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Body Weight Management
 

Body Weight Management

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    Body Weight Management Body Weight Management Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 8 Managing Your Weight: Finding a Healthy Balance
    • WEIGHT CONTROL AND HEALTH
      • Health risks associated with
      • excess adipose tissue and
      • inactivity:
      • heart disease
      • diabetes
      • hypertension
      • cancer
      • osteoarthritis
      • Also question of self-concept
      • and emotional health.
    • BODY COMPOSITION
      • Total body mass is composed of 2 components:
      • fat mass (FM)
      • fat-free mass (FFM) (composed of muscles, bone, water, and viscera)
    • Body composition is influenced by
      • genetic factors
      • environmental factors
      • nutrition
      • disease
      • physical activity
    • BODY FAT MASS
      • energy
      • storage / vitamins
      • protects internal organs
      • insulates body against extreme cold
    • Essential Fat
      • essential fat required for normal function of CNS
      • stored in muscles, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, intestines, kidneys + bone marrow
      • men is 3%
      • women is 12%
    • Storage Fat (subcutaneous fat)
      • storage fat is deposited in adipose tissue - energy
      • # of fat cells remains constant - size reduced
      • location of storage fat varies
      • protects internal organs
    •  
    • HEALTH RISKS
      • Underweight
      • nutritional deficiencies
      • anemia
      • heart disease/defects
      • chronic fatigue
      • infection
      • depression
      • Overweight
      • hypertension
      • diabetes
      • heart disease
      • orthopedic problems
      • respiratory problems
    • Body Fat Distribution
      • gender differences
      • approx. 9-yr. boys deposit fat - abdomen
      • approx. 9-yr. girls deposit fat - hips and legs
      • differences accentuate with puberty and maturation
    • Body Fat Distribution
      • men - android pattern - apple-shaped (fat stored in trunk, chest, back, and abdomen)
      • women - gynoid pattern - pear-shaped (fat stored in hips and legs)
    • FAT-FREE MASS (FFM)
      • muscle, skin, bone, and viscera
      • midlife FFM declines/men and women/decrease in muscle mass
      • FFM decreases 3 kg per decade/1.5 times greater in men than women
      • decrease of FFM/decrease in growth hormone with aging
      • physical inactivity
    • OVERWEIGHT OR OVER-FAT? WAYS TO MEASURE BODY FAT AND BODY COMPOSITION
      • Body Weight vs.
      • Body Composition
      • Scales = Body Weight Only
      • Body Mass Index (BMI) =
      • mass (kg)
      • stature (m 2 )
      • Men > 27,8 = overweight
      • Women >27,3 = overweight
      • BMI >30 = obese
    • WAIST TO HIP RATIO
      • correlation between fat stored in mid-section and disease
      • divide waist measure by hip measure
      • if above 0.8 for females and >0.95 for males people risk for heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes .
    • SKINFOLDS
      • measure of subcutaneous fat
      • fifty percent of body fat beneath skin - therefore percentage body fat can be calculated from skinfolds measures
      • subject to error
    • RESEARCH SETTINGS AND BODY FAT EVALUATION
      • total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC)] - electromagnetic force field
      • bio-electrical impedance (BIA) - pass current through body
      • soft-Tissue Roentgenogram - inject radioactive substance into lean body mass……. Muscle - Fat Mass ID
    • Hydrostatic Weighing Techniques
      • Determines fat mass by submerging the body in water- displaced water is measured
      • densities of lean and fat mass are known
      • compares out-of-water and under-water weight
    • CAUSES OF OBESITY
      • Heredity
      • Twins research: different family Environments - Same Genetic Make – Up
      • 1 parent obese = 55% - children tendency to being overweight or obese
      • 2 parents obese = 90% - children tendency to being overweight or obese
    • Heredity Continued….
      • neither parent obese = 15% chance children will tend to be overweight or obese
      • genes set metabolic rates
      • nutritional choices + exercise can modify the genetic effect
    • Exercise / Lifestyle
      • Increases metabolic rate- up to sever al hours after exercise
      • F.I.T.T. principles
      • energy from stored Fat/CHO/Protein
      • critical component – reset the Set Point
      • one pound of body fat contains 3500 calories
    • Errant Eating & Thrifty Genes
      • Errant Eating:
      • “ I’ve had enough to eat” - defective gene
      • Thrifty Genes:
      • survival mechanism when food isn’t available…..
      • lower metabolic rate
    • Metabolic Rates
      • BASAL METABOLIC RATE - lean muscle mass vs. fat mass
      • RESTING METABOLIC RATE = BMR + other sedentary activities
      • ( 90%) of Energy
      • EXERCISE METABOLIC RATE = RMR (90%) + Moderate to Heavy Activity (10%)
      • Opportunity for Weight Loss
    • Fat Cell Theory
      • Approximate Number of Fat Cells (ADULT )
      • Average Weight – 25 to 30 Billion
      • Moderately Overweight – 60 to 100 Billion
      • Obese – 200 Billion
    • Fat Cell Size
      • Hypertrophy (SIZE)
      • Adults and children
      • Hyperplasia (NUMBER)
      • Last-Trimester Pregnancy (Mother’s Dietary Habits)
      • 1 st Year of Life
      • 9 to 13yr.
      • extremely obese people
    • Set Point Theory
      • internal control mechanism for body to maintain certain weight
      • research into dieting - lowers the metabolism - dieting ineffective (95%) - need lifestyle changes as well
      • also work done with overfeeding -similar shift but in opposite direction
    • Psychosocial Factors:
      • Emotional insecurities, childhood rewards, unemployment, broken relationships, financial uncertainty, etc, etc…
      • A Bright Spot … FOOD…!
      • Eating is a social ritual – companionship, celebration, enjoyment….an event!
    • Eating Habits:
      • Learned and perpetuated by family?
      • Situation?
      • Money?
      • Break the Cycle – Food & Eating Analysis
    • SUCCESSFUL WEIGHT MANAGEMENT
          • Role Of Diet /Nutrition:
      • balanced nutrition vs. a ”diet"
      • initial losses mostly water
      • impairs physical function
      • lowers basal metabolic rate
      • repeat dieting leads to
      • greater fat levels
      • severe restrictions alter
      • the optimal balance of
      • nutrient intake
    • Weight Loss
      • Set Goals
      • improve quality of life through lifelong weight management
      • weight loss approximately 1 lb. / week
    • Changing Attitudes
      • examine reasons for eating - track behaviors that trigger eating
      • Keep track of what you eat, when, and why!
      • Hypothalamus senses hunger while the
      • SATIETY CENTRE sends indication of fullness.
    • Changing Attitudes
      • A 20 minute delay occurs for satiety to be felt
      • water / fruit before eating
      • behavior modification is essential to any successful weight management program
    • ROLE OF EXERCISE
      • Very important moderate - will suppress appetite
      • lean muscle development results in greater "burning" of calories
      • basal metabolic rate
      • resting metabolic rate
      • exercise metabolic rate
    • DANGERS OF QUICK-FIXES behaviours aren’t changed
      • gastric balloon insertion
      • stomach stapling
      • jaw wiring
      • liposuction
      • new behaviors are not learned
      • always dangerous i.e. health and life!
    • DISORDERED EATING & Eating Disorders
      • ANOREXIA NERVOSA:
      • a morbid fear of being fat
      • relentless pursuit of thinness
      • condition in which a very thin body is seen as normal
      • distorted body image
      • suppression of appetite rather than loss of appetite
    • ANOREXIA NERVOSA
      • self-induced starvation or dieting gone out of control
      • starvation and over exercise are common
      • many social classes and ethnic groups
      • often well educated,
      • achievement oriented
    • ANOREXIA NERVOSA:
        • results in death in 5 to 18% of cases (suicide or medical complication)
        • decrease in food intake
        • increase in purging ( self-induced vomiting)
        • misuse of laxatives or diuretics
        • dangerous exercise habits
        • affects bones, muscles, organs, immune system, nervous and digestive system
    • ANOREXIA NERVOSA:
        • tooth decay – vomit
        • (stomach acids) dissolves enamel
        • hair loss & development of fine hair on face and body
    • Treatment
      • multifaceted medical and psychological
      • drug therapy and behavior modification used
      • prognosis often poor
    • BULIMIA NERVOSA FEELING A LACK OF CONTROL
      • uncontrolled binge eating followed by vomiting /purging the body of food
      • purging through use of vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, exercise
      • 95% are female
    • BULIMIA NERVOSA
      • also a technique used by anorexics
      • similar risk profile as anorexic - though loss of self-control a factor
      • used by athletes to lose weight fast
      • treatment complicated
      • multidisciplinary approach most effective
    • UNDERWEIGHT
      • regular meals
      • increase caloric intake, particularly complex CHO
      • regular physical activity - relate to self-esteem
    • AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SPORTS MEDICINE GUIDELINES FOR WEIGHT CONTROL
      • AVOID PROLONGED FASTING
      • MILD CALORIC RESTRICTION - MAX RESTRICTION OF 500-1000/day
      • EXERCISE
      • MAINTAIN NUTRITION
      • BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
    • Hunger, Appetite, Satiety
      • Hypothalamus Regulates Appetite
      • Monitors Levels of Nutrients in Blood
      • Obese eating cues: Frequency and Intensity increase!
    • Adaptive Thermogenesis
      • Large Amounts of food
      • No Weight Gain
      • Metabolic Activity Adjusts
      • Brown Fat Cells control the thermogenesis response
    • Satiety
      • Feeling of Full
      • Nutritional Needs
      • Obese vs. Non-Obese
    • Why We Eat…….
      • Hunger
      • Inborn
      • Physiological
      • Need
      • Appetite
      • Learned Response
      • Emotional//Psychological
      • Craving