swallow Systems make and sell educational robots
Swallow Systems, 134 Cook Lane, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, UK HP13 7EA
OxIM have the stated aim of, ‘Intelligent Machines for Industry is to provide ingenious robotic
automation solutions to identified problem areas in the production environment’.
OxIM Ltd, HJS Unit B, Oxford Rd, East Hanney, Oxon, OX12 OHP
Robotica provides services in the fields of product design and prototyping and Robotics and Motion
Robotics Ltd 17-19 Park Terrace Lane, Glasgow, G3 6BQ, UK
Sources of funding
There are no sources of funding exclusively for robotics in the UK. However, the UK research councils
do fund robotics projects relevant to their brief. Some examples of recently funded robotics projects are
Arts Council England is the national development agency for the arts in England, distributing public
money from Government and the National Lottery.
The Nuffield Foundation is an independent charity that mainly funds self-contained projects which
advance education or social welfare, often by means of research or practical innovation.
The Wellcome Trust is an independent research funding charity that aims to improve human and
European Science Foundation promotes high quality science at a European level. It acts as a
catalyst for the development of science by bringing together leading scientists and funding agencies to
debate plan and implement pan-European initiatives.
The Leverhulme Trust makes awards for the support of research and education. The Trust
emphasises individual and encompasses all subject areas.
The Royal Society runs a scheme of research appointments within the UK and a series of
programmes encouraging exchanges of information, dialogue and visits overseas.
EPSRC: The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) is the UK Government’s
leading funding agency for research and training in engineering and the physical sciences.
An example project: EPSRC funded feasibility study of robotic ironing, conducted in Department of
Mechanical Engineering, Kings College London. This research investigates the application of robotic
techniques to one of the most demanding household activities.
BBSRC is Britain’s lead funding agency for academic research and training in the non-medical
NERC: Natural Environment Research Council aims to support basic, strategic and applied research in
terrestrial, marine and freshwater biology and Earth, atmospheric, hydrological, oceanographic and
polar sciences and Earth observation.
An example project: Autosub Under Ice is a five-year programme to explore the marine environment
beneath floating ice shelves using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle. Funded by the Natural
Environment Research Council (NERC), the programme brings together UK researchers from a broad
range of disciplines to investigate the role of sub-ice shelf processes in the climate system.
ESRC: The Economic and Social Research Council addresses economic and social concerns.
NESTA is the National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts. They aim to fill a funding
gap by investing in outstanding ideas and the people who have them.
Some examples of current robotics projects:
• The Shadow Robot Company: a helping hand for the disabled.
• Roboteers in Residence
• Techno Games
• Steve Grand and Lucy
• Colm McKeown and the Robotic Farmhand
• Bruce Davies IceRobotics
Department For Education and Skills provide student support for students in England and Wales.
British Council provide a web page of sources of funding for international students
With the rise in public enthusiasm for all things robotic there is a need for easily digestible information.
Some of the more prominent websites developed for this need are the BBC Robot World at
www.bbc.co.uk/science/robots; the Techno Games website at www.techno-games.co.uk; and the
Robot Wars website www.robotwars.co.uk.
Real Robots magazine is a bimonthly UK magazine with articles on robot news and building tips. Its
main attraction is that it provides parts every week for a robot that readers can build incrementally. The
web site is www.realrobots.co.uk. There is also an enthusiasts’ website for readers of the magazine at
Art and robotics
Robotics and the arts is a relatively new tradition in the UK although it is also part of the tradition of
Automata. Some of the best examples include:
The Performance Arts Digital Research Unit at The Nottingham Trent University that launched the Sci-
Art: Bio-Robotic Choreography project in collaboration with the School of Cognitive and Computer
Sciences at the University of Sussex, supported by the Wellcome Trust. It involves the development of
an intelligent insect-like robot large enough to support a human.
Bill Bigge: Robotics/Alife sculpture whose work includes ‘evolving electric pets’. He has created
electric bugs and exhibited them by hiding them, and getting the public to track them down with the
help of a map.
Automata and mechanical sculptures from Martin Smith, an artist inventor, and the Cabaret
Mechanical Theatre, a museum of Automata.
The Full Empties is an art and robotics work in progress by Professor Noel Sharkey (Computer
Science, University of Sheffield) and John France (Fine Art, University of West England), funded by the
Arts Council of England.
Courses in Robotics and Artificial Intelligence
The UK has a long tradition in teaching artificial intelligence. Now there are also an emerging number of
robotics courses both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. In addition, the institutions below and
others, will take on research students for Mphil and PhD degrees. It is best to do web searches for
supervisors who might share interests with you and contact them directly. The URLs for these institutions
can be found at: www.britishcouncil.org/science/robotics
Undergraduate degree courses
University of Aberdeen University of Edinburgh
Computing Science (Artificial Intelligence) Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science
University of Aberystwyth University of Essex
Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Computer Science (Artificial Intelligence)
Computer Science (Robotics and Intelligent
University of Birmingham Machines),
Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science Computer Science (Embedded Systems
BSc and Robotics) BSc
University of Central England in Heriot-Watt University
Birmingham Robotics and Cybertronics MEng/BEng
Computing with Intelligent Systems BSc Computer Science (Artificial Intelligence)
Computer Science with Artificial Intelligence University of Huddersfield
BSc Software Development with Artificial
University of Durham
Artificial Intelligence BSc Imperial College of Science, Technology
University of East Anglia Computing (Artificial Intelligence) MEng
Computing for Artificial Intelligence BSc
University of Leeds The Robert Gordon University
Artificial Intelligence and Philosophy BSc Artificial Intelligence and Robotics BSc
University of Liverpool Royal Holloway, University of London
Computer and Robotic Systems Computer Science with Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence BSc
University of Sheffield
Liverpool John Moores University Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science
Robotics and Manufacturing Systems BSc BSc/McompAI
University of Luton Sheffield Hallam University
Artificial Intelligence and Robotics BSc Computing, Automation and Robotics BSc
Computer Science and Robotics BSc
University of Southampton
University of Manchester Computer Science with Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence BSc BSc/Meng
Manchester Metropolitan University Staffordshire University
Artificial Intelligence BSc Design Technology for Robotics BSc
Intelligent Systems BSc/Meng
The North East Wales Institute of Higher
Education University of Sunderland
Mobile Robot Technology Artificial Intelligence BSc
Oxford Brookes University University of Sussex
Computing Science/Intelligent Systems Robotics, Cybernetics and Process
University of Plymouth Artificial Intelligence BSc
Robotics and Automated Systems Beng
University of West of England
University of Reading Artificial Intelligence and Computing BSc
Artificial Intelligence and Cybernetics BSc
University of Westminster
Artificial Intelligence BSc
Artificial Intelligence, MSc, PG Cert, PG Dip
Computer Science (Artificial Intelligence
University of Edinburgh and Agents) MSc
Artificial Intelligence, MSc, PG Dip University of Hertfordshire
Artificial Intelligence MSc
University of Essex
Computer Science (Robotics and Intelligent King's College London, University of
Machines) MSc London
Biomaterials, Biofluid Flows, Biomechanics
or Robotics MSc University of Salford
Artificial Intelligence MSc Robotics and Automation, MSc, PG Dip
University of Liverpool University of Sussex
Information and Intelligence Engineering Computer Science and Artificial
MSc (Eng) Intelligence, MSc, PG Dip
University of Portsmouth
Mobile Robotics, MSc, PG Dip
This briefing sheet was prepared by Professor Noel Sharkey, Department of Computer Science and
Creative Robotics Unit at Magna.