Body Weight Management
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Body Weight Management Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 8 Managing Your Weight: Finding a Healthy Balance
  • 2. WEIGHT CONTROL AND HEALTH
    • Health risks associated with
    • excess adipose tissue and
    • inactivity:
    • heart disease
    • diabetes
    • hypertension
    • cancer
    • osteoarthritis
    • Also question of self-concept
    • and emotional health.
  • 3. BODY COMPOSITION
    • Total body mass is composed of 2 components:
    • fat mass (FM)
    • fat-free mass (FFM) (composed of muscles, bone, water, and viscera)
  • 4. Body composition is influenced by
    • genetic factors
    • environmental factors
    • nutrition
    • disease
    • physical activity
  • 5. BODY FAT MASS
    • energy
    • storage / vitamins
    • protects internal organs
    • insulates body against extreme cold
  • 6. Essential Fat
    • essential fat required for normal function of CNS
    • stored in muscles, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, intestines, kidneys + bone marrow
    • men is 3%
    • women is 12%
  • 7. Storage Fat (subcutaneous fat)
    • storage fat is deposited in adipose tissue - energy
    • # of fat cells remains constant - size reduced
    • location of storage fat varies
    • protects internal organs
  • 8.  
  • 9. HEALTH RISKS
    • Underweight
    • nutritional deficiencies
    • anemia
    • heart disease/defects
    • chronic fatigue
    • infection
    • depression
    • Overweight
    • hypertension
    • diabetes
    • heart disease
    • orthopedic problems
    • respiratory problems
  • 10. Body Fat Distribution
    • gender differences
    • approx. 9-yr. boys deposit fat - abdomen
    • approx. 9-yr. girls deposit fat - hips and legs
    • differences accentuate with puberty and maturation
  • 11. Body Fat Distribution
    • men - android pattern - apple-shaped (fat stored in trunk, chest, back, and abdomen)
    • women - gynoid pattern - pear-shaped (fat stored in hips and legs)
  • 12. FAT-FREE MASS (FFM)
    • muscle, skin, bone, and viscera
    • midlife FFM declines/men and women/decrease in muscle mass
    • FFM decreases 3 kg per decade/1.5 times greater in men than women
    • decrease of FFM/decrease in growth hormone with aging
    • physical inactivity
  • 13. OVERWEIGHT OR OVER-FAT? WAYS TO MEASURE BODY FAT AND BODY COMPOSITION
    • Body Weight vs.
    • Body Composition
    • Scales = Body Weight Only
    • Body Mass Index (BMI) =
    • mass (kg)
    • stature (m 2 )
    • Men > 27,8 = overweight
    • Women >27,3 = overweight
    • BMI >30 = obese
  • 14. WAIST TO HIP RATIO
    • correlation between fat stored in mid-section and disease
    • divide waist measure by hip measure
    • if above 0.8 for females and >0.95 for males people risk for heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes .
  • 15. SKINFOLDS
    • measure of subcutaneous fat
    • fifty percent of body fat beneath skin - therefore percentage body fat can be calculated from skinfolds measures
    • subject to error
  • 16. RESEARCH SETTINGS AND BODY FAT EVALUATION
    • total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC)] - electromagnetic force field
    • bio-electrical impedance (BIA) - pass current through body
    • soft-Tissue Roentgenogram - inject radioactive substance into lean body mass……. Muscle - Fat Mass ID
  • 17. Hydrostatic Weighing Techniques
    • Determines fat mass by submerging the body in water- displaced water is measured
    • densities of lean and fat mass are known
    • compares out-of-water and under-water weight
  • 18. CAUSES OF OBESITY
    • Heredity
    • Twins research: different family Environments - Same Genetic Make – Up
    • 1 parent obese = 55% - children tendency to being overweight or obese
    • 2 parents obese = 90% - children tendency to being overweight or obese
  • 19. Heredity Continued….
    • neither parent obese = 15% chance children will tend to be overweight or obese
    • genes set metabolic rates
    • nutritional choices + exercise can modify the genetic effect
  • 20. Exercise / Lifestyle
    • Increases metabolic rate- up to sever al hours after exercise
    • F.I.T.T. principles
    • energy from stored Fat/CHO/Protein
    • critical component – reset the Set Point
    • one pound of body fat contains 3500 calories
  • 21. Errant Eating & Thrifty Genes
    • Errant Eating:
    • “ I’ve had enough to eat” - defective gene
    • Thrifty Genes:
    • survival mechanism when food isn’t available…..
    • lower metabolic rate
  • 22. Metabolic Rates
    • BASAL METABOLIC RATE - lean muscle mass vs. fat mass
    • RESTING METABOLIC RATE = BMR + other sedentary activities
    • ( 90%) of Energy
    • EXERCISE METABOLIC RATE = RMR (90%) + Moderate to Heavy Activity (10%)
    • Opportunity for Weight Loss
  • 23. Fat Cell Theory
    • Approximate Number of Fat Cells (ADULT )
    • Average Weight – 25 to 30 Billion
    • Moderately Overweight – 60 to 100 Billion
    • Obese – 200 Billion
  • 24. Fat Cell Size
    • Hypertrophy (SIZE)
    • Adults and children
    • Hyperplasia (NUMBER)
    • Last-Trimester Pregnancy (Mother’s Dietary Habits)
    • 1 st Year of Life
    • 9 to 13yr.
    • extremely obese people
  • 25. Set Point Theory
    • internal control mechanism for body to maintain certain weight
    • research into dieting - lowers the metabolism - dieting ineffective (95%) - need lifestyle changes as well
    • also work done with overfeeding -similar shift but in opposite direction
  • 26. Psychosocial Factors:
    • Emotional insecurities, childhood rewards, unemployment, broken relationships, financial uncertainty, etc, etc…
    • A Bright Spot … FOOD…!
    • Eating is a social ritual – companionship, celebration, enjoyment….an event!
  • 27. Eating Habits:
    • Learned and perpetuated by family?
    • Situation?
    • Money?
    • Break the Cycle – Food & Eating Analysis
  • 28. SUCCESSFUL WEIGHT MANAGEMENT
        • Role Of Diet /Nutrition:
    • balanced nutrition vs. a ”diet"
    • initial losses mostly water
    • impairs physical function
    • lowers basal metabolic rate
    • repeat dieting leads to
    • greater fat levels
    • severe restrictions alter
    • the optimal balance of
    • nutrient intake
  • 29. Weight Loss
    • Set Goals
    • improve quality of life through lifelong weight management
    • weight loss approximately 1 lb. / week
  • 30. Changing Attitudes
    • examine reasons for eating - track behaviors that trigger eating
    • Keep track of what you eat, when, and why!
    • Hypothalamus senses hunger while the
    • SATIETY CENTRE sends indication of fullness.
  • 31. Changing Attitudes
    • A 20 minute delay occurs for satiety to be felt
    • water / fruit before eating
    • behavior modification is essential to any successful weight management program
  • 32. ROLE OF EXERCISE
    • Very important moderate - will suppress appetite
    • lean muscle development results in greater "burning" of calories
    • basal metabolic rate
    • resting metabolic rate
    • exercise metabolic rate
  • 33. DANGERS OF QUICK-FIXES behaviours aren’t changed
    • gastric balloon insertion
    • stomach stapling
    • jaw wiring
    • liposuction
    • new behaviors are not learned
    • always dangerous i.e. health and life!
  • 34. DISORDERED EATING & Eating Disorders
    • ANOREXIA NERVOSA:
    • a morbid fear of being fat
    • relentless pursuit of thinness
    • condition in which a very thin body is seen as normal
    • distorted body image
    • suppression of appetite rather than loss of appetite
  • 35. ANOREXIA NERVOSA
    • self-induced starvation or dieting gone out of control
    • starvation and over exercise are common
    • many social classes and ethnic groups
    • often well educated,
    • achievement oriented
  • 36. ANOREXIA NERVOSA:
      • results in death in 5 to 18% of cases (suicide or medical complication)
      • decrease in food intake
      • increase in purging ( self-induced vomiting)
      • misuse of laxatives or diuretics
      • dangerous exercise habits
      • affects bones, muscles, organs, immune system, nervous and digestive system
  • 37. ANOREXIA NERVOSA:
      • tooth decay – vomit
      • (stomach acids) dissolves enamel
      • hair loss & development of fine hair on face and body
  • 38. Treatment
    • multifaceted medical and psychological
    • drug therapy and behavior modification used
    • prognosis often poor
  • 39. BULIMIA NERVOSA FEELING A LACK OF CONTROL
    • uncontrolled binge eating followed by vomiting /purging the body of food
    • purging through use of vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, exercise
    • 95% are female
  • 40. BULIMIA NERVOSA
    • also a technique used by anorexics
    • similar risk profile as anorexic - though loss of self-control a factor
    • used by athletes to lose weight fast
    • treatment complicated
    • multidisciplinary approach most effective
  • 41. UNDERWEIGHT
    • regular meals
    • increase caloric intake, particularly complex CHO
    • regular physical activity - relate to self-esteem
  • 42. AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SPORTS MEDICINE GUIDELINES FOR WEIGHT CONTROL
    • AVOID PROLONGED FASTING
    • MILD CALORIC RESTRICTION - MAX RESTRICTION OF 500-1000/day
    • EXERCISE
    • MAINTAIN NUTRITION
    • BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION
  • 43. Hunger, Appetite, Satiety
    • Hypothalamus Regulates Appetite
    • Monitors Levels of Nutrients in Blood
    • Obese eating cues: Frequency and Intensity increase!
  • 44. Adaptive Thermogenesis
    • Large Amounts of food
    • No Weight Gain
    • Metabolic Activity Adjusts
    • Brown Fat Cells control the thermogenesis response
  • 45. Satiety
    • Feeling of Full
    • Nutritional Needs
    • Obese vs. Non-Obese
  • 46. Why We Eat…….
    • Hunger
    • Inborn
    • Physiological
    • Need
    • Appetite
    • Learned Response
    • Emotional//Psychological
    • Craving