Briefing Sheet 6

                                                  Briefing sheet 24


Robotics in the UK
Robotics in the UK is exciting, vibrant, and at the cutting-edge. Evidence of UK creative...
were also popular at this time. These robots were easy to define as non-living machines that looked
and acted like humans....
•        exploration control in reinforcement learning
    •        reinforcement learning in continuous state spaces
University of Hertfordshire: This group has a research profile in
     •       Artificial Life
     •       Socially Intel...
mobile robots. A major aspect of recent research has been the problem of robot navigation, using
evidence-based methods to...
University of Salford: The School of Acoustics and Electronics Engineering has a research group in
Advanced Robotics which...
Silsoe Research Institute, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4HS United Kingdom

University of Southampton: The BioRobotic...
Intelligent Autonomous Systems Laboratory, University of West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY
United Kingdo...
Sources of funding
There are no sources of funding exclusively for robotics in the UK. However, the UK research councils
An example project: Autosub Under Ice is a five-year programme to explore the marine environment
beneath floating ice shel...
Bill Bigge: Robotics/Alife sculpture whose work includes ‘evolving electric pets’. He has created
electric bugs and exhibi...
University of Leeds                                  The Robert Gordon University
Artificial Intelligence and Philosophy B...
Biomaterials, Biofluid Flows, Biomechanics
or Robotics MSc                                        University of Salford
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Briefing sheet 24

  1. 1. Briefing Sheet 6 Briefing sheet 24 ______________________________________________ Robotics in the UK July 2003 _____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________
  2. 2. Introduction Robotics in the UK Robotics in the UK is exciting, vibrant, and at the cutting-edge. Evidence of UK creative and technical abilities can be found in the established research groups of universities, but also in the garages of individual enthusiasts who put spare parts from discarded machinery to innovative uses. Robots created in the UK vary from the well-engineered aggressive combatants of Robot Wars, to robots designed to emulate living organisms, from simple ants to humans, and robots designed to solve real problems, such as gaining access to otherwise inaccessible sites. Robots can be found in UK research environments, art galleries, schools, space, and even farms. Amongst these pages you can find examples of all of these, characterised by the impressive resourcefulness and ingenuity of the UK Robotics community. The UK has had a strong world presence in robotics for a very long time. Currently one of the world leaders in biologically inspired robotics, the UK was the birthplace of this modern trend as long ago as the 1940s. A researcher at Bristol University, William Grey Walter, with his wife, began building small- scale robots. By 1948 he had constructed two autonomous turtle robots that were almost self-sufficient. Controlled by good old fashioned circuitry – there were no computers or transistors on the robots. Yet they could leave their hutches, go out performing their simple tasks in the laboratory, and then return to their hutches to feed on electricity as required. This tradition of artificially intelligent robots is still very strong in the UK University research groups. Another great strength in UK robotics is the construction and building of the robot vehicles. It is not only happening in our world-class universities but is being driven to a large extent by the general public. Robotics has become a national pastime thanks to Television Robot competitions that are watched by between four and seven million people every week. To give some idea of the growth of public interest, when the first series of Robot Wars was recorded in late 1997, there were not enough competitors to make up the 32 places for the competition and so two other robots (ringers) belonging to the technical staff had to be brought in. Nowadays, there are 96 competitors for a series and these have to qualify by competing with thousands of applicants. This means that thousands of teams, families and workmates are spending a lot of time in their garages designing and testing all sort of new mechanical oddities. And these are only a small number compared to the many children and parents struggling to understand and build robots who do not enter the qualifiers. What is robotics? The word ‘Robot’ is one of those elusive terms that has defied unique definition. One reason for this is that its use changes all the time. Initially, a robot was a humanoid or human-like being. The word ‘Robot’ was derived from the Czech word meaning ‘slave labour’ and was coined by Kapec in his play, Rossum’s Universal Robots in 1921. These robots were biochemical – what we would now call androids. This was followed soon after by a number of films featuring robots such as Fritz Lange’s 1922 Metropolis that excited the imagination of both the public and the science and engineering communities. Science fiction books such as Asimov’s ‘I Robot’, from where we got the term robotics, ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 Robotics July 2003
  3. 3. were also popular at this time. These robots were easy to define as non-living machines that looked and acted like humans. In the real world of industry and academia, however, robots were not anything like humanoids. In the academic world, the most advanced robot in the 1970s was the Stanford Cart which had a body made up of what looked like a shallow rectangular box on wheels from an old fashioned baby carriage (pram). In those days the idea was to go for human modes of reasoning, rather than human shapes. Unfortunately, because of the complexity of the models of human, perception-inference-reasoning, this type of robot would move about one meter every 15 minutes. So the 1980s saw a shift towards robot controllers being modelled on insects and other animals and this enabled the sort of fast reactive responses that you can see in modern day toy sensing robots and robot pets. The major uses in industry, e.g. painting cars, required only robot arms rather than whole robots. Initially these were considered to be ‘part of’ a robot’s body but they eventually became known as robots in their own right. The major distinction is now between non-mobile robots such as arms and actuators and mobile robots which may be wheeled, legged or may even be propelled through water or air. Another important distinction is between autonomous and non-autonomous robots. Originally, robots would only be considered to be a robot if it was autonomous. That is, they could operate on their own without human intervention. It is now perfectly acceptable to call any autonomous vehicle a mobile robot even if it looks like a car, a plane or a horse. It is also becoming increasingly acceptable to use the term robot for remote controlled vehicles. This started off with tele-robotics, robots operated at a distance, like those used by emergency services for bomb disposal and firefighting. Then came the remote controlled robot used in television contests like Robot Wars, TechnoGames and Mechanoids. In the UK many people focus on the mechanical aspects of robots while others focus on the artificial intelligence aspects – or how to make their robot smart and autonomous. Both are needed to develop effective mobile robots. Key research groups and institutions University of Bath: The Centre for Biomimetics and Natural Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering works on ‘Synthetic Evolutionary Psychology’, a term used to name the project of using computer simulations and evolutionary robotics to test hypotheses about the evolution of the human mind. They also do work on the development of energetically autonomous artificial agents. In response to the problem of the limited life of the batteries used to power autonomous robots, consideration is being given to the use of deployable solar panels in mobile robots, currently in simulation. Centre for Biomimetics and Natural Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA 7AY United Kingdom University of Birmingham: The Intelligent Robotics Laboratory specialises in techniques for the control of mobile robots. The focus is on robot learning and evolutionary robotics, and they have projects on: • reinforcement learning implementations on real robots • probabilistic position tracking algorithms for navigation ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 2 Robotics July 2003
  4. 4. • exploration control in reinforcement learning • reinforcement learning in continuous state spaces • new model-free reinforcement learning with probabilistic graphical models • evolution of sensor placement • evolution of perceptual processing • task driven hidden Markov modelling • continual learning using constructive neural networks • learning in neural network ensembles. Intelligent Robotics Lab, School of Computer Science, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT United Kingdom University of Edinburgh: The Mobile Robotics Research Group is described as a ‘loose collection of staff and students who share a broad approach to AI’ and who consider that intelligence will be best understood through the construction of agents which live autonomously in the real world, using non- symbolic logical tools that include behaviour-based architectures, neural networks, genetic algorithms, ethology and control theory. Their current research projects include: • Evolutionary robotics, where a simulated evolution process is used to develop adaptive robots. • Biological models, where projects include the RoBat project which has the dual purpose of (i) providing a platform form which to investigate echolocation in bats, and (ii) to engender artificial navigation systems with some of the sophisticated performance and robustness of those biological systems. Another set of projects look at control of locomotion: investigating the possibility of controlling a legged robot with a structure based on the Central Pattern Generators of vertebrates; models of the neural networks controlling the anguilliform swimming of a lamprey. • Social robots, and learning by imitation. • Artificial life projects such as neuroethological robotics, speciation via habitat specialisation, and an artificial painter. Mobile Robotics Research Group, Institute of Perception, Action and Behaviour, Division of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, 5 Forrest Hill, Edinburgh, EH1 2QL United Kingdom University of Essex: The Robotics and Intelligent Machines group pursues basic and applied research in the areas of mobile robotics, soft computing, computer vision and distributed robotic systems. Projects include: • Agent-based vehicle scheduling for dockyard operation, addressing the question of routing carriers or vehicles during loading and unloading operations in a dockyard by designing a multi-agent architecture for a team of autonomous vehicles, based on a decentralised approach. • The investigation of the communication of multiple robots to in order to achieve cooperation. • RobotCup challenge; adopting multi-agent and evolutionary computation techniques. • Multisensor-based navigation and map building. Essex Robotics, Department of Computer Science, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ United Kingdom ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 3 Robotics July 2003
  5. 5. University of Hertfordshire: This group has a research profile in • Artificial Life • Socially Intelligent Agents • Artificial Intelligence Their projects include the AuRoRA Project which studies how a mobile robot can become a ‘toy’ and a therapeutic tool for getting children with autism interested in co-ordinated and synchronised interactions with the environment. Contact: Dr Kerstin Dautenhahn, and Dr Chrystopher L. Nehaniv, Adaptive Systems Research Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane,Hatfield Herts AL109AB United Kingdom Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine: The Intelligent Interactive Systems group contains research groups devoted to Cognitive Robotics and to Biologically Inspired Robotics. The aim of the Cognitive Robotics group is to endow robots with a capacity for high level cognition by deploying the traditional AI concepts of representation and reasoning. The particular interests of the group are visual perception, spatial reasoning and reasoning about action. In the past, they have used a variety of mobile robots, but their current work is based on an upper-torso humanoid. Intelligent Interactive Systems, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, South Kensington campus, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom University of Lancaster: The Mechatronics Research Group works on Mobile and Construction Robotics. They are particularly interested in the use of mobile robots on construction sites, and in the enhancement of mobility for the disabled. With support from JCB, a robot excavator has been developed which is capable of autonomously digging a trench in virgin ground. This work involves fundamental research in computer control, sensor systems, drives and the development of intelligent knowledge-based systems. Mechatronics Research Group, Engineering Department, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YR, United Kingdom University of Leeds: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Intelligent Systems Group works on developing innovative mobile robots for a variety of applications, building on work carried out at the University of Portsmouth. The systems are for hazardous environments, biomedical and healthcare and construction. They have built climbing robots for nuclear environments, smelling robots, and biomedical assistive systems. Intelligent Systems Group, The University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom University College London: The Department of Anatomy has used robots to explore the role of the rat hippocampus in its ability to navigate. The Department of Computer Science has used the Elvis Robot to research methods for evolving hand-eye co-ordination for a humanoid robot with machine code genetic programming. Dr Neil Burgess, Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Department of Anatomy, University College London, Alexandra House, 17 Queen Square London WC1N 3AR United Kingdom University of Manchester: The Department of Computer Science robotics research focuses on mobile robotics, emphasising subsymbolic and behaviour-based approaches to the control of autonomous ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 Robotics July 2003
  6. 6. mobile robots. A major aspect of recent research has been the problem of robot navigation, using evidence-based methods to determine the robot’s location within its environment, using natural landmarks only. Manchester Robotics, Department of Computer Science, University of Manchester ,Kilburn Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL United Kingdom Nottingham Trent University: The Digital Research Unit has collaborated with the School of Cognitive and Computer Sciences at the University of Sussex on a project that involves the development of an intelligent insect-like robot large enough to support a human. The Digital Research Unit, Victoria Studios, The Nottingham Trent University Burton St, Nottingham NG1 4BU United Kingdom Open University: The Beagle 2 project is the British led effort to land on Mars as part of the European Space Agency’s Mars Express Mission to be launched in June 2003. Robotics Outreach Group, Faculty of Technology, The Open University Walton Hall Milton Keynes MK7 6AA , United Kingdom University of Oxford: There are eight robotics research groups whose interests range from medical imaging to producing scheduling tools for manufacturing. The groups include The Active Vision Lab, whose members research methods of motion understanding for a variety of applications from robot navigation to human motion understanding, and the Medical Vision Laboratory, whose research involves the development of 2D and 3D image processing techniques for quantifying disease progression and regression and organ function. Robotics Research Group, Ewert House, Ewert Place, Summertown Oxford OX2 7BZ, United Kingdom University of Plymouth: The Robotic Intelligence Lab focuses on several key problems in the design of domestic and helper robots. These include artificial vision for object recognition and vision for spatial navigation, actions planning and sequencing and natural language instruction dialogues between user and robot. The laboratory has close links with the Centre for Neural and Adaptive systems and with the Plymouth Institute of Neuroscience. Awareness of biological solutions is an important factor enabling the design of new technical solutions. The Robotic Intelligence Lab, Contact: Dr Guido Bugmann, School of Computing, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA United Kingdom University of Reading: Cybernetic Intelligence Research Group has researched multiagent learning, and methods of increasing rates of learning within groups of reinforced learning agents. In particular, the sharing of experiences between groups of learning autonomous mobile robots is shown to produce faster learning rates and more robust solutions than learning without experience sharing. The research group constructed a group of five autonomous mobile robots, which they use to research flocking. Cybernetic Intelligence Research Group, Department of Cybernetics, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AY United Kingdom ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 5 Robotics July 2003
  7. 7. University of Salford: The School of Acoustics and Electronics Engineering has a research group in Advanced Robotics which focuses on telepresence and the control of walking robots. The School of Aeronautical and Mechanical Engineering researches fundamental issues in machines and kinematics and the application of those fundamentals to robotics. Ruth Aylett is professor of Intelligent Virtual Environments. One of her research interests is in mobile robotics, and she worked on the MACTA project which aimed to produce cooperating mobile robots carrying out complex tasks. School of Acoustics and Electronic Engineering, University of Salford, Salford, Manchester M5 4WT, United Kingdom Contact: Ruth Aylett, The Centre for Virtual Environments, Business House, University of Salford, Salford, Manchester M5 4WT United Kingdom University of Sheffield: There are groups in both Psychology and in Computer Science. The Adaptive Behaviour Research Groups projects include EPSRC funded Whiskerbot: A robot whisker system modelled on Rat Mystacial Vibrissae (face whiskers), the aim being to design and implement a sensory system modelled on that of the rat, capable of supporting surface texture analysis. And a project on Robot control using a model of central structures in the vertebrate brain, with the aim of reverse engineering the systems that underlie animal behaviour. Adaptive Behaviour Research Group Department of Psychology University of Sheffield Sheffield S10 2TP United Kingdom Neurocomputing and Robotics Group focuses on machine learning (neural network learning and evolutionary methods) for developing robot controllers to operate in unknown environments. More recently, they have also focussed on some high profile museum and public awareness projects funded by the millennium commission, the Arts Council of England, and the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council of the UK. Neurocomputing and Robotics Group, Department of Computer Science, Regent Court, Portobello Rd, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 4DP Silsoe Research Institute develops automation techniques for machines which interact with natural and biological objects. Examples of projects: • The Robot Sheepdog was collaboration between SRI and the Universities of Bristol, Leeds and Oxford. An autonomous robot that can gather and safely manoeuvre a flock of ducks to a predetermined goal. The system was developed in simulation, and tested with a real robot and ducks. The system consists of a robot vehicle, a computer and a camera. The next step would be to have the camera on the robot itself, rather than at a fixed position. • A voluntary milking system has been unveiled on a farm in Sweden. The system revolves around the cows' natural system of milking, feeding and resting. • Automated mushroom harvesting: a pilot mushroom harvester which uses several handling systems. Mushrooms are located and sized, and an expert selection algorithm decides which picking action should be used. A suction cup mechanism attached to a Cartesian robot is used to detach individual mushrooms and place them gently into a conveyer. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 6 Robotics July 2003
  8. 8. Silsoe Research Institute, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4HS United Kingdom University of Southampton: The BioRobotics research group, that includes Bob Damper, whose interests encompass a range of practical and theoretical issues. These range from grasping and manipulation, to learning methods, and the implications of embodied AI and autonomous systems for issues in the philosophy of mind. Biorobotics Research Group, Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ United Kingdom University of Stirling: The Cricket Robots Lab research projects include the Morphological and Neural Modelling of the Orthopteran Escape Response (the escape response of crickets and cockroaches), through the construction of a robot model. The Cricket Robots Lab, Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, Scotland FK9 4LA, United Kingdom University of Surrey: The Mechatronic Systems and Robotics Research Group projects include the intelligent control of debris clearance systems on sweeping vehicles, leading to semi-autonomous sweeping vehicles, and the development of a haptic interactive system. Mechatronic Systems and Robotics Research Group, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford , Surrey GU2 7XH United Kingdom University of Sussex The Centre for Computational Neuroscience and Robotics contains the following research groups: Modelling Neural Systems; Evolutionary and Adaptive Robotics, Evolutionary Electronics, Insect and Robot Navigation, the Theory of Natural and Artificial Evolution, and the Computational Creative Research group. Centre for Computational Neuroscience and Robotics, Room 3D8, School of Biological Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9RH, United Kingdom Evolutionary and Adaptive Systems Group The Department of Informatics, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RH United Kingdom University of Wales, Aberystwyth: The Intelligent Robotics group’s key areas of research are innovative algorithms for dynamics and force control; autonomous operation for real world applications including the food industry, mobile robotics, including space applications, and skeletal kinematic modelling. Intelligent Robotics Group, Department of Computer Science, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Wales University of West of England: The Intelligent Autonomous Systems Engineering Laboratory researches ways in which autonomous robots – large and small, walking, climbing and flying – can be developed to ‘do the right thing at the right time’. Researchers at UWE are developing robots to assist humans in dangerous situations, including detecting land mines, inspecting and sorting mail, and risk assessment or maintenance of hazardous or inaccessible plant machinery, or locating the sources of pollution. SlugBot: This project was undertaken at University of West of England, where it is described as the first stage of a study in energy autonomy, a proof-of-concept vehicle capable of detecting and collecting slugs. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 7 Robotics July 2003
  9. 9. Intelligent Autonomous Systems Laboratory, University of West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY United Kingdom UK companies A growing number of UK companies are now specialising in robotics production and robotics kits. Quite a few companies sell robot parts and kits as a small part of their inventory. The companies below are specialists. The Shadow Robot Company has made the world's first fully dextrous hand. Their objective is to build a humanoid robot ‘which should be genuinely useful to anybody and everybody, at a cost which ordinary people can afford. The Shadow Robot Company, 251 Liverpool Rd, London, N1 1LX, UK Total Robots sell robot kits, components, control products and accessories to Educationalists, Hobbyists and Industrialists Total Robots Ltd, Global House, Ashley Avenue, Epson, Surrey, KT18 5AD, UK Merlin Systems Corp. Ltd. The primary goal of the company is the development of service robots designed to work for or with people. Merlin Systems Corp. Ltd, ITTC Tamar Science Park, 1 Davy Rd, Derriford, Plymouth, PL6 8BX Sixaxis Ltd. A dedicated industrial robotics and automation company whose main service is the supply of robot programmers. (no address given) Kawasaki Robotics (UK) Ltd is the UK robotics division of Kawasaki Heavy Industries Japan Kawasaki Robotics (UK) Ltd., Units 6 & 7, Easter Court, Europa Boulevard, Warrington, WA5 7ZB OC Robotics: a UK based manufacturer of snake-arm robots OC Robotics Ltd, 5 Fallodon Way, Henleaze, Bristol, BS9 4HR Swallow Systems make and sell educational robots Swallow Systems, 134 Cook Lane, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, UK HP13 7EA OxIM have the stated aim of, ‘Intelligent Machines for Industry is to provide ingenious robotic automation solutions to identified problem areas in the production environment’. OxIM Ltd, HJS Unit B, Oxford Rd, East Hanney, Oxon, OX12 OHP Robotica provides services in the fields of product design and prototyping and Robotics and Motion Control Robotics Ltd 17-19 Park Terrace Lane, Glasgow, G3 6BQ, UK ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 8 Robotics July 2003
  10. 10. Sources of funding There are no sources of funding exclusively for robotics in the UK. However, the UK research councils do fund robotics projects relevant to their brief. Some examples of recently funded robotics projects are given below. Arts Council England is the national development agency for the arts in England, distributing public money from Government and the National Lottery. The Nuffield Foundation is an independent charity that mainly funds self-contained projects which advance education or social welfare, often by means of research or practical innovation. The Wellcome Trust is an independent research funding charity that aims to improve human and animal health. European Science Foundation promotes high quality science at a European level. It acts as a catalyst for the development of science by bringing together leading scientists and funding agencies to debate plan and implement pan-European initiatives. The Leverhulme Trust makes awards for the support of research and education. The Trust emphasises individual and encompasses all subject areas. The Royal Society runs a scheme of research appointments within the UK and a series of programmes encouraging exchanges of information, dialogue and visits overseas. EPSRC: The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) is the UK Government’s leading funding agency for research and training in engineering and the physical sciences. An example project: EPSRC funded feasibility study of robotic ironing, conducted in Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kings College London. This research investigates the application of robotic techniques to one of the most demanding household activities. BBSRC is Britain’s lead funding agency for academic research and training in the non-medical sciences. NERC: Natural Environment Research Council aims to support basic, strategic and applied research in terrestrial, marine and freshwater biology and Earth, atmospheric, hydrological, oceanographic and polar sciences and Earth observation. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 9 Robotics July 2003
  11. 11. An example project: Autosub Under Ice is a five-year programme to explore the marine environment beneath floating ice shelves using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle. Funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), the programme brings together UK researchers from a broad range of disciplines to investigate the role of sub-ice shelf processes in the climate system. ESRC: The Economic and Social Research Council addresses economic and social concerns. NESTA is the National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts. They aim to fill a funding gap by investing in outstanding ideas and the people who have them. Some examples of current robotics projects: • The Shadow Robot Company: a helping hand for the disabled. • Roboteers in Residence • Techno Games • Steve Grand and Lucy • Colm McKeown and the Robotic Farmhand • Bruce Davies IceRobotics Department For Education and Skills provide student support for students in England and Wales. British Council provide a web page of sources of funding for international students Educational resources With the rise in public enthusiasm for all things robotic there is a need for easily digestible information. Some of the more prominent websites developed for this need are the BBC Robot World at; the Techno Games website at; and the Robot Wars website Real Robots magazine is a bimonthly UK magazine with articles on robot news and building tips. Its main attraction is that it provides parts every week for a robot that readers can build incrementally. The web site is There is also an enthusiasts’ website for readers of the magazine at Art and robotics Robotics and the arts is a relatively new tradition in the UK although it is also part of the tradition of Automata. Some of the best examples include: The Performance Arts Digital Research Unit at The Nottingham Trent University that launched the Sci- Art: Bio-Robotic Choreography project in collaboration with the School of Cognitive and Computer Sciences at the University of Sussex, supported by the Wellcome Trust. It involves the development of an intelligent insect-like robot large enough to support a human. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 10 Robotics July 2003
  12. 12. Bill Bigge: Robotics/Alife sculpture whose work includes ‘evolving electric pets’. He has created electric bugs and exhibited them by hiding them, and getting the public to track them down with the help of a map. Automata and mechanical sculptures from Martin Smith, an artist inventor, and the Cabaret Mechanical Theatre, a museum of Automata. The Full Empties is an art and robotics work in progress by Professor Noel Sharkey (Computer Science, University of Sheffield) and John France (Fine Art, University of West England), funded by the Arts Council of England. Courses in Robotics and Artificial Intelligence The UK has a long tradition in teaching artificial intelligence. Now there are also an emerging number of robotics courses both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. In addition, the institutions below and others, will take on research students for Mphil and PhD degrees. It is best to do web searches for supervisors who might share interests with you and contact them directly. The URLs for these institutions can be found at: Undergraduate degree courses University of Aberdeen University of Edinburgh Computing Science (Artificial Intelligence) Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science BSc BSc University of Aberystwyth University of Essex Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Computer Science (Artificial Intelligence) BSc BSc Computer Science (Robotics and Intelligent University of Birmingham Machines), Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science Computer Science (Embedded Systems BSc and Robotics) BSc University of Central England in Heriot-Watt University Birmingham Robotics and Cybertronics MEng/BEng Computing with Intelligent Systems BSc Computer Science (Artificial Intelligence) BSc City University Computer Science with Artificial Intelligence University of Huddersfield BSc Software Development with Artificial Intelligence BSc University of Durham Artificial Intelligence BSc Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine University of East Anglia Computing (Artificial Intelligence) MEng Computing for Artificial Intelligence BSc ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 11 Robotics July 2003
  13. 13. University of Leeds The Robert Gordon University Artificial Intelligence and Philosophy BSc Artificial Intelligence and Robotics BSc University of Liverpool Royal Holloway, University of London Computer and Robotic Systems Computer Science with Artificial Intelligence MEng/BEng BSc Artificial Intelligence BSc University of Sheffield Liverpool John Moores University Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science Robotics and Manufacturing Systems BSc BSc/McompAI University of Luton Sheffield Hallam University Artificial Intelligence and Robotics BSc Computing, Automation and Robotics BSc Computer Science and Robotics BSc University of Southampton University of Manchester Computer Science with Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence BSc BSc/Meng Manchester Metropolitan University Staffordshire University Artificial Intelligence BSc Design Technology for Robotics BSc Intelligent Systems BSc/Meng The North East Wales Institute of Higher Education University of Sunderland Mobile Robot Technology Artificial Intelligence BSc Oxford Brookes University University of Sussex Computing Science/Intelligent Systems Robotics, Cybernetics and Process Automation MEng/BEng University of Plymouth Artificial Intelligence BSc Robotics and Automated Systems Beng University of West of England University of Reading Artificial Intelligence and Computing BSc Artificial Intelligence and Cybernetics BSc University of Westminster Artificial Intelligence BSc Postgraduate courses Chester College Artificial Intelligence, MSc, PG Cert, PG Dip Computer Science (Artificial Intelligence University of Edinburgh and Agents) MSc Artificial Intelligence, MSc, PG Dip University of Hertfordshire Artificial Intelligence MSc University of Essex Computer Science (Robotics and Intelligent King's College London, University of Machines) MSc London ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 12 Robotics July 2003
  14. 14. Biomaterials, Biofluid Flows, Biomechanics or Robotics MSc University of Salford Artificial Intelligence MSc Robotics and Automation, MSc, PG Dip University of Liverpool University of Sussex Information and Intelligence Engineering Computer Science and Artificial MSc (Eng) Intelligence, MSc, PG Dip University of Portsmouth Mobile Robotics, MSc, PG Dip This briefing sheet was prepared by Professor Noel Sharkey, Department of Computer Science and Creative Robotics Unit at Magna. ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 13 Robotics July 2003